Pericles Plan: 461 to 429 B.C. - Age of Pericles Three goals: (1)strengthen Athenian democracy (2)strengthen the empire (3)glorify Athens

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1 1. Notebook Entry: Golden Age 2. What makes something golden? EQ: How does Greece fit our model of a Classical Civilization? By the end of class are objectives are to: - identify Pericles three goals for Athens - describe Greek styles of art - explain the major conflicts in the Peloponnesian War Monday Ancient Greece Expository Essay Tuesday Parent Teacher Conference Day Wednesday Q1 Extra Credit Assignment Thursday Q1 Interval Review Friday Q1 Interval Assessment EQ: How does Greece fit our model of a Classical Civilization? Pericles Plan: 461 to 429 B.C. - Age of Pericles Three goals: (1)strengthen Athenian democracy (2)strengthen the empire (3)glorify Athens Stronger Democracy: Increased number of public officials who were paid Allowed poorer citizens to be involved Direct democracy Citizens rule directly 1

2 Athenian Empire: Delian League Athens dominated all city-states Used money from the League to strengthen Athenian navy Military might allowed Pericles to treat other members as part of the empire Glorifying Athens: Used money from the League to beautify Athens Bought gold, ivory, and marble Paid artists, architects, and workers Parthenon: Traditional style Built to honor Athena (goddess of wisdom - protector of Athens) Greek art set standards for future generations Figures were graceful, strong, and perfectly formed Faces showed neither joy nor anger Ideal beauty, not realism Values of harmony, order, balance, and proportion became standards of classical art Drama and History: First theaters in the West Civic pride and tribute to the gods Plays about leadership, justice, and duties owed to the gods Tragedy - serious drama flaw usually caused hero s downfall Hubris (excessive pride) Comedy - slapstick situations and crude humor Thucydides Historian: still used as a guide Philosophers: Socrates encouraged Greeks to question themselves and their moral character Plato The Republic (perfectly governed society) Aristotle questioned human belief, thought, and knowledge 2

3 The Peloponnesian War: Athens vs. Sparta Why? Nike of Oregon Even after the Persian Wars ended, the Persian threat remained. Athens persuaded most of the city-states to join together against the enemy. What city-state chose not to join the alliance? 3

4 Delian League: Athens supplied most of the naval and land forces. The other members provided money and ships. The Delian league was successful in freeing Ionia from Persian rule and getting pirates out of the Aegean Sea. Trade expanded and Greece grew richer. Athenian Empire: Athens came to dominate the other citystates. Using League money to build the Parthenon. Bringing all criminal cases to courts in Athens. Forcing everyone to use Athenian coinage. Pericles: Pericles transformed the anti-persian defense league into an Athenian empire. As Athens continued to grow an alliance against them was formed by Sparta. Sparta s location gave us the name Peloponnesian War. 4

5 The Peloponnesian War lasted from 431 B.C. until 404 B.C. It seemed that Athens could hold out forever since Sparta had no navy to attack with. Sparta made a deal with the Persians to return Ionia in exchange for gold to pay for building a fleet of ships. Plague: -Probably typhus -Killed off many Athenians including Pericles. -Weakened the Athenian military. End of the War: After Pericles died in 429 B.C. some Athenians wanted to make peace with Sparta. Some wanted to keep fighting. No decision was made and the fighting continued for many more years. Eventually some Athenian allies joined the Spartan allies. This allowed Sparta to destroy the Athenian navy and attack Athens itself. Finally in 404 B.C. the Athenians surrendered. After the War The Peloponnesian War left Greece a mess and led to continued unrest. Why? 5

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