Study Guide Chapter 7 The Ancient Greeks

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1 Study Guide Chapter 7 The Ancient Greeks 1) peninsula: a piece of land nearly surrounded by water 2) bard: someone who writes or performs epic poems or stories about heroes and their deeds Key Vocabulary Terms: 11) ephor: a high ranked government official in Sparta who was elected by the council of elders 12) satrapy: the territory governed by an official known as a satrap 3) colony: a group of people living in a new territory who have ties to their homeland; the new territory itself 4) polis: a Greek city-state 5) agora: a gathering place; marketplace in ancient Greece 6) phalanx: a group of armed foot soldiers in ancient Greece arranged close together in rows 7) tyrant: an absolute ruler unrestrained by law 8) oligarchy: a government in which a small group has control 13) satrap: the governor of a province in ancient Persia 14) Zoroastianism: a Persian religion based on the belief of one god 15) Direct democracy: a form of democracy in which all citizens can participate firsthand in the decisionmaking process 16) Representative democracy: a form of democracy in which citizens elect officials to govern on their behalf 17) philosopher: a person who searches for wisdom or enlightenment 9) democracy: a government by the people 10) helot: enslaved people in ancient Sparta Page 1

2 Lesson 7-1 Study Guide: Rise of Greek Civilization Multiple Choice Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The civilization was the first to arise in ancient Greece. a. Phoenician b. Dorian c. Mycenaean d. Minoan 2. Which factor or factors started the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization? a. the Trojan War b. economic collapse and lack of written language c. earthquakes and civil war d. migration 3. Greek city-states were run by their a. soldiers. b. citizens. c. politicians. d. kings. 4. Under the Greek definition of citizen, who qualified for citizenship? a. free, native-born men who owned land b. any man, whether he owned land or not c. wealthy men or women who owned slaves and land d. foreign-born or native born men, who may or may not have been landowners 5. What positive development occurred in Greece when Dorian warriors invaded the mainland? a. They discovered new shipping routes. b. New methods of farming were introduced. c. A new alphabet was accepted into use. d. They learned how to make iron weapons and tools. Page 2

3 Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. A. agora B. colony C. peninsula D. polis E. phalanx 6. a type of landform 7. a new settlement that keeps close ties to its homeland 8. a group of armed foot soldiers in ancient Greece arranged close together in rows 9. a market and a place where people meet and debate 10. a Greek city-state 11. How was citizenship in ancient Greece different from citizenship in ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt? Page 3

4 Lesson 7-2 Study Guide: Sparta and Athens Multiple Choice Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The type of leader who came to power in Greece around 600 B.C. due to growing political and economic unrest among city-states was a(n) a. democrat. b. ephor. c. oligarch. d. tyrant. 2. What did Sparta use to control its citizens? a. the helots b. the military c. the government d. forced physical fitness 3. Spartan women were trained in a. cooking, cleaning, and combat. b. art, music, and poetry. c. sewing, sword-fighting, and trade. d. running, wrestling, and javelin throwing. 4. In what way did a boy s life in Athens differ from a boy s life in Sparta? a. Athenian boys went to school; Spartan boys served in the military. b. Athenian boys studied combat; Spartan boys played sports. c. Athenian boys lived in barracks; Spartan boys lived at home. d. Athenian boys became citizens at 30; Spartan boys became citizens at Name the 594 B.C. Athenian ruler whose reforms were popular among both nobles and the common people. a. Peisistratus b. Cleisthenes c. Plutarch d. Solon Page 4

5 Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. A. oligarchy B. democracy C. helot D. tyrant E. ephor 6. a person who enforced laws and managed tax collection in Sparta 7. the Spartan name for an enslaved worker 8. a person who takes power by force and rules with total authority 9. a system of government in which a few people hold power 10. a system of government in which all citizens share in running the government Page 5

6 11. Compare and Contrast the following elements of life in Sparta and Athens Sparta Education of Boys Athens Sparta Education of Girls Athens Sparta Lifestyle of Men Athens Sparta Lifestyle of Women Athens Sparta Government Athens Page 6

7 12. What were some of Solon s great reforms in Athens? 13. Compare the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta, their people and their achievements. Which one had the most lasting effect on Greece? Page 7

8 Lesson 7-3 Study Guide: Greece and Persia Multiple Choice Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who wrote History of the Persian Wars? a. Xerxes b. Herodotus