Friday, November 10, 2017

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1 Friday, November 10, 2017 Andes and Midlatitude Countries Objective: Summarize the main physical features and regions of the Southern Cone. Identify and locate the urban centers and understand the pattern of population distribution in the three countries of the region. Do Now: What countries form the Tropical North of South America? Nazca Lines- are a group of pre-columbian geoglyphs located in southern Peru etched into desert sands. Covering an area of nearly 1,000 sq. kilometers. Rain Shadow-a region in the lee of mountains that receives less rainfall than the region windward of the mountains.

2 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Intro The Andes, the longest continuous group of mountain ranges in the world and the tallest in the Western Hemisphere, run parallel to the Pacific coast for 4,500 miles and lie 100 to 150 miles inland. In Peru and Bolivia, the two main branches of the Andes border a high plain called the altiplano. In fact, altiplano means high plain in Spanish. The Andes are a series of parallel mountain ranges called cordilleras. Their rugged terrain isolates groups of people. The Andes are part of the Ring of Fire that borders the Pacific Ocean. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are frequent.

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6 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Plains and Deserts In Peru and northern Chile, the area between the Pacific and the Andes is a coastal desert. Coastal Peru and Chile and most of southern Argentina have deserts. Wind patterns, the cold Peru Current, and high elevations are the causes of the low precipitation. The Atacama Desert in Peru and northern Chile is so arid that in some places no rainfall has EVER been recorded.

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11 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Salar de Uyuni The altiplano region of Bolivia is home to one of the world's largest salt deposits, stretching for over 6,500 miles. During the rainy season, the salt flats are flooded with a thin layer of water, which gives the surface a reflective quality. People walking across the salt flats during this period appear to be walking on clouds, which is why many people refer to this location as heaven on Earth.

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14 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Lowland areas On the Atlantic side of South America, broad plateaus and valleys spread across Uruguay and eastern Argentina. This plain is called the pampas. Its thick, fertile soils come from sediments that have eroded from the Andes. The pampas, like North America s Great Plains, provide land for growing wheat and corn and for grazing cattle. Ranchers let their livestock graze on the grasslands of these plains, like those seen here in the Patagonia region of Argentina.

15 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Vertical Climate Zones Altitude, the height above sea level, is the main factor that determines climate in the Andes. The higher the altitude, the colder it gets. The midlatitude countries of South America have a generally moderate climate. Every few years, changes in wind patterns and ocean currents in the Pacific Ocean cause unusual and extreme weather. One of these changes is called El Niño, and the other is called La Niña.

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17 Physical Geography: Andes and Midlatitude Resources The Andean and midlatitude countries are rich in natural resources: energy, minerals, metals, timber, and wildlife. Bolivia, in particular, has extensive deposits of natural gas and petroleum. The Andes have one of the most important mining industries in the world. Chile leads the world in exports of copper. Tin production is important to the Bolivian economy. Bolivia and Peru have deposits of silver, lead, and zinc, and Peru has gold.

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