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1 Introduction Chapter Introduction This chapter will introduce you to the Ancient Greeks. You will learn about early Greek history, society, and government. Section 1: The Rise of City-States Section 2: Greek Society and Economy Section 3: Democracy in Athens Section 4: Oligarchy in Sparta

2 mystory Pericles: Calm in the Face of Danger Why was Pericles family evacuating from Athens? How were most Athenians probably feeling about the evacuation?

3 mystory Pericles: Calm in the Face of Danger What did the Athenian men plan to do about the Persian invaders? What happened to Pericles dog, Ajax, when his family left Athens?

4 mystory Pericles: Calm in the Face of Danger What evidence supports the idea that Persia was a mighty and fearsome enemy? Persia was a mighty and fearsome enemy. Evidence

5 mystory Pericles: Calm in the Face of Danger What lessons do you think Pericles learned from the experience of seeing Athens defeat the mighty Persians? Lessons of Salamis

6 mystory What is power? Who should have it? How did the Greek and Persian ideas of power differ? Persia Athens

7 The Rise of City-States Describe your local government, including important leadership positions. How does your city or town government work?

8 The Rise of City-States Academic Vocabulary eventual adj., final Studying hard will improve your eventual results at school. exclude v., to shut out or keep from participating It is against the law to exclude people because of their race or gender.

9 The Rise of City-States Physical geography helped shape Greek life and culture. Key Ideas The basic political unit of ancient Greece was the city-state.

10 The Rise of City-States Key Ideas Early Greek history was marked by frequent warfare among small city-states.

11 The Rise of City-States polis a city-state Key Terms citizen a member of a city-state who enjoys legal rights

12 The Rise of City-States Key Terms acropolis the high hill in a city-state where public buildings and temples were located politics the art and practice of government aristocracy a hereditary class of rulers

13 The Rise of City-States What are some important features of Greek geography? mountain ranges limited farm land the sea Mediterranean climate

14 The Rise of City-States How did geography influence the ancient Greeks? Greek Geographic Features and Their Influence Mountains Limited Land Sea Climate

15 The Rise of City-States Ancient Greece: Early History 2000 B.C. Minoan civilization spreads to Greece B.C B.C. Advanced Mycenaean kingdoms trade bronze weapons and pottery B.C. 750 B.C. Culture declines during the dark age.

16 The Rise of City-States What was the importance of the Iliad and the Odyssey to the Greeks? The Iliad and the Odyssey

17 The Rise of City-States Ancient Greece: The City-States The polis included the people of the community, the city and surrounding area, and its government. On the acropolis, or high city, the important activities of government and religion took place. Greek settlers established city-states throughout the Mediterranean.

18 The Rise of City-States Diversity Among the City-States Why was the small size of the polis important? What kinds of governments did the city-states have?

19 The Rise of City-States The city-state became one of the most important features of Greek culture. What evidence supports this idea? Evidence of Importance of City-State

20 The Rise of City-States What is power? Who should have it? Trace the rise of the city-state in ancient Greece.

21 Greek Society and Economy Community Groups Think about groups in your community. Might some of those groups also have existed in ancient Greece? Identify Predict

22 Greek Society and Economy Academic Vocabulary obtain v., to gain Traders obtained olive oil from the Greeks. symbolize v., to represent The stars on our national flag symbolize the states.

23 Greek Society and Economy Key Ideas Greek society was divided according to wealth and legal status. Women had clear roles and few rights in the Greek city-states.

24 Greek Society and Economy Key Ideas Geography and limited resources spurred conquest, trade, and colonization.

25 Greek Society and Economy Key Terms tenant farmer a person who paid rent, either in money or crops, to grow crops on somebody else s land metic a resident foreigner slavery the ownership and control of other people as property

26 Greek Society and Economy Ancient Greek Women Free Greek women were noncitizens. Women s status varied from city-state to city-state. Greek women oversaw most household duties.

27 Greek Society and Economy How did the role and status of women differ in Sparta and Athens? Athenian Women Both Spartan Women

28 Greek Society and Economy Land Ownership and Status What part did landownership play in determining a person s standing in Greek society? How did tenant farmers differ from landowners? How did people become slaves in ancient Greece?

29 Greek Society and Economy What status did noncitizens have in Greek society? Noncitizens in Greek Society Women Metics Slaves

30 Greek Society and Economy Effects of Overpopulation and Land Hunger The ancient Greeks had limited farmland and resources to support a growing population. Some Greek city-states conquered their neighbors to acquire land and resources. Some Greeks established colonies on the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.

31 Greek Society and Economy What did the Greeks consider an ideal site for a colony? Ideal Site for a Colony

32 Greek Society and Economy Effects of Mediterranean Trade In what ways did trading affect the cultures of the Mediterranean? What effect did trading have on the social structure of Greece?

