Home work. Fill in the Blanks Use your study sheet to find the correct answers. THE CRADLE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION

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1 Date: 1 THE CRADLE OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION The ancient G introduced many valuable i that i the way we live today. The Greeks lived on a small, rocky p in southeast E. They were unable to f most of their l, so they turned to the s, where they became excellent s. 1. From whom did the Greeks learn the alphabet? 2. What was a Greek polis? *3. How did the ancient Greeks develop an advanced civilization? (Your sentence must include a topic sentence, at least two support sentences, and a conclusion that restates, but does not repeat the topic sentence.) *4. Describe what all Greek poli had in common with each other.

2 Date: 2 SPARTA Sparta was a Greek *c -state that admired s and b. The Spartans took s -year-old b from their homes and t them to be s. Mothers who gave birth to children with birth defects were forced to allow the leaders of S to murder their newborn c. Sparta was a very d s i l n d polis. They did not approve of outside v or allowing their people to t to other lands. 5. What did ancient Sparta value? *6. Why do you think the leaders of Sparta did not allow boys to remain with their families? *7. Why did Sparta not welcome visitors from other cities or allow their citizens to travel? *8. What are the advantages of living in a society like Sparta?

3 Date: 3 ATHENS Athens was a *p that was very different from S. The A people valued r, writing, and m. They created a d, or government rule by the p. The male citizens of A met in the a and voted on how their p was to be g. Only about one in s people in Athens was allowed to participate in the a. Women, people not b in Athens, and s were not allowed to v. Slaves accounted for about * % of the population. They did most of the w of the p, making it possible for members of the a to devote more time on p affairs. 9. What did the people of Athens value? 10. Why did Athens choose its leaders by lot instead of election? Do you think that was a wise method of governing the polis? *11. Did the Assembly represent the wishes of all of the people of Athens? Defend your answer. *12. Would you have preferred to live in Sparta or Athens? Defend your answer.

4 Date: 4 PERSIA Persia was an *e centered in the modern nation of I. In 490BC, the P tried to e their e into G by defeating A. The Athenians forced the Persians back onto to their ships at Marathon, while a r sped to A to alert the people that *i were coming. The messenger d, but today we call a long *r a m in honor of that event. The Greeks were able to defeat the Persians *t more. The second time, the Greeks crushed a fleet of 800 s. Following the w, the Greeks felt an enormous amount of p in their c. Greek a, poets, s, and architects created a unique culture. Today we know that period as the G Age of G. *13. Why do you think the Persians landed at Marathon instead of going directly to Athens? *14. Why did the other Greek poli send soldiers to help Athens? *15. What city-state do you think provided the strongest soldiers in the war against Persia? Defend your answer. *16. What was significant about the Golden Age of Greece?

5 Date: 5 PELOPONNESIAN WAR The G Age of G was short lived because both A and S wanted to dominate the region. S attacked Athens years ago, beginning the year long P War. Athens was at an immediate disadvantage as a p wiped out a *q of the city s p. When plague killed P, the leader of A, the A people began listening to bad leaders called d. S defeated Athens after building a b around the city. Athens s to Sparta in 404BC, ending a long period of glory for the *p. 17. Why did the Golden Age of Greece end? *18. How did Sparta defeat Athens? ALEXANDER THE GREAT *19. Alexander considered himself a highly cultured Greek who studied under Aristotle. Why did many Greeks feel Alexander was less than Greek? 20. How did the twenty-year-old Alexander prove himself to be more than a mere boy? *21. What three factors contributed to Alexander s defeat of the Persians? *22. What do you think may have caused Alexander s change of heart about the Persians?

6 Date: 6 *23. In what year was Alexander the Great born? *24. Why do you think Alexander s empire fell apart so quickly after he died? *25. What was significant about the library built in Alexandria, Egypt?

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