Essential Questions. 1. How have historical figures and events affected South America today?

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1 South America

2 Essential Questions 1. How have historical figures and events affected South America today? 2. How has location affected the development of countries in South America? 3. How has the role of the government changed over time in South America countries? 4. What physical and cultural characteristics make the countries of South America countries? 5. What factors have contributed to economics success and failures in different South American countries?

3 Political Map

4 Caribbean Sea Physical Map Galapag os Islands Pacific Ocean Lake Maracaibo Lake Titicaca Orinoco River Llanos Angle Falls Guiana High lands Amazon Amazon Basin River Mato Grosso Plateau Andes Mountains Atlantic Ocean Brazilian Highlands Atacama Desert Pampas Rio Del Plata Patagoni a Strait of Magellan Tierra del Fuego

5 Areas of South America Caribbean South America- Colombia Venezuela Guyana Suriname French Guiana Atlantic South America- Brazil Paraguay Argentina Uruguay Pacific South America Ecuador Peru Bolivia Chile

6 Key Terms Key terms Key Terms Concept/Vocabularly Word Colonialism Deforestation El Nino Gaucho informal economy Landlocked Llanero soil exhaustion Definition The movement to take political control of foreign lands for the purpose of extracting its wealth and resources The clearing of forests An ocean and weather pattern that affects the Pacific coast of the Americas, causing extreme ocean and weather events An Argentine cowboy A part of the economy that is based on odd jobs that people perform without government regulation through taxes Completely surrounded by land with no direct access to the ocean Venezuelan cowboy The process of soil becoming infertile because it has lost nutrients needed by plants

7 Colombia Region- Caribbean South America Capital-Bogota Landform-Andes, Llanos Body of Water-Cauca River Climate-Humid subtropical, Highlands, Tropical savanna Population-43 million Language-Romance-Spanish and Portuguese Religion-Christianity-northwestern section Government-Republic Economy-Agriculture, oil, iron ore, gold, coal and emeralds 80% of Columbian flowers are shipped to the US

8 Venezuela Red-billed Toucan Joropo- Lively couples dance. Simon Bolivarled Venezuelan Revolution against Spain Region: Caribbean South America Capital: Caracas Landform: Llanos Body of Water: Orinoco River-longest river in South America, Angel Falls, Climate: Warm temperatures year roundbut varies with elevation Population: 25.4 million Language: Spanish Religion: 50% Christianity, 50% No dominate religion Government: Federal Republic Economy: Oil

9 Guyana Region: Caribbean South America Capital: Georgetown Landform: Guiana Highlands Much of Guyana is covered by the rain forest Body of Water: Atlantic Ocean Climate: Warm temperatures year roundbut varies with elevation Population: 765,000 Language: English Religion: 50% Christianity, 50% No dominate religion Government: Republic Economy: Rice and sugar cane

10 Suriname Region: Caribbean South America Capital: Paramaribo Landform: Guiana Highlands Body of Water: Atlantic Ocean Climate: Warm temperatures year round- but varies with elevation Population: 438,100 Language: Dutch Religion: 50% Christianity, 50% No dominate religion Government: Republic Economy: Rice and sugar cane

11 French Guiana Region: Caribbean South America Capital: Cayenne Landform: flat land Body of Water: Atlantic Ocean Climate: Warm temperatures year round- but varies with elevation Population: 217,000 Religion: 50% Christianity, 50% No dominate religion Government: Republic Economy: Heavily depends on Francemainly fishing

12 Brazil Carnival-Festival that Brizillians celebrate before the Christian season of Lent Soccer- futbolmost popular sport Region: Atlantic South America Capital: Brasilia Landform: Amazon Basin (Giant flood plain Body of Water: Amazon River Climate: Tropical Savanna, Humid tropical, Humid subtropical, steppe, and marine west coast Population: million American Indians were the first people who lived in Brazil Language: Portuguese Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Federal Republic Economy: Regions Southeast- Largest cities, rich in natural resources, productive farmland, coffee growing region Northeast- Poorest region, cannot read and health care is poor-known for tourism-beautiful beaches Interior- Abundant land and mild climate-could be a strong agriculture area. The Amazon-industrial area- areas of the dense rain forest are now being developed mining and logging- new roads are bringing more people to area.

13 Paraguay Region: Atlantic South America Capital: Asuncion Landform: Landlocked country Gran Chaco Body of Water: Paraguay River Climate: Humid Subtropical Population: 6.3 million Language: Spanish, Guarani Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: Paraguay s wealth is controlled by a few rich families and companies. Agriculture is very important-cotton, corn, soybeans and sugarcane

14 Uruguay Region: Atlantic South America Capital: Montevideo Landform: plains Body of Water: Rio de la Plata- estuarypartially enclosed body of water where fresh water mixes with salt water Climate: Humid subtropical Population: 3.4 million Language: Spanish Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: Beef is important export Agriculture and manufacturing is basis of economy

15 Argentina Region: Atlantic South America Southern most country in South America Capital: Buenos Aires Landform: Patagonia-region of dry plains and plateaus Pampas- wide grassy plain Andes-mountains Body of Water: Parana River Climate: Marine west coast, steppe Population: 39.5 million (Argentina s culture has been mostly influenced by Europeans Language: Spanish Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: Economy has always been affected by government policies- Argentina joined a group- Mercosur-group that promotes trade and economic cooperation Agriculture- produce beef, grow wheat and corn Informal economy- part of the economy based on odd jobs that people perform without government regulation through taxes.

16 Ecuador Region: Pacific South America Capital: Quito Landform: Andes Body of Water: Gulf of Guayaquil Climate: Mediterranean Population: 13.4 million Language: Spanish, Quechua Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: 3 regions Coastal lowlands- agriculture and industry Andean region- poorer-tourism Amazon basin- valuable oil deposits

17 Peru Region: Pacific South America Capital: Lima Landform: Andes Body of Water: Lake Titicaca Climate: Highland and Desert Population: 27.9 million Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: Resources-key factor Mineral deposits Hydroelectric projects Highlands- grow potatoes and corn

18 Bolivia Region: Pacific South America Capital: :La Paz, Sucre Landform: Andes Body of Water: Lake Titicaca Climate: Tropical savanna, Highland Population: 8.9 million Language: Spanish, Quechua, Aymara Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic Economy: Poorest country in South America Few roads and little money for investment

19 Chile Region: Pacific South America Capital: Santiago Landform: Atacama Desert-(Known for being cloudy and dry) Body of Water: Pacific Ocean Climate: Desert, Mediterranean, Marine West Coast Population: 16 million Language: Spanish Religion: Roman Catholic Government: Republic After the coup, Chile was ruled by harsh military government Economy: Strongest in the Pacific South America region Agriculture grapes-(wine) Fishing Farming Mining International trade key factor to Chile s

20 Colombian Exchange By the 1400 s the Inca, an early people who ruled a vast empire in western South America, had developed thousands of varieties of potatoes. So, how did potatoes get from such a faraway time and place to part of our everyday lives? Before 1400 s people living in the Eastern Hemisphere were unknown to people living in the Western Hemisphere. This changed in 1492, when explorer Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain and landed in the Bahamas in the Americas. Believing he had reached the Indies of Asia, Columbus named the people on the islands, Indians and claimed the land for Spain He returned the next year bringing many ships and men and with this trip, Columbus began what is known as the Columbian Exchange -An exchange of people, animals, plants and even diseases between the two hemispheres

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