Classical Greek Civilization Our main topics: n History of Greek City-States n Cultural contributions as foundation of Western Civilization n

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1 3 Classical Greek Civilization Our main topics: n History of Greek City-States n Cultural contributions as foundation of Western Civilization n Hellenistic Period (Alexander s Empire) Vocabulary n Allegory n Aristocracy n Campaign n Constitution n Cosmos n Debtor n Deity n Democracy n Dialogue n Dictator n Eternal n Exposure n Geocentric n Heliocentric n Immortal n League n Monologue n Nobles n Oligarchy n Omnipotent n Omniscient n Oracle n Pantheon n Reform n Transcend Dark Age ( BC)

2 n ~00 BC Mycenaean civilization disappears n Dorian Greeks replace Mycenaeans n Linear B, writing, fine arts disappear n Dark Age lasts till ~800 BC 4 End of Dark Age (800 BC) n Phoenicia at its peak n Assyria on the rise n Israel & Judah divide 5 n Egypt in decline n Hittite Empire destroyed A New Civilization ~800 BC n One people n One language n Many city-states because of geography n Adopt writing from Phoenicians n Extra consonants become vowels of first true alphabet 6 The Polis n Greek city-state or its self-governing citizens n Main city with its surrounding villages & farmland n Acropolis: fortified hill at center of polis n Agora: open public market place 7 Major City-States n Athens (strongest navy) n Sparta (strongest army)

3 n Sparta (strongest army) n Of later importance: n Thebes n Corinth 8 Sparta n Landlocked in Peloponnesus n Mycenaean city before Dorian migration n Region of Laconia in Peloponnesus 9 0 Spartan Government n Originally ruled by kings n ~800 BC: nobles create oligarchy n Two powerless kings with military & religious duties n Aristocrats (> 0 yrs) make laws in Assembly n Assembly chooses 5 ephors (managers) n Council of elders ( kings + 8 men > 60 yrs) help & serve as high court Spartan Society n Perioeci are traders & craftsmen n Helots (enslaved neighbors) farm land, are harshly treated n Militaristic state controls them n Weak newborns left to die of exposure Agoge system n Boys to military at 7 yrs n Poorly fed and clothed n Laconic speech n Weapons, reading, writing, music, dance n In army at 8 yrs Athens n Named for Athena 3

4 n Named for Athena n Mycenaean city before Dorian migration n Acropolis dominates area n Access to sea Athenian Gov t & Draco s Reforms n Originally ruled by kings n ~750 BC: nobility replace kings with oligarchy n ~60 BC: middle class demand reforms made by Draco 3 Draco s reforms: n Laws written & posted, not arbitrary n Debtors from lower class made slaves n Death for minor offenses n Men with arms can vote Athenian Gov t & Solon s Reforms n 594 BC: Nobleman Solon appointed to reform Draconian laws n Forgives debts n Breaks up land ownership n Creates elected Council of 400 (3 highest classes) n Assembly of 4 classes can vote on Council proposals 4 Athenian Gov t & Democracy n 54 BC: Economic problems continue & Peisistratus n Takes power by force n Lets non-landowners vote n Supports arts & culture n 50 BC: Son becomes dictator & is deposed with Sparta s help n 508 BC: Cleisthenes creates democratic constitution n Allows freedom of speech n Free males over 0 can vote in Assembly 4

5 in Assembly 5 Structure of Athenian Democracy Assembly n Free males over 0 n Could veto acts of Council Council of 500 n Free males over 30 n Chosen by lot n Manage daily business 0 Generals n Elected by Assembly n Lead military n Serve as judges Non-participants n Women n Slaves Greek Warfare n Hoplites = citizen-soldiers with own weapons n Bronze armor n Large wood & bronze shield (not wicker!) n 9-foot thrusting spear n Short sword Greek Warfare n Phalanx = rows (usually 8) of hoplites with spears projecting n Best troops on right because no shield n Not clear how much fighting and pushing Elsewhere n Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great conquers Greek cities in Ionia (545 BC) 5

6 in Ionia (545 BC) 9 Persian Wars n Darius the Great crushes Ionian revolt ( BC) n Darius lands near Athens n Sparta delays help n Athenians defeat Darius at Marathon (490 BC) 0 3 Persian Wars n Darius son Xerxes returns (480 BC) n Xerxes defeats Spartans at Thermopylae & destroys Athens n Greeks defeat Xerxes at Salamis (480 BC) & Plataea (479 BC) Persian Wars n BC: Greeks expel Persians from Aegean region n Led by Delian League n HQ at island of Delos n Dominated by Athens n Becomes an Athenian Empire under Pericles Golden Age of Pericles (46-49 BC) n Statesman & general n Builds Long Walls to Piraeus n Promotes democracy n Promotes arts and architecture (including Parthenon and Temple of Zeus) Peloponnesian War ( BC) n Sparta resents Athens success & wealth n Delian allies are treated more like subjects 4 Peloponnesian War ( BC) n Actually 3 wars n Athens surrenders because: 6

7 n Athens surrenders because: n Sicilian campaign fails n Persia helps Sparta win naval victory 5 Results of Peloponnesian War n Limited feuds replaced by all-out war n Greece is weakened militarily & economically n Sparta s dominance replaces Athens n Thirty Tyrants briefly rule Athens n 403 BC: Exiles restore democracy to Athens n 37 BC: Thebes decisively defeats Sparta 7

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