The Myth of Troy. Mycenaeans (my see NEE ans) were the first Greek-speaking people. Trojan War, 1200 B.C.

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1 The Myth of Troy Mycenaeans (my see NEE ans) were the first Greek-speaking people Trojan War, 1200 B.C. Greeks attacked and destroyed independent city-state Troy. The fictional account is that a Trojan prince kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king. The story is that Achilles fought for the Greeks and that they used a trick to enter the walls of the city a gift an enormous wooden horse statue. In reality, it was filled with Greek fighters.

2

3 Mythological history myth and epic = favorite stories retold until they are claimed as history Achilles death

4 Athens and Sparta

5 Athens Men had more rights than women Women usually stayed at home while men gathered in the city Boys were educated Girls stayed home with their mothers and learned how to raise children and do domestic work Athens was the center of Greek culture Sculpture, music, drama, temples, etc. Athens had a democracy, but only men could participate in government Athens had a strong navy

6 Sparta Men trained for the military at a very young age. Women ran the household and businesses while the men trained. Helots (Spartan slaves) did the manual labor Men were sent to military school at age 7. Women were also trained and encouraged to stay fit and ready to defend Sparta. Daily life and culture centered around the military. Sparta did not have the arts that Athens did. Ruled by a military oligarchy Military controls the people. A council of elders made important decisions Sparta had a very strong military and made allies with many city-states that disliked Athens

7 Geography City-states began to emerge because Greece was divided by geographic features Rugged mountains Islands and bodies of water Ancient Greece was not united

8 City-States Polis- A Greek city-state City-states were governed differently Monarchy- Ruled by a king or queen Oligarchy- Ruled by a small group of wealthy people Tyranny- Ruled by a military leader who overthrew the previous government Democracy- Ruled by the people

9 Athens Athens became the world s first direct democracy Citizens participated in major government decisions Solon- A man who made a law that all free male citizens are allowed to vote (no matter how poor)

10 Training When males turned 18, they took a pledge to defend Athens and its gods Males were required to train and serve in the military After the military, males were chosen to participate in the government of Athens

11 Limits to Democracy Athenian democracy was only for males Women, slaves, and others that were not born in Athens had no political or legal rights As a result, Athens was ruled by a minority, not a majority of its residents

12 Education Boys went to school and studied poetry, music, geometry, astronomy, geography, and public speaking Boys also participated in sports like wrestling, swimming, running, discus and javelin Girls stayed at home and learned to be wives and mothers Girls usually married between the ages of 14-16

13 Philosophers Socrates ( BC): A philosopher who taught people to search for truth. He often questioned authority and angered government leaders

14 Philosophers Plato ( BC): A student of Socrates. He established a school called The Academy and taught students philosophy, science, and math. He also wrote The Republic, a book that describes the ideal form of government

15 Philosophers Aristotle ( BC): A student of Plato. He opened his own school called The Lyceum. He wrote hundreds of essays on government and science

16 Dramatists Aeschylus ( BC), Sophocles ( BC), and Euripides ( BC) wrote plays called The Tragedies. These plays dealt with war, death, justice, and the gods. Aristophanes ( BC) wrote comedies. He often made fun of politicians and philosophers

17 Poets Homer (800 BC?)- The most famous of the Ancient Greek poets. His works include The Iliad and The Odyssey

18 Sparta Sparta was much different than Athens. They ignored new ideas and focused on building a strong military Others considered Spartan life to be harsh and had no desire to live this way The Spartans isolated themselves from the rest of Greece

19 Way of Life All males were required to be soldiers At the age of 7, all males were sent to military training camps Spartan males were required to marry by the age of 30 They served in the military until age 60

20 Women Women had equal rights with men in Sparta They had more freedom than women of any other Greek city-state They received no formal education, but were conditioned to be physically fit

21 Trade and Agriculture Spartan citizens were not allowed to participate in trade or manufacturing Non-citizens carried out these activities Helots: Non-Spartan slaves Sparta was mainly agricultural and had little trade with other city-states

22 Peloponnese The southern-most Peninsula of Greece Sparta is located here

23 Peloponnesian War Lasted from BC Almost every city-state in Greece was involved The Spartans had a stronger army The Athenians had a stronger navy

24 Spartans Victorious After 27 years of fighting, the Spartans were victorious and became the most powerful city-state in Greece The war took a large toll on Sparta and Athens. Their militaries were not as strong as they once were The city-states declined and were eventually captured by the Romans

25 Sample MSL Questions 1) Our form of government does not enter into rivalry with the institutions of others. We do not copy our neighbors, but are an example to them. It is true the administration is in the hands of the many and not the few. Pericles, statesman, 5 th century B.C. What form of government does this quote describe? a) Monarchy b) Oligarchy c) Theocracy d) Democracy 2) Select an event or issue from the past that is similar to an event or issue that is happening today. Give one example of how that event or issue is similar to what is happening today, and give one example of how that event differs from what is happening today

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