city-state: a tiny country with its own government, based around one large city; polis Examples: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Megara, Argos

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1 city-state: a tiny country with its own government, based around one large city; polis Examples: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Megara, Argos

2 citizen - a person who is part of a certain society; in Greece, only men born in a place were considered citizens philosophy - a subject that deals with questions about life, where we come from, and more logic - part of philosophy that focuses on how ideas make sense chronological order in time order, from oldest to most recent

3 peninsula: land that sticks out into water, surrounded by water on three sides Examples: Florida, Michigan, Korea, Greece

4 Types of Democracy direct democracy all citizens in a society vote directly on all issues in government; example is ancient Athens representative democracy citizens elect representatives to vote for them, which are people that do the work in government ; example is America

5 Other Types of Government dictatorship government led by a dictator, who is one person with all power Usually considered a very negative thing since citizens have no power oligarchy government led by a small group of people; example was Sparta Like a dictatorship, but more than one person

6 Persian Wars 499 BC to 449 BC More than one war Frequent invasions of Greece by Persians Many more Persians than Greeks! Greek city-states joined together to fight off the Persians Famous battles: Marathon, Thermopylae (ther-ma-puhlee; like in the movie 300), Salamis Greece won! Start of Golden Age of Athens!

7 Golden Age of Athens! About 480 BC to 404 BC Athens was clearly the most powerful polis after success in the Persian Wars, and Athens even had some power over other city-states What was Athens famous for during this time? Great leadership by Pericles Direct democracy Education of boys Art and architecture Beautiful pottery and sculpture Many temples built including the Parthenon Theater and festivals Philosophers (Socrates, Plato)

8 The Parthenon one of the most famous buildings in the world; it was a temple found on a hill in Athens which was built to honor Athena, considered the protector of that city-state; can still be seen today

9 Greek Philosophers Socrates Father of Western Philosophy, argued with people by asking questions, focused on logic and reasoning in order to improve life and society Plato Student of Socrates, wrote down famous books about conversations with Socrates, started The Academy, a very important school in Athens Aristotle Student of Plato, studied many subjects including classification, one of the first people to use the scientific method, teacher of Alexander the Great

10 Other Famous Greeks Euclid (YOU-clid) important mathematician; studied lines, shapes, and angle (geometry) Hippocrates (hi-pa-cra-teez) the greatest Greek doctor; doctors today swear by an oath named after him about how to not harm patients Aesop (EE-sahp) writer of famous fables, stories that tell lessons, which often had animals; ex. The Tortoise and the Hare Pericles (PAIR-i-cleez) most famous and successful democratic leader of Athens, during the golden age; ordered the building of important temples

11 Peloponnesian War 431 BC to 404 BC Named after the peninsula that Sparta was located on (Peloponnese) Athens vs. Sparta, with allies helping on both sides Sparta won (with some help from Persia!); Athens went from most powerful city-state to very weak and mostly destroyed All of Greece was poorer and weakened after the fighting Peloponnesian War ended Golden Age

12 Alexander the Great One of the most famous and successful military leaders of all time; studied at The Academy under Aristotle After Greece was weakened by the Peloponnesian War, Alexander and his father invaded with an army from Macedonia, a land to the north, and conquered ALL of Greece Continued conquering land, all through Persia and Egypt! Created a huge empire and spread Greek culture through the lands he took

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14 Greek Mythology

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16 Extra Note Space write anything you want to remember

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