Content Statement: Explain how Enlightenment ideals influenced the French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

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1 Reforms, Revolutions, and Chapter War 9.3 Section 3 Independence in Latin America Content Statement: Explain how Enlightenment ideals influenced the French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

2 Reforms, Revolutions, Chapter and 9-3 War vocabulary Section 3 Creoles: people of Spanish or Portuguese descent born in the Americas. Peninsulares: colonists in Latin America who were born on the Iberian Peninsula, in Spain or Portugal.

3 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3

4 1.Early Struggles in Latin America Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 The Enlightenment and the American and French revolutions inspired some in Latin America to seek greater freedom. 1.Haiti Becomes Independent 1.Toussaint L Ouverture Saint Domingue is the first Latin American territory to break ties with Europe. Present-day Haiti Sugar exports made Saint Domingue one of France s richest possessions Prosperity built on slave labor French Revolution gave all men voting rights in territory French settlers on Saint Domingue resisted new law Toussaint L Ouverture led bloody revolt against settlers Toussaint s military, political actions made him hero in Hispaniola He was a freed slave who learned to read. Enlightenment Ideas

5 1. Reforms, Haiti Becomes Revolutions, Independent and War Continued/ Section Napoleon 3 Concerned French emperor Napoleon worried about revolt in Hispaniola Sent French general to take control of colony away from Toussaint Island forces struggled for months 1802, Toussaint agreed to armistice French broke agreement, sent him to prison; Toussaint died there, 1803 Fight for independence continued 1804, revolutionaries declared independence Named new nation Haiti

6 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 Another Kind of Independence 1800s, Spain controlled most of Latin America; Portugal governed Brazil In the 1700s Spanish kings had made improvements in colonies, building roads, regulating trade; colonies grew in wealth and prosperity Tensions Growing 2. Colonies of Spain and Portugal Education and New Ideas Wealth gave some in Latin America access to education, new ideas Educated colonists read works of Enlightenment philosophers, learned about revolutions in France, America Tensions grew in Latin America between creoles and peninsulares. Similar distinction between Brazilian-born, Portuguese-born colonists

7 2. Colonies of Spain and Portugal Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 Creoles vs. Peninsulares Napoleon Creoles, peninsulares made up highest social class People of mixed race, Africans, Indians lower on social scale Creoles excluded from highest levels of government, church As prosperity grew, creoles resented peninsulares, faraway Spanish rulers Sound Familiar? English colonies?? 1807, French emperor Napoleon invaded Spain, Portugal Spanish king imprisoned, Portuguese king fled to Brazil Invasion weakened Spanish, Portuguese power in Latin America Creole revolutionaries decided time right for fight for independence

8 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 Napoleon s conquest of Spain was the spark for independence in the colony of Mexico. 3.Father Hidalgo 1810, Creole priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, made first public call for Mexican independence Had history of challenging authority Eventually met creoles who wanted to take power from peninsulares, helped plan 3.Independence in Mexico Call to Revolt September 16, 1810, Hidalgo delivered speech calling for fight against Spanish peninsulares, though not against Spain. Loyal to king in speech. Death to bad government and death to Spaniards Spanish authorities capture, rebellion executed Hidalgo Hidalgo would later become known as the Father of Mexican Independence.

9 4.Morelos Reforms, Revolutions, Continues and the War Revolution Section 3 After death of Hidalgo, another creole priest, Jose Maria Morelos, became leader of revolutionary movement Strong military leader, took control of parts of Mexico for independence movement Organized Mexican congress, representatives from many places Wanted all people born in Mexico, whether Indian, mixed or creole, to be called Americans Morelos wanted Mexico to be an independent republic with guaranteed freedoms. ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS!! Captured, found guilty of treason, executed by Spanish authorities

10 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 Iturbide to Lead Fight Not all creoles wanted independence from Spain; some were royalists 1820, Spanish authorities asked Agustin de Iturbide asked to lead final battle against revolutionaries Switching Sides 5. A Creole King for Mexico Iturbide believed liberal revolution underway in Spain might take away some of his power in Mexico decided to switch sides, fight for Mexican revolutionaries Iturbide 3-part proposal to be leader of revolution Mexico would be ruled by monarch (Emperor Iturbide) Creoles and peninsulares would have equal rights Roman Catholic Church would be official church of Mexico

11 5. A Creole King for Mexico/Different Proposal Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 After 10 years of fighting Iturbide s compromise brought together many different groups creoles and peninsulares, revolutionaries and royalists 5. Independence Unified under plan, royalists and rebel troops joined Iturbide to win independence In 1821, Mexico declared independence from Spain, Iturbide named Emperor Agustin I Iturbide abdicates throne in 1824 and Republic of Mexico is established.

12 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 Inspiration Revolutions in Haiti, Mexico, America, France inspired leaders in South America Independence movements began to form, leaders emerged 6. Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar, most influential leader in South American independence movement Known as the Liberator Venezuelan Roots Bolivar born into wealthy creole family, often traveled to Europe Admired Napoleon s leadership; in Rome, pledged to liberate South America Independence 1811, Venezuela declared independence from Spain Bolivar led military campaigns against Spanish for 10 years in North, defeated Spanish 1821

13 Reforms, Revolutions, 6. Simon and Bolivar s War Dream Section 3 Bolivar had a dream for newly independent South America Wanted to form one large, united country called Federation of the Andes Dream never became reality Bolivar set up state of Gran Colombia, included what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador Other leaders set up separate countries in Peru, Bolivia, other places Bolivar complained America is ungovernable

14 7. José de San Martin Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 José de San Martin fought for independence from Spain in south San Martin had fought against Napoleon for Spain Born in Argentina, returned home when he learned country rising up against Spanish rule Chile 1816, San Martin declared independence for Argentina Led troops over 15,000 foot summit in Andes into Chile Surprised Spanish troops, won independence for Chile Gran Colombia After Chile, San Martin moved to Gran Colombia, met Simon Bolivar Historians do not know what they discussed when they met San Martin resigned position after meeting, returned to Europe Left Bolivar in power

15 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3 The story of independence was a bit different in the Portuguese colony of Brazil. John VI in Brazil 8. Pedro I Son Pedro in Charge 1807, Portuguese king John VI, family, fled to Brazil when Napoleon invaded Portugal Status of colony raised having Portuguese monarch there John VI named Rio de Janeiro capital of Portuguese empire Allowed Brazil to trade directly with world, rather than through Portugal John VI returned to Portugal after revolution, 1820 Left son Pedro to rule Brazil Brazilian-born colonists began to protest colonial status Transition happened smoothly, little violence 1822, Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent, was crowned Emperor Pedro I

16 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3

17 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3

18 Reforms, Revolutions, and War Section 3

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