Unit 3 Notes: Ancient Greece

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1 1 Unit 3 Notes: Ancient Greece Name Date Block Greek Geography The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization. Locations and places to know (see map): Aegean Sea Balkan and Peloponnesus peninsulas, Europe, Asia Minor Mediterranean Sea Black Sea, Dardanelles Athens, Sparta, Troy Macedonia Geography s impact on economic and social development: The mountainous terrain of the Balkan Peninsula made Agriculture difficult. (limited arable land) Because of overpopulation and limited arable land, Greek cities colonized the Aegean and Mediterranean region. Trading and commerce over long distances led the Greeks to shift from barter to a money economy (coins). The expansion of Greek civilization, through trade and colonization, led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas. Geography s influence on political development: Mountainous terrain helped and hindered the development of city-states (Polis System). Greek cities were protected, but they were also isolated. How did the mountains, seas, islands, harbors, peninsulas, and straits of the Aegean Basin shape Greek economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization? Greek Religion Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece.

2 2 Greek Mythology involved elaborate stories of the gods and goddesses. Greek Mythology provided explanations for natural phenomena (lightning, fire) human qualities (vanity, anger, beauty, wisdom) life events (marriage, childbirth, conflict) The Greeks believed the gods lived on Mt. Olympus. The Olympics united the Greeks every four years in honor of Zeus. Greeks gave offerings to oracles: priests who predicted the future. Greek Deities Zeus: King of the gods Hera: queen of the gods and goddess of marriage Apollo: god of the sun, poetry and music Artemis: goddess of the hunt and moon Athena: goddess of wisdom battle strategy and crafts Aphrodite: goddess of love and beauty How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition? Homer Poet who had great influence on Greek religion and values Famous for his two epics (long narrative poems) of the adventure of heroes during the Trojan War Iliad and Odyssey Iliad is the story of the 10 year Trojan War and tells of the heroism of Hector and Achilles. Odyssey is the story of Odysseus ten year journey back home to Ithaca after fighting against the Trojans. Influence of Greek Mythology Many of Western Civilization s symbols, metaphors, words, idealized images, and architecture come from Ancient Greek Mythology. Achilles Heel: a weakness

3 3 Herculean Task: a very difficult job Adonis: Handsome young man Midas Touch: person who is always successful What impact did Greek mythology have on later civilizations and the contemporary world? Greek Polis System A polis is a city-state (The Greek civilization was not politically unified) Each polis had its own system of government, laws, military and economy. They were united by language and religious culture. Greek cities were designed to promote civic and commercial life. Social Structure of the Polis 1. Citizens (free adult males) had political rights and the responsibility of civic participation in government. 2. Women and foreigners had no political rights. 3. Slaves had no political rights (1/3 of the population) Sparta Builds a Military State Spartans conquered the Peloponnesian Peninsula for its fertile farmland Enslaved Messenians as helots to work the land Militaristic and aggressive society Spartan Values Courage Obedience Sacrifice for the good of Sparta Children were told to win or die trying: Come home with your shield, or on it. Spartan Education: Age 7 boys moved into military barracks Lived there 23 years to toughen body, learn discipline, and train for war Learned to be brave and endure pain in silence At age 30 men could marry and engage in civic life Spartan Social Structure

4 4 Had rigid social structure citizens Free non-citizens helots Women played a more important role in Spartan society than in other Greek Poleis. They ran the family estate while men were fighting. Spartan Government Oligarchy: rule by small group (Council of Elders) Contrasting philosophies of government divided the Greek city-states of Athens (democracy) and Sparta (oligarchy). Athens Athens was an intellectual and commercial center in Greece Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation for modern democracies. Stages in evolution of Athenian government 1. Monarchy (Royal Dynasty) 2. Aristocracy (rich, those thought to be best qualified) 3. Tyranny (one person) 4. Democracy (government ruled by the people) Tyrants Worked for Reform Draco Developed a system of harsh laws to govern Athens (rule of law) Solon Outlawed debt slavery for citizens Organized citizens according to wealth Increased civic participation Athenian Democracy Greeks 1 st to establish democratic principles: Direct Democracy 1. Citizens participated directly

