Ch 4, Sec 1-2: The Early Greeks, Sparta, and Athens

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1 Ch 4, Sec 1-2: The Early Greeks, Sparta, and Athens

2 Where is Greece A peninsula in Europe Had water on 3 sides Mountains and seas separated them. Many islands, rocky soil, and mild climate

3 Economy of early Greeks Fishing, sailors, and traders Farming Soil hard to grow crops Grew wheat, barley, olives, and grapes Raised sheep and goats

4 Minoans 1 st people that lived on Island of Crete. Traders, great sailors, very advanced for Lme Daring and skilled people- Bull Leaping Earthquake/Tsunami or aracked by Mycenaeans led to fall of Minoans

5 Who were the Mycenaeans? Originally from Asia Took over parts of Europe starlng in 1900 B.C. First Greek kings Warriors became the first nobles of Greece

6 Set up of the Mycenaean Kingdom Kingdom was protected by a palace on the hill Farms/estates were outside the walls Slaves/farmers worked the land Palaces used for proteclon, trading, and businesses

7 Influence of the Minoans on the Mycenaeans Learned how to build weapons/boats Learned navigalon by the stars/sun Worshipped the same gods Took over Minoan trade routes

8 Cons of the Dark Ages of Greece Between B.C., the Mycenaean kingdoms started to fall Trading stopped Poverty was high Lack of educalon LiRle food was grown

9 Pros of the Dark Ages of Greece PopulaLon spread to new areas-spread culture Dorians invaded Greece in SW Brought iron weapons and tools Increased power and farming New Greek alphabet was created

10 Greece starts to colonize Greeks needed more food CiLes were overpopulated Created colonies in Italy, France, Spain, N. Africa, and W. Asia First group to use coins for trade People specialized in one job

11 Rise of the Polis Nobles overthrew kings Created a polis- city-state 1,500 different city-states created Acropolis-religious/safe places at the top of the hill Agora-under the acropolis for trading and debate

12 Greek CiLzenship Ran the polis CiLzens-people who were equals to each other and have rights and responsibililes Right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court Had to serve the gov t and fight in wars Originally had to be free men who owned land

13 CiLzen Soldiers Foot soldiers were called hoplites Had a shield, short sword, and a 9 a spear Soldiers fought for the polis and not the country

14 Rise of Greek Tyrants Nobles gave money to other nobles/farmers Took land if debt was not repaid Virtual slavery Tyrants used armies to beat the powerful nobles and rule with ullmate power Took over huge areas of land People did not want one person in charge

15 Problem What problems do you see with one unelected person ruling over one huge area?

16 Spartan Government Was an Oligarchy: A few people held power Two kings ran the council of elders 28 cilzens over 60 yrs old Presented laws to an assembly Assembly All men over 30 yrs old Chose 5 men called ephors to enforce/manage laws/taxes

17 Boys in the Spartan Army Conquered new lands to gain power Helots-slaves of the Spartans Strong and determined people Boys taken from families at age 7 to learn the Greek way of life yrs old-fought in Greek army yrs old-could go home but had to return to the army if a war was started

18 Girls of Sparta Trained in sports Running, wrestling, and javelin Wives lived at home while husbands lived with the army Could own land and go where they wanted Had lots of independence

19 EducaLon in Athens Boys taught to read, write, and do math Played sports, sang, and played the lyre Became cilzens at 18 when they finished school Girls Stayed at home Taught by their mothers to do household dules Wealthy families gave girls a boy s educalon

20 Early Government of Athens Was an oligarchy run by nobles People had few rights/powers Farmers sold themselves into slavery to pay off debts

21 Solon (Noble) canceled the debt and freed the farmers Created an assembly of 400 cilzens to make laws Start of a DemocraLc gov t: All cilzens share in running the gov t

22 Peisistratus (noble) Took away large estates from the nobles and gave the land to the farmers Loaned farmers money Gave the poor jobs

23 Cleisthenes (noble) Reorganized the assembly All male cilzens could be in the assembly vote on laws debate topics hear court cases appoint army generals Created a council of 500 to make laws, deal with other countries, and handle money Chosen by lorery instead of volng

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