FROM COLONY TO INDPENDENT NATION

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1 FROM COLONY TO INDPENDENT NATION

2 Quiz: Wednesday! Aztecs, Incas, Cuban Revolution, Zapatista Movement, Independence Movements! HW: finish notes and complete Multi-Level Review Tomorrow: We begin Government

3 GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARD SS6H2: The student will explain the development of Latin America and the Caribbean from European colonies to independent nations. C. Explain the Latin America independence movement; include the importance of Toussaint L Ouverture, Simon Bolivar, and Miguel Hildalgo.

4 EARLY HISTORY The governments of Spain and Portugal ruled most of Latin America for nearly three hundred years. There had been several battles for control of the land and the people being ruled by the Europeans often grew restless. They often thought about what it would be like to be free.

5 EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. The American Revolution gave some Latin Americans the idea that they too could be free. The French Revolution in Europe also proved that the kings and queens of Europe could be overcome. These events encouraged Latin Americans in the belief that they might be able to overcome their European rulers.

6 TOUSSAINT L OUVERTURE Toussaint L Ouverture was a famous black freedom fighter. He was a major leader of the slave revolts in Saint Dominigue (present day Haiti) He was later made governor of Saint Dominigue Toussaint led a slave army and defeated French troops Toussaint was later captured, arrested and sent to France. Two years following his death the people of Saint Dominigue declared their independence and renamed their country Haiti

7 SIMON BOLIVAR Simon Bolivar was a leader in the wars for independence in South America. He and other leaders fought against Spanish rule. They wanted independence for all people of Latin America He led different groups of troops against Spanish rule He was able to defeat the Spanish in 1824 and end Spanish rule in South America Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela won their independence through his efforts The country of Bolivia was named after Bolivar, and he wrote a constitution to organize the country

8 MIGUEL HIDALGO Miguel Hidalgo is known as the father of Mexican Independence. He was a priest who led a peasant army against the Spanish army in Mexico, which was then called New Spain His force won some victories but Hidalgo did not live to see independence

9 3 ITEM COMPARISON GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Simon Bolivar Toussaint L Ouverture Miguel Hidalgo

10 GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARD SS6H3: The student will analyze the important 20 th century issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

11 CUBAN REVOLUTION Cuba is an island nation located ninety miles south of Florida. For most of the twentieth century, it had political problems. Leaders came to power and then were thrown out by others. At the same time, American businesses were trading with Cuba. In fact, much of Cuba s trade with other countries was with the United States. American companies owned a large amount of land in the country. Most of Cuba s sugar cane crop was sold to America. In the late 1950 s, a change in leadership took place there. Fidel Castro became dictator, creating the only communist country in the western hemisphere.

12 CUBAN REVOLUTION CONTINUED. Castro s power was such that the ruled for nearly fifty years. In the late 1950 s, Fulgencio Batista was he ruler of Cuba. He had been elected president at one time, but he later made himself dictator. That meant that he ruled without any controls on his power. Many people in Cuba were unhappy with his rule. There was much poverty. Education and health care were not good for most Cubans. Fidel Castro led a group of rebels against Batista. Because Batista was so unpopular, many followed Castro. Castro defeated the Batista government and made himself dictator in 1959

13 CUBAN REVOLUTION CONTINUED. Castro began right away to organize a communist government. He declared that all the property belonging to Americans now belonged to the government. All farms, factories, and businesses owned by Cubans also became government property. Castro had people who supported Batista arrested. Most were executed by firing squad. Some spent decades in prison. Cubans no longer had the right to protest against the government. Cuban newspapers, radio, and television were shut down. The government became the only source for news. Churches were closed, and all church property was taken by the government.

14 CUBAN REVOLUTION CONTINUED. Because of these harsh events, the United States placed an embargo on Cuban goods. That meant that Cuba s sugar cane crop could not be sold to the United States. The Soviet Union became friends with Cuba. They bought the country s sugar cane each year. They also supplied weapons and other goods to the Cubans. The Soviets helped to educate young Cubans and trained their military. Under Castro s rule, the Cuban people had some benefits. Hospitals and schools were improved. Women and blacks became better educated and had better jobs. However, most parts of people s lives were controlled by the government.

15 CUBAN REVOLUTION People who practiced their Christian religion were discriminated against. Although everyone was guaranteed a wage, the income of most Cubans was low. The country was one of the poorest in the region. Its people live in one of the least free countries in the world. Castro s Government and the U.S. government did not get along well. The United States did not like having a communist country so close to Florida. Americans who owned land and businesses in Cuba did not like the lost of their property the Untied States decide to keep the pressure on Cuba. It did not allow any travel by Americans to or from Cuba

16 CUBAN REVOLUTION It also tried to keep other countries from trading with the Cubans Cuba tried to spread communism into Latin America. It supported revolutionary ideas in many countries by providing military training, money and weapons. One event, the Cuban Missile Crisis, almost started a nuclear war. In 1962, Cuba gave the Soviet Union permission to build a missile launching complex. Missiles launched from the site could reach the U.S. cities. U.S. President John F. Kennedy demanded the missiles be removed. A tense time followed. Finally, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, and the United States said it would not

17

18 MULTI-LEVEL QUESTION REVIEW Evaluation 5. What do you think about the Cuban Revolution Synthesis 4. Create an alternative ending to the Cuban Revolution Analysis 3. How is the Cuban Revolution similar to other independence movements in Latin America? Application 2. Do you know of another instance where the government was overthrown? Knowledge/Comprehension 1. Who took over as dictator of Cuba in 1959?

19 COMPARE AND CONTRAST Compare Fidel Castro to one of the Independence leaders we have studied ( Toussaint L Oveture, Simon Bolivar or Miguel Hidalgo)

20 ZAPATISTA GUERRILLA MOVEMENT IN MEXICO The Zapatistas are a group of Mexicans who support improved rights and living conditions for Mexico s indigenous people. The group named after Emiliano Zapata, who lived in the early 20 th century and fought for the rights of the native people. In the late 20 th century the Zapatistas were know for harassment and sabotage against the government. On January 1 st 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect. This was an agreement to allow free trade between Canada, Mexico and the United States. Some people in Mexico did not like this plan

21 ZAPATISTA GUERRILLA MOVEMENTS CONTINUED. They thought that NAFTA would allow cheap farm goods to come into Mexico from the United States The farmers of Mexico would not be able to compete with the cheaper food. On the day that NAFTA took effect, a group of Mexicans called the Zapatistas took over several towns in their part of Mexico. The army was sent to remove the Zapatista. Fighting lasted for several weeks. A cease-fire finally ended the fighting; however the Zapatista did not go away. The Zapatistas still have control of some small parts of southern Mexico. The Zapatista argue that the indigenous people of Mexico need more help to improve health care, housing, education and jobs

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