LATIN AMERICA. Mexico Central America Caribbean Islands South America

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1 LATIN AMERICA Mexico Central America Caribbean Islands South America

2 HISTORY First Settlers Hunters/gatherers from Asia crossed land bridge connecting Asia and Alaska Learned to farm over time Maize (corn) and potatoes Civilizations established Early Civilizations Maya in Mexico and Central America Mayan pyramids and calendar Chichen Itza, Mexico Aztecs in Mexico (400 years after Mayans) Empire in Mexico many Mexican are of Aztec descent Incas Western coast of South America Terraced farming Machu Picchu

3 Chichen Itza, Mexico (Mayan City) Aztec Warrior Incan Terraced Farming Machu Picchu, Peru (Incan City)

4 TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES Many traditional societies, that have had little to no contact with the modern world, still exist in Latin America today These groups were isolated and not influenced by the European colonizers

5 THE COLONIAL PERIOD In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue and landed on an island in the Caribbean News of this spread many Europeans ventured to Latin America The European colonization of Latin America began: Spain conquered the Aztec and Inca empires in the 1500s Eventually, Spain and Portugal controlled much of Latin America Spanish and Portuguese replaced native languages Many natives adopted Christianity (Catholicism) * The Europeans looked at the natives through their own cultural lens, giving them an ethnocentric cultural perception of the natives Slaves from Africa were brought to here to work African cultural influence still evident today (Jamaica, Haiti, etc.)

6 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE

7 INDEPENDENCE FROM EUROPE Rebellions began by slaves in Haiti in 1791 By 1825, most of Latin America was independent All but Brazil immediately outlawed slavery (Brazil did in 1888) Dictator military leaders controlled most initially In the 1980s many overthrew their dictator leaders for a democratic government A strong sense of nationalism ensued: an individual citizen identifying with, or coming attached to one s nation Democratic governments have not solved the poverty problems in Latin American countries Some countries, such as Cuba and Venezuela, have communist governments and economies Nationalized oil industry in Venezuela controls many of the political issues

8 MAINTAINING AND DOCUMENTING CULTURAL HISTORY Mayan mural on building in Mexico City Mural of Marxist Revolutionary Che Guevara

9 CURRENT ISSUES Poverty Latin America is made up of undeveloped (Less-Developed) countries Many subsistence farm for food concerned with climate, soil, and topography Many Latin Americans migrate due to a lack of economic opportunities (push factor) Many Latin American countries do not have efficient infrastructure to support development * Latin to North America is the largest migration pattern in the world today Deforestation Significant environmental challenge to developing nations in South America Slash-and-burn technique used to clear trees in the Amazon Rainforests Positive clears land for agriculture Negative Destroys natural habitats

10 House outside of Mexico City à Mansion in Mexico City Slash-and-Burn

11 CURRENT ISSUES Panama Canal The United States built it across the isthmus of Panama from U.S. maintained control of land surrounding the canal The canal was built to give ships access from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean The canal and all of the land surrounding it was officially under Panamanian control in 1999 Haiti Earthquake (2010) 7.0 level earthquake epicenter was 16 miles west of the capital Port-au-Prince, causing major damage there Death tolls over 100K; 250K residences & 30K commercial buildings destroyed Many countries provided humanitarian aid food, clothing, medical care Some Haitian farmers suffered as a result of the increase of food being provided by other countries

12 Panama Canal Destruction from 2010 earthquake in Haiti Lock on the Panama Canal Survivor picking up food donated by another country

13 LATIN AMERICA: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY REVIEW All Kinds of Latitude Tropic of Cancer à Equator à Tropic of Capricorn à Antarctic Circle à

14 PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: EFFECTS ON SOUTH AMERICA Latitude Most of Latin America is in the tropics Cities are located on the coast The southern portion of South America extends towards the Arctic Circle Cities in these countries will locate in the northern regions due to the climate Features and Population Andes Mountains along the west coast of South America à Forces populations to settle along the western coastline Amazon Basin and Brazilian Highlands in central South America à Forces populations to settle along the eastern coastline

15

16 INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE (THE DOLDRUMS ) Zone along the equator (5 N to 5 S): - Wind stops from blowing in any direction - Huge amounts of rainfall - Also referred to as the Doldrums

17 PLATE MOVEMENT: LAND FEATURES

18 MESOAMERICA Cultural Region: - Extends from central Mexico à Costa Rica - Area where native groups flourished before European exploration - Remnants of Spanish colonialism exists here - Spanish is spoken

19 WHAT IMPACT HAS SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY HAD ON THE WORLD?

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