33 Greek Society and Economy Main Ideas About Greek Society and Economy

34 Greek Society and Economy What is power? Who should have it? Who held the most power in the Greek family?

35 Democracy in Athens What words do you connect with democracy? Democracy

36 Democracy in Athens Academic Vocabulary maintain v., to keep and support Our government maintains an army for defense. lecturer n., a person who gives an informative talk to students Our lecturer is an expert on life in ancient Greece.

37 Democracy in Athens Key Ideas Greek city-states experimented with many forms of government, including oligarchy and tyranny. In Athens, democracy developed. Citizens participated in lawmaking and the courts.

38 Democracy in Athens Key Ideas Athenian democracy and the responsibilities of citizenship developed gradually over many years.

39 Democracy in Athens Key Terms oligarchy a government in which a small number of people hold political power phalanx a formation of heavily armed foot soldiers who moved together as a unit

40 Democracy in Athens Key Terms tyranny a government run by one strong leader democracy a government run by many people

41 Democracy in Athens Key Terms citizenship membership in a community direct democracy a political system in which citizens participate directly in decision making representative democracy a political system in which citizens elect others to represent them

42 Democracy in Athens How did tyranny differ from oligarchy in ancient Greece? Tyranny Shared Oligarchy

43 Democracy in Athens The Phalanx In what ways was the phalanx different from earlier battle formations? Why do some believe that there is a connection between the phalanx and the way larger numbers of people gained political power?

44 Democracy in Athens Moving Toward Democracy 594 B.C. Solon reforms the courts, extends voting rights to some non-aristocrats, and stops the practice of turning debtors into slaves. 508 B.C. Cleisthenes increases the number of voters from lower classes and gives the assembly more power B.C. Pericles increases citizen participation in government by paying citizens for jury service.

45 Democracy in Athens Citizens of Athens In Athens, citizens had various rights and responsibilities. Pericles suggested that it was not class but ability that should be recognized for leaders.

46 Democracy in Athens How did Athenian democracy work? How Athenian Democracy Worked Assembly Juries Archons Boule Council Subcommittees

47 Democracy in Athens Summarize ideas about Athenian democracy.

48 Democracy in Athens The Power of Athenian Democracy In what way was citizenship in Athens unique in the ancient world? Why do you think Athenian democracy spread to other city-states?

49 Democracy in Athens Evolution of Democracy Why is Athens described as a limited democracy? Why would it be difficult, if not impossible, to create direct democracy in a large country?

50 Democracy in Athens What is power? Who should have it? How did citizens gain power in Athens?

51 Oligarchy in Sparta Importance of the Military How does the military help our country?

52 Oligarchy in Sparta Academic Vocabulary authority n., people in power Most citizens respect authority. innovation n., a new way of doing things Some innovations, like the computer, change everyone s life.

53 Oligarchy in Sparta Key Ideas Sparta developed an oligarchic government based on military conquest. Sparta differed greatly from Athens in terms of education, citizenship, and women s roles.

54 Oligarchy in Sparta Key Terms ephor a Spartan official, elected by the assembly, who was responsible for the government s day-to-day operations and for oversight of the kings and the council helot one of the conquered Messenians who were forced to farm their land for the Spartans

55 Oligarchy in Sparta Key Terms military state a society organized for the purpose of waging war barracks military housing

56 Oligarchy in Sparta Sparta s Government Sparta s government was an oligarchy with two kings. The council of elders was Sparta s main governing body. An assembly of citizens could pass laws with the council s approval. Ephors, elected by the assembly, oversaw the daily operations of the government. They also ensured that the kings and the council operated within the law.

57 Oligarchy in Sparta Spartan Military Might Why did Sparta become a military state? In what way did the helots enable Spartan men to become a warrior class?

58 Oligarchy in Sparta Steps to Election to the Council of Elders Step 1 Male youths undergo years of military training and service. Step 2 To become citizens, Spartan men must gain entry into a men s club. Step 3 When Spartan men become citizens, they obtain membership in the assembly and the right to land worked by helots. Step 4 At age 60, citizens are eligible to join the council of elders.

59 Oligarchy in Sparta Roles and Rights in Sparta Spartan Men Shared Spartan Women

60 Oligarchy in Sparta Comparing Athens and Sparta

61 Oligarchy in Sparta Sparta and Athens: A Stark Contrast Thucydides made observations about the differences between these city-states: The Athenians were addicted to innovation. The Spartans had a genius for keeping what you have got. In time, the differences between Sparta and Athens led to conflict and war.

62 Oligarchy in Sparta Two Extremes in Ancient Greece Why did other Greek city-states both fear and admire Sparta? Why do you think Thucydides said Athenians were addicted to innovation? Why did he say the Spartans had a genius for keeping what you have got?

63 Oligarchy in Sparta What is power? Who should have it?

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