Oceania. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Physical Geography. Where is Australia located?

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1 Oceania Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands Physical Geography Australia New Zealand Oceania Where is Australia located? Australia & Oceania are a group of islands located between Asia, Antarctica, & the Americas. Australia is the world s largest island & smallest continent. (about the size of the continental USA) Over 25,000 islands make up the islands of Oceania. Distance from other land areas has created very unique plants and animals that are found nowhere else on earth Koalas, kangaroos, kiwis, platypus, wombat, dingo, etc.

2 LAND Australia: Lies between the Pacific & Indian Oceans in the southern hemisphere The Outback Vast desert areas in central Australia Semi-arid or dry lands... Hot and dry....desert Surrounded by dry scrub, grasslands and rainforests Mild climate along the SW and SE coasts... Limited fertile soil Above: Great Barrier Reef Above Right: Australian Kangaroo Far Right: Eucalyptus Tree Right: Australian Koala LAND Key landforms: Deserts Great Victoria desert Southern Australia Receives 8-10 inches of rain per year Great Sandy desert Mountains Great Dividing Range Continental Divide Uluru (Ayers Rock) sandstone rock Monolith single, large rock with a small portion sticking out of the ground Stone Mountain is a monolith made out of granite. Changes colors in the sunlight due to the iron content in the rock 1,142 feet tall, 6 miles around the base Close to the geographical center of Australia It is a sacred location for the Aborigines

3 Great Victoria Desert Great Dividing Range Great Sandy Desert Rivers Darling and Murray Rivers Located in SE Australia WATER Most people in Australia live along the SE coast Fertile soil Fresh water Mild climate

4 Australia has many good harbors for shipping and trade What cities might these harbors be located in? Great Barrier Reef Largest coral reef in the world Located off the NE coast of Australia Over 1200 miles long... Located in the Coral Sea World s largest collection of coral over 400 types 1500 species of fish, 4000 types of mollusks (snails, clams, octopi, squid) Temperature never falls below 68 degrees on the reef Location, Climate & Natural Resources Location Flattest continent in the world Desert covers 2/3 of the land Most fertile land is along the coasts Interior Areas (central Australia) Stays dry year round... Hot and dry Less than 10 inches of rain per year Climate Located below the equator... Seasons are opposite of Northern Hemisphere Summer is from December to March Winter is from June to August Northern Areas Tropical Climate...warm to hot all year round, tropical rainforest Gets more rain than the other regions Coastal Areas Plenty of rain year round Mild temperatures... SE and SW sections of the country... Temperate

5 Natural Resources Mining Uranium, natural gas, zinc Leading producer of diamonds and lead Largest natural resource... Coal Major export of Australia Wool Huge ranches in the Outback... 50,000 acres + World s leading producer of wool Where people choose to live... Coastal towns have access to large industries and international businesses 80% of Australians live in cities (urban areas) 70% of cities have at least 100,000 people Sydney has 3.5 million,...melbourne has 3 million people Small groups of indigenous Australians live in the Outback. Countryside is referred to as the Bush.. The Outback is the dry interior of the continent Small settlements grew in the Outback due to mining settlements Australia s Trade Determined by location, climate and natural resources Location = trading partners Major trading partners = China, Japan, South Korea, India Major supplier of natural resources to China 50% of Australian iron ore goes to China Climate & Natural Resources = what products are traded Coal energy consumption Iron Ore steel for buildings, cars and industrial machinery Gold jewelry Natural resources account for 1/3 of the country s economy Imports most items from China and the USA Largest imports are computers, machinery, petroleum and crude oil Tourism is also a major industry in Australia 25% of economy depends on tourism = $81 billion per year Because Australia is an island, is trade easier or more difficult than for other countries?

6 Cultural Characteristics Language English language... Transitioned to have its own unique accent and vocabulary Religion 70% claim to be Christians Almost 50% belong to either the Catholic or Anglican faiths Colonists and missionaries brought their Anglican faith with them to Australia Ethnic Groups Population: 21 million Very diverse culture 90% are of European descent 2% are Aborigine 8% are Asian British established a penal colony in Australia in Last continent discovered by the Europeans Currently largest portion of the population Aborigines are the indigenous population 750,000 lived in Australia at the time of British arrival Forced towards the middle of the island... Today 1% of population are Aborigines Australian culture is heavily influenced by the Aborigines Art = sculptures, paintings, carvings Use art to tell about the Dreaming and their history Dot painting painting method in which pictures are made from dots instead of lines Totems Pictures of spirits that protect a family or tribe Some dot paintings are totems. History A. Southeast Asia: Where Oceania s first people came from. B. Aborigines: First people to settle in Australia. C s: Europeans begin to explore and settle the region. Rock Art Ancient method of documentation Music = didgeridoo natural wooden trumpet

7 History History D. Prison Colony: Australia is settled as a place to send British prisoners. E. Indigenous Peoples: Died of sickness brought by Europeans, some died of wars between the groups. F. 20 th Century: Oceania fights for independence. Australia 1901, Palau G. South Pacific Forum: Encourages trade and friendship among the countries of the region. New Zealand s Land Located about 1200 miles SE of Australia Made up of 2 main islands North Island and South Island Most of the land is used for pasture sheep New Zealand Wide variety of landforms: Mountains - Southern Alps; tallest is Mt. Cook at 12,349 ft. Also rainforests, hills, valleys

8 History and Culture New Zealand Today Exploration Colonization Independence Left: Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand Pacific Islands - LAND 25,000 islands divided into 3 regions: Melanesia N and E of Australia - most populated Includes Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Solomon Islands Micronesia Over 2000 islands mostly N of the equator Includes Guam, Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands Polynesia Largest island region in Pacific Includes Hawaii, Tahiti, Cook Islands and Samoa 2 types of islands: High islands Formed by volcanoes & usually have mountains Soil very fertile because of ash Mostly covered in tropical vegetation including rainforests Low islands Made up of reefs or atolls Atoll - small coral islands in shape of a ring with a lagoon in center More people live on high islands. Better soil, more fresh water and they are larger

9 Tahiti is a high island Climate, Plants, and Resources Humid tropical climate Coconut palm Tourism Pacific Islands Land of Much Water Marshall Islands are low islands History and Culture Ferdinand Magellan to US Territories Map of the Pacific Islands Pacific Islands Today Left: EEZ Zones of the Pacific Above: Nuclear test size in the Marshall Islands

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