UNIT 3 Extra Review for Chapters 9-11

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1 UNIT 3 Extra Review for Chapters 9-11 Mexico Central America Caribbean Islands Middle America is Central America, Mexico, and the Islands of the Caribbean Central America is a region within Middle America. Central America comprises the republics that occupy the strip of mainland between Mexico and South America: Panama, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Costa Rica. Latin America is Middle America PLUS South America.

2 Panama Canal - Since the days of the Spanish explorers, the Isthmus of Panama was recognized as a strategic trade route. In the late 19th century the first operations began to connect the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The US built the canal and operated it from 1914 until Panama now controls the canal. The 48 mile-long international waterway known as the Panama Canal allows ships to pass between the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, saving about 8000 miles from a journey around the southern tip of South America, Cape Horn. A typical passage through the Panama Canal by a cargo ship takes approximately 8-10 hours. Panama was a good choice to build a canal because of its geography and location.

3 The Atacama Desert in Chile is the driest desert in the world. Tierra del Fuego is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan. BRAZIL Brazil Carnival

4 Columbus s First Voyage, Triangle Trade Route Simon Bolivar - Revolutionary leader of South America Fidel Castro - Cuba s President from He resigned with health issues and his brother, Raul Castro is currently President.

5 INCOME GAP Poverty continues to be one of the region's main challenges - Latin America is the most unequal region in the world. According to a study by the World Bank, the richest decile of the population of Latin America earn 48% of the total income, while the poorest 10% of the population earn only 1.6% of the income. In contrast, in developed countries, the top decile receives 29% of the total income, while the bottom decile earns 2.5%. What activities are causing the destruction of the Amazon rainforest? HOW DO THESE ACTIVITIES IMPACT THE RAINFOREST? Climograph - Know how to read and interpret Climographs.

6 The Treaty of Tordesillas divided South America between Spain and Portugal. VERTICAL CLIMATE ZONES - are tropical regions which indicate specific patterns of elevated growth in Latin America countries. Vertical climate zones come in three types: Tierra Caliente, Tierra Templada and Tierra Fría. Vertical climate refers to the pattern of weather in a region whose growth patterns are primarily affected by elevation. In vertical climate zones, the climate becomes colder as the elevation increases. Vertical climate zones occur in the parts of Latin America uninhabited by rainforests or deserts. This includes parts of northern Mexico and central/southern portions of S. America.

7 Mayan Aztec Mayan Spanish Empire Portuguese Empire

8 Latin America - What makes this region Unique? Colonization by a European Country Roman Catholic Latin is the root language (Spanish, Portuguese, French) Common ancestral background RELIGION: Majority of Latin Americans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics (About 70%). Membership in Protestant denominations is increasing, particularly in northern Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Venezuela and Puerto Rico.

9 EDUCATION: Almost all children attend primary school. Access to secondary education has increased. However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system. Estimates indicate that 30% of preschool age children (ages 4 5) do not attend school. For the the poor and rural, this calculation exceeds 40%. Mercosur is an organization developed to make member (countries) economies stable in South America (Like NAFTA) ECONOMY: In 2010, Latin America included 5 nations classified as high-income countries: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, and Panama

10 Earth s oldest ecosystem Harsh military leadership What two factors define a tropical rain forests? What is Capoeira? Tropical Rainforests Junta Location (in tropics), Rainfall martial art /dance that developed in Brazil Which of the following is NOT the result of the Andes Mountains being in South America? (4) 1. larger concentrations of people along South America's northern and eastern coasts 2. the lack of travel from the Pacific coast to interior areas 3. the need to learn techniques for terraced farming 4. deforestation of rain forest with slash and burn to build high rise buildings All these are TRUE of Central America and the Caribbean EXCEPT: (5) 1. Most of the people in the countries are poor due in part to colonialism. 2. Sugar cane plantations in the Caribbean provide the region s largest export crop. 3. The economies are primarily based on agriculture and tourism. 4. Both reggae and calypso music started in the Caribbean. 5. Two of the largest cites of Latin America are found in these areas. 6. Many people in Brazil use ethanol (made from corn) for their car fuel. Which of the following is TRUE of resources of Latin America. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) 1. South America is among the world s leaders in the mining of raw materials. 2. Venezuela and Mexico have major oil reserves. 3. Brazil produces the most hydroelectric power for South America. 4. Oil, natural gas and uranium are plentiful for energy. 5. Tourism is a growth industry in Latin America. All these are true of Brasilia EXCEPT 1. capital of Brazil 2. was built to draw people into the interior of Brazil 3. was started by the Spanish as a mission site 4. Oscar Niemeyer, an architect, designed the government buildings (3) Which of the following is NOT true? (3) 1. Bob Marley of Jamaica was the pioneer of reggae. 2. Caudillo - describes Juan Perón and other 20th-century Latin American dictators. 3. Mercosur is a type of government in Latin America. 4. Buenos Aires is called the Paris of South America and is famous for its Tango. T F Tourism in Latin American is a disadvantage because it creates new local jobs. (F) T F In Latin America, varied climate and vegetation is due to changes in altitude, land (T) on either side of equator, and ocean currents. T F Hurricanes can effect the economies of Caribbean countries because they disrupt (T) tourism which is a major source of income. Sequence: 1. Haiti gains independence from France (3) 2. The Inca Empire ends (2) 3. Mexico signs NAFTA (5) 4. Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztec (1) 5. The U.S. completes the Panama Canal (4)

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