Ancient Greece 1750 B.C B.C. Chapter 5

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1 Ancient Greece 1750 B.C B.C. Chapter 5

2 5-1 Early People of the Aegean

3 Minoan Civilization l Island of Crete, home of Minoans. l Contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia l The Palace at Knossos l Shrinesl Importance of the sea l Rights of women l A Civilization Disappears l How?

4 Rulers of Mycenae l Conquered the Greek mainland before overrunning Crete. l Successful Sea Traders l Mycenaean civilization dominated Aegean world from 1400 B.C B.C. l Warrior-king, city-states, fortified walls

5 l Trojan War l 1250 B.C. between Mycenae and Troy. Why? l After 10 years, Mycenae (Greeks) burned the city of Troy.

6 The Age of Homer l Dorians, invaded Mycenae and dominated from 1100 B.C B.C. Result: l Iliad and the Odyssey; What are the themes of these two stories?

7 5-2 The Rise of Greek City-States

8 Geography of the Greek Homeland l Mountains and Valleys l Greece is part of the Balkan peninsula, east of the Mediterranean Sea. People separated by water and mountains. l What was the effect on its people? l The Seas l Excellent sailors l Expanded Phoenician alphabet l Colonies from Spain to Egypt. Why?

9 Governing the City-States l The Polis- l Acropolis l Walled main city l Early Governments l First ruled by a monarchy l Power shifted to landowning nobles who also were military defenders of city-states. Result: l The middleclass of wealthy farmers, merchants and artisans came to dominate city-states. Result:

10 l Changes in Warfare l Iron; what were the advantages? l phalanx

11 Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers l Were Dorians who conquered Laconia, southern Greece. They made the conquered people into helots. This lead to strict military control. Why? l Two kings and a council of elders l Citizens were native-born male, over 30 years

12 l The Rigors of Citizenship l Abandoned to die l Age 7 l Barracks, coarse diet, exercise, stealing, severe punishment l Age 20 l marriage l Age 30 l Member of the Assembly

13 l Women l Encouraged to exercise- exception to Greek culture l Obey l Responsibility in times of war l Sparta and Its Neighbors l Views on trade, wealth, traveling, and art l Spartans are willing to die for their city. Because they have no reason to live

14 Athens: A Limited Democracy l l l l l l l l Evolved from a monarchy to aristocracy. Demands for Change Merchants resented the power of the nobles. Discontent spread, leading to. Solon s Reforms Chief official of Athens. Political Reform- Economic Reform- However, limited fairness led to the rise of.

15 l Later Reforms l Pisistratus l Cleisthenes l Legislaturel Women l Restricted, no public life l Rich women were secluded and managed the entire household l No true meaningful male-female relationships. l This led to highly accepted bisexuality among males, especially in the rich class. l Education for Democracy l Boys attended school l Literacy and public speaking

16 Forces for Unity l Religious Beliefs l Polytheists l Mt. Olympus l Consulted oracles l Views of Non-Greeks l Superiority complex l barbaroi

17 5-3 Victory and Defeat in the Greek World

18 The Persian Wars l The Persians (Iran) conquered a huge empire stretching from Asia Minor to the border of India. l In 499. B.C. Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian rule. Athens sent ships to help them. l Victory at Marathon l Furious at Athens involvement, Persia sent their military to Athens. Eventually, Athens navy overwhelmed the Persians.

19 l Renewed Attacks l In 480 B.C. Xerxes sent a force to conquer Greece. l Led by Spartan s warrior king, Leonidas, they were able to temporarily hold of the Persians l Athens burned l Persia was eventually defeated, ending the Persian invasions. l Results l Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state. l They formed the Delian League. l Athens manipulated the League and imposed imperialism on its allies.

20 Athens in the Age of Pericles l Under the statesman, Pericles, Athens had a golden age from 460 B.C. to 429 B.C. l Political Life l Direct democracy v. indirect democracy (republic) l Stipend was paid to public officials. Why was this fair? l Athenians served on juries l Ostracism-

21 l The Funeral Oration l Economic and Cultural Life l Prospered during the Age of Pericles l Rebuilt the Acropolis l Why were building projects important? l Athens became cultural center of Greece

22 The Peloponnesian War l Rivalries between Greece caused division. Sparta along with other Greeks formed the Peloponnesian League in order to counter the Delian League. Warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta in 431 B.C. which lasted 27 years. l Greek Against Greek l Sparta could not be attacked from the sea. l Plague l Sparta allied with. Which led to their victory.

23 l The Aftermath of War l 1. l 2. l 3.

24 5-4 The Glory That Was Greece

25 Greek Philosophers l Challenged the gods; reason based on observation l Logic- l Ethical Issues l Ethicsl Governmentl Why was rhetoric important?

26 l Socrates l Threat to Greek conservatives l Plato l Student of Socrates; l Distrusted democracy v. Total control l The Republic l Superiority over women l Aristotle l Student of Plato l golden mean l Strong government l Politics, ethics, logic, biology

27 Architecture and Art l Architecture l Sought to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect harmony. l Sculpture and Painting l New style

28 Poetry and Drama l Beginnings of Greek Drama l What was the most important contribution in literature? l Tragedy l Suggested that people, not gods, were the cause of human misfortune. l Comedy l Criticized society

29 The Writing of History l Herodotus Father of History l Peloponnesians War l Tried not to use bias and stressed research

30 5-5 Alexander and the Hellenistic Age

31 Alexander the Great l Philip s Dream l Gained the throne in 359 B.C. forming alliances with many Greek city states. l What was his goal? However. l Conquest of Persia l Alexander became new king of Macedonia, at age 20.

32 l Persian empire stretched 2000 miles, from Egypt to India. Alexander gained several victories from Palestine to Egypt by 331 B.C. l Onward to India l Never losing a battle, his army s conquests took him to India. However, his troops became weary. l Sudden Death l After Alex s death, the empire split into three:

33 The Legacy of Alexander l Most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture. l A Blending of Cultures l Conquered peeps, assimilated to Greek culture l Marriage, dress, language etc. l Alexandria

34 Hellenistic Civilization l New Schools of Thought l Stoicism l Advances in Learning l Pythagoras l Elements l Axis l Heliocentric l Archimedesl Medicine l Hippocrates-

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