2 The Minoans The Minoans established a brilliant early civilization on the island of Crete. The Minoans traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia. They acquired ideas and technology that they adapted to their own culture. The Minoans helped to shape the first Greek civilization.
3 The Epics of Homer Every man make up his mind to fight And move on his enemy! Strong as I am, It s hard for me to face so many men And fight with all at once.... And yet I will! Homer, Iliad The Iliad and the Odyssey reveal many of the values of ancient Greeks. Homer s heroes display honor, courage, and eloquence. The epics of Homer have been inspiring writers for almost 3,000 years. Katfish Rules
4 The Mycenaens The Mycenaens conquered the Greek mainland and Crete. Mycenaen civilization dominated the Aegean from about 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C. They traded with Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Mycenaens absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences and passed them on to later Greeks.
5 Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
6 Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of conquering the Persian empire. Philip s son, Alexander, succeeded him to the throne. Alexander won his first victory against the Persians at the Granicus River. He then conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and Babylon.
7 Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern India. There his troops faced soldiers mounted on war elephants. They were forced to retreat. While planning his next battle campaign, Alexander died of a sudden fever. Three generals divided up the empire.
9 The Legacy of Alexander Although Alexander s empire did not last, he had unleashed changes that would ripple across the Mediterranean world and the Middle East for centuries. Alexander s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture. Across the empire, local people assimilated, or absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers adopted local customs.
10 Gradually, a blending of eastern and western cultures occurred. Alexander had encouraged this blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.
11 Great Minds of the Hellenistic Period Zeno founded Stoicism, which urged people to accept calmly whatever life brought. Pythagoras derived a formula to calculate the relationship between the sides of a triangle. Euclid wrote The Elements, a textbook that became the basis for modern geometry.
12 Aristarchus theorized about a heliocentric, or sun-centered, solar system. Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference. Eratosthenes showed that the Earth was round and accurately calculated its circumference. Hippocrates studied illnesses and cures and set ethical standards for medical care.
13 Ancient Greece
14 Geography and the Greek City- Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula. Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys. States
15 Off the Greek mainland are hundreds of small islands.
16 The geography of the region prevented the Greeks from creating a large, united empire. Instead, they built many small citystates, cut off from one another by mountains or water. The seas linked the Greeks to the outside world. The Greeks became skilled sailors, traveling and trading all over the Mediterranean.
17 Governing the City-States Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greeks evolved different forms of government. At first, the ruler was a king. A government in which a king or queen exercises central power is called a monarchy.
18 Slowly, power shifted to a class of noble landowners. At first, the nobles defended the king, but in time, they won power for themselves. A government ruled by a landholding elite is called an aristocracy.
19 As trade expanded, a new class of wealthy merchants, farmers, and artisans came to dominate some citystates. A government in which power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business class, is called an oligarchy.
20 Athens and Sparta ATHENS SPARTA Society grew into a limited democracy, or government by the people. Rulers were two kings and a council of elders. Rulers formed a military society. Male citizens over age 30 were members of the assembly. Rulers encouraged trade with other city-states. Women were considered inferior. Boys received education in many areas, not just military training. Conquered people were turned into slaves, called helots. Rulers forbade trade and travel. Male, native-born Spartans over age 30 were citizens. All boys received military training. Girls were raised to produce healthy sons for the army. Women had the right to inherit property.
21 Unifying Forces Local ties, independent spirit, and economic rivalries led to fighting among the Greek city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture: They honored the same ancient heroes. They participated in common festivals. They prayed to the same gods. They shared the Greek language. They felt superior to non-greeks, whom they called barbaroi, people who did not speak Greek.
22 The Persian Wars Despite their cultural ties, the Greek city-states were often in conflict with one another. However, The threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city-states. United, the citystates defeated the Persians and ended the threat of Persian invasions.
23 The Impact of the Persian Wars Victory over the Persians increased the Greeks sense of their own uniqueness. Athens emerged as the most powerful city- state. Athens organized the Delian League, an alliance with other Greek city-states. Athens used the Delian League to create an Athenian empire.
24 The Age of Pericles After the Persian Wars, Athens enjoyed a golden age under Pericles. Periclean Athens was a direct democracy. In this form of government, large numbers of citizens take part in the day-to-day affairs of government.
25 This meant that Athenian men participated in the assembly and served on juries. Pericles hired architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians had destroyed. Pericles turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece. He did this with the help of an educated, foreign-born woman named Aspasia.
26 The Acropolis
27 Pericles Funeral Oration Pericles gave a speech at the funeral of Athenians slain in battle. This speech is considered one of the earliest and greatest expressions of democratic ideals. Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as a harmless but as a useless character.
28 The Peloponnesian War CAUSES EFFECTS Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination. Sparta formed the Peloponnesian league to rival the Delian league. Sparta encouraged oligarchy, while Athens supported democracy. Athenian domination of the Greek world ended. Athens recovered economically and remained the cultural center of Greece. Democratic government suffered. Corruption and selfish interests replaced older ideals such as service to the city-state.
29 SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE
30 Greek Philosophers Some Greek thinkers used observation and reason to find causes for what happened. The Greeks called these thinkers philosophers, meaning lovers of wisdom. SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers Emphasized importance of reason Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens lives to provide for their best interest Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader Taught that good conduct meant pursuing moderation
31 Greek Architects and Artists The work of Greek artists and architects reflected a concern with balance, order, and beauty. ARCHITECTURE Architects tried to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony of the universe. Example: The Parthenon ART Early sculptors imitated rigid Egyptian poses. Later sculptors emphasized natural poses that were lifelike but also idealistic. Paintings offer views of Greek life.
32 Poetry and Drama Greek dramas were often based on popular myths and legends. Through these stories, playwrights discussed moral and social issues and the relationship between people and the gods.
33 Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides wrote tragedies, plays that told stories of human suffering that usually ended in disaster.
34 Aristophanes wrote comedies, humorous plays that mocked people or customs.
35 The Writing of History The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic to the study of history. Herodotus is called the Father of History.
36 Herodotus stressed the importance of research, while Thucydides showed the need to avoid bias. Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future historians.
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