CHAPTER 12. South America. Section 1: Natural Environments Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: South America Today. HOLT World Geography

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1 CHAPTER 12 South America Section 1: Natural Environments Section 2: History and Culture Section 3: South America 1

2 Section 1 Natural Environments Objectives: What are the major landforms and rivers of South America? What climates, plants, and animals are found in South America? What natural resources does the continent have? 2

3 Section 1 Natural Environments Landforms and rivers: South America has major mountains and plains. Mountains Andes, Guiana Highlands, Brazilian Highlands Plains Amazon River basin, Llanos, Gran Chaco, Pampas, Patagonia Three large river systems flow into the Atlantic Ocean. Amazon 4,000 miles long Orinoco drains the Guiana Highlands and Llanos Paraná drains eastern slopes of Andes and Brazilian Highlands 3

4 Section 1 Natural Environments Climates, plants, and animals: South America has a wide variety of climate regions. Amazon basin world s largest tropical humid region; many rain forest species highland climates in Andes varied vegetation, wildlife tropical wet and dry various areas; dry forest or savannas Chile Mediterranean and marine west coast Patagonia semiarid and arid; few animals. driest region Atacama Desert of northern Chile, southern Peru. 4

5 Section 1 Natural Environments South America s natural resources: fertile soils water for irrigation and hydroelectric power forest products vast mineral wealth gold, silver, copper, iron ore, bauxite, emeralds energy oil deposits in Venezuela and other countries, including tar sands 5

6 Section 2 History and Culture Objectives: What were some important events in the early history of South America? How did the colonial era and independence affect South America? What are some important features of South America s cultures? 6

7 Section 2 History and Culture Early history: First inhabitants arrived more than 12,000 years ago. Various early civilizations arose, including the Chibcha of Colombia Inca civilization spanned much of Andean region. Spanish conquered the Inca in the 1530s. Spain and Portugal divided the continent: Spain in the west, Portugal in the east. Colonists brought new plants, animals, and diseases. Portuguese brought slave labor to Brazil to work sugar plantations. 7

8 Section 2 History and Culture Effects of the colonial era and independence: After independence ( ), new nations were still ruled by wealthy elite. Countries remained isolated from each other. Borders mirrored colonial divisions. Life for most people changed little after independence. Governments often changed through violent coups. 8

9 Section 2 History and Culture Cultural features: great ethnic variety mixed-race, European, American Indian, African, east Indian, Japanese language reflects colonization; Indian languages still spoken religion majority Roman Catholic; also Hinduism, Islam, other religions traditional culture, despite change 9

10 Section 3 South America Objectives: What is the economy of South America like today? What are South American cities like? What issues and challenges face the people of South America? 10

11 Section 3 South America Economy: developing or middle-income nations agriculture ranges from subsistence to large-scale commercial industry including products for local market and export manufactures Mercosur effort to expand trade and cooperation 11

12 Section 3 South America Urban environments: Major cities are huge compared with other cities. Urban life is often hard for rural migrants. many large slums 12

13 Section 3 South America Issues and challenges: reducing poverty high birthrates environmental problems rain forest destruction, soil exhaustion political disputes over borders and resources violence and terrorism, often linked to drug trade 13

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