5 5 2. Only free adult males Public Debate Duties of the citizen How did democracy develop in Athens? How did Sparta differ from Athens? The Persian Wars B.C. (B.C.E.) Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Darius wanted to crush Athens because they supported Anatolian Greeks in rebellion against Persia. United rival poleis, Athens and Sparta, against the Persian Empire. Battle of Marathon Persians landed 26 miles from Athens at Marathon. Persians outnumbered Greeks (25,000 to 10,000) The Athenian hoplite phalanx broke the Persian lines. A messenger named Pheidippides ran back to Athens with news of the victory. Spartans Defend Greece Ten years later, the Persians returned with a larger army led by Xerxes. They defeated Greek forces at Thermopylae, and burned Athens. Defeat of the Persians The Greeks won a naval victory at Salamis, destroying 1/3 of the Persian fleet. Consequences of Persian Wars Athenian victories over the Persians at Marathon, and Salamis left Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea. Athens preserved its independence and continued innovations in government and culture. Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture? Golden Age of Pericles Athens experienced a brief golden age between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars. Under the leadership of Pericles Athens was rebuilt from the destruction of the Persian Wars.

6 6 Pericles imported ivory, gold and marble for the construction of the Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena. Pericles extended democracy in Athens to its greatest extent. Athenian culture during the classical era became one of the foundation stones of Western Civilization. Athens emerged as the leader of the Delian League which was an alliance of 200 Greek citystates. Athens built the strongest navy in the Mediterranean. Why was the leadership of Pericles important to the development of Athenian life and Greek culture? Greek Drama Greeks were entertained by tragic and comedic plays. Aeschylus wrote only complete trilogy that exists today from the 1 st Greek dramas, Orestia: plays about the Trojan War. Sophocles was a Greek dramatist whose most famous play was Oedipus Rex. Greek History Historians tried to record what really happened. Herodotus Known as Father of History Wrote History of the Persian Wars Thucydides: Athenian historian and former general who wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars Greek Architecture Columns were the most enduring feature of Greek architecture. Doric columns had a plain capital and no base. The Parthenon had Doric columns. Ionian columns had a more decorative capital and a base. Corinthian columns had the most elaborate capital and base. Greek Sculpture Phidias and other sculptors of the Greek Golden Age created graceful, perfectly formed figures. Greek Science

7 7 Archimedes was a mathematician who used levers, pulleys and also invented pumps for irrigation. Hippocrates was a Greek doctor who believed diseases were organic rather than punishments from the gods. Advocated hygiene, sound diet, and plenty of sleep Today, doctors take the Hippocratic Oath. Mathematics Euclid defined geometric propositions and proofs that are still the basis for courses in geometry today. Pythagoras was a mathematician and philosopher who developed the Pythagorean Theorem for triangles. Greek Philosophers: Lovers of Wisdom Socrates encouraged people to question beliefs and moral character. The unexamined life is not worth living. Sentenced to death for corrupting the youth of Athens and neglecting the cities gods Plato was a student of Socrates, who wrote his ideas in Republic His writing dominated philosophic thought in Europe for 1500 years. Founded a school in Athens called the Academy. Aristotle studied under Plato and invented a method for arguing according to the rules of logic. His work provides the basis for scientific method used today. Founded a school in Athens called the Lyceum where Alexander the Great was a student. What were some important contributions of Greek culture to Western civilization? Peloponnesian War B.C. Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greek world led to war. Athens and the Delian League vs. Sparta and the Peloponnesian League Athens was strongest power by sea; Sparta was stronger by land Two events spell disaster for Athens 1. Plague killed 1/3 to 2/3 Athenian population, including Pericles.

8 8 2. An Athenian army of 20,000 attacked the Spartan ally of Syracuse and was totally destroyed. Results of the Peloponnesian War Sparta defeats Athens Greek poleis experienced rapid decline in political, military and economic power. Cultural advances slowed Macedonian Conquest The Macedonian conquest of Greece followed the weakening of Greek defenses during the Peloponnesian War. Phillip II was king of Macedon and a brilliant general. Conquered most of Greece, but respected Greek culture. When Phillip of Macedon died, his son Alexander ruled the Macedonian Empire. Alexander the Great Student of Aristotle who became king of Macedonia and Greece at age 20. Alexander united the Greeks and invaded the Persian Empire He conquered Egypt and was named a Pharaoh. Established an empire from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India Hellenistic Age Alexander extended Greek cultural influences eastward throughout his vast empire. Blend of Greek and oriental elements Spread of Hellenistic culture through trade Why was the Peloponnesian War important to the spread of Greek culture?

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