Ancient Greece B.C.E.

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1 Ancient Greece B.C.E.

2 Section 1 of Greece

3 Geography and effect on Greece.

4 Geography Greece is a peninsula about the size of Louisiana in the Mediterranean Sea. It s very close to Egypt, the Persian empire (includes Turkey) and Rome. Greece is mountainous Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse City-States Arose As a result, they fought each other a lot.

5 Mycenaean Civilization Ancestors came from Eurasian grasslands Major city Mycenae, Fortified and Kingdom Dominated Greece from 1600 to 1100 B.C. Sea going trade in the Mediterranean Sea Combined Culture with Minoans for the Greek Culture.

6 Trojan War Mycenaean vs. Troy for 10 Years This attack by the Mycenaean was probably one of the last campaigns of the Mycenaean Culture

7 Fall of the Mycenaean Mycenaean Civilization was destroyed by a sea going attacker. They burned and destroyed the civilization of the Mycenae.

8 Dorian's and Homer Homer wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey to keep some of the history of Greece during the Dorian's rule. The Dorian's did not find History very important

9 Section 2 Greece

10 City-States The Greek Civilization was broke up in to many different City States. These City States were cities, that acted like a small country. They had their own Army and government. Athens and Sparta are the two best known.

11 Three different Types of Government Monarchythere is a King or Queen in power. Pasted down through a Dynasty. Aristocracythis is a ruled by a small group. Many by the most powerful families and the richest. - Oligarchy- this is a government where the Aristocracy shares control with the monarch. This was used mainly when people were tired of the rich doing everything

12 Tyrants take Greece Many times the common people fought for control of the government. When this happened many times a Tyrant was placed in to power. Tyrant is a ruler that takes force through military means.

13 Athens Athens starts a limited Democracy. This is when only a few are represented in the government. Started a Legal code to hold its citizen accountable. Athens was known as the intellectual center of Greece. The rich Children were allowed to go to school.

14 Sparta Sparta was a Military society. All men went in to the Army. Oligarchy as their government. All male children left for military school when they are 7. Conquered peoples and made them their slaves or Helots.

15 Persian War Greek City States vs. Persian Empire Paid full time soldiers, Immortals Darius divided the empire into satrapies (provinces) 490 BC Greeks and Persians in Marathon (Greeks) 480 BC Greeks (Athens and Sparta) and Persians in Thermopylae (Persians) Greeks and Persians in Salamis (Greeks) 479 BC Greeks and Persians in Plataea (Greeks)

16 Consequences of Persian War Created the Dalian League: Promised to defend its members against the Persians. Athens and other citystates except Sparta. Athens became the leader of the City-States Athens had a quick Golden Age.

17 Section 3 Greece

18 Political: Athens was the first democracy. Democracy: type of government where people vote. Well, actually, Athens was a direct democracy where people vote on everything. The U.S. today is a representative democracy, where we vote for people to make decisions for us.

19 Direct participation was the key to Athenian democracy. In the Assembly, every male citizen was not only entitled to attend as often as he pleased but also had the right to debate, offer amendments, and vote on proposals. Every man had a say in whether to declare war or stay in peace. Basically any thing that required a government decision, all male citizens were allowed to participate in.

20 Remember! If you think the U.S. is so much better... Some southern states did not let African Americans vote until the 1960s (Voting Rights Act 1965) Women could not vote in the U.S. until 1920 (19 th Amendment) Eighteen year olds could not vote until the late 1970s.

21 Athens Developed a Strong Navy. Was the Leader in the Mediterranean Sea. Sparta Does not join the Dalian League. Athens has a Golden Age of Art and Technology.

22 Political terms All of Greece wasn t a democracy. Most of Greece was a monarchy a type of government ruled by a king or queen. At right is Pericles, a good king of Athens.

23 Athens Athenians were tough but were encouraged to engage in activities like art, philosophy, music.

24 Sparta Sparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens. Sparta was an oligarchy, government ruled by a few. They had 2 kings. During the Peloponnesian Sparta sacked Athens.

25 Peloponnesian War War between Spartan and Athenians Athenians hid behind the walls, but disease killed a third if them Spartans made a deal with Persians to help with their navy Spartans finally won All city-states lost, many died, farms destroyed, people without jobs

26 Philosophers Socrates-An Athenian sculptor. Absolute truth existed and that all real knowledge was within each person. Invented by the Socratic method (asking questions and making people think) Plato-One of Socrates students. Wrote the Republic. Believed that we should have a just and reasonable government -Aristotle-One of Plato s students. Believed that people should not do things in excess. Used observations and generalizations. Wrote Politics

27 Section 4 Greece

28 Phillip II Alexander the Great s Father. Was a King of Macedonia. Was a Conqueror Conquered Greece, place all of Greece under one ruler. Unified the Greek City- States.

29 Alexander the Great Alexander was not from Athens, but Macedonia. Alexander was a brilliant military strategist. His favorite book was Homer s Iliad

30 Alexander conquered the Persian empire and controlled the largest empire the world has ever seen.

31 Alexander spread Hellenistic culture throughout Asia. Hellenistic is a fancy word for Greek. Alexander spread Greek technology and ideas throughout his empire

32 Section 5 Greece

33 Hellenistic Alexandria in Egypt becomes a very important part of the empire. Is a hub of trade and of the Greek culture. Was a beautiful city, with great architecture, and sulptures. Was a center for Astronomy in the Museum. Eratosthenus was a leader of astronomy here.

34 Hellenistic Math and Physics Geometry text was written called the Euclid. Archimedes studied in Alexandria, he invented pi. He was also an inventor.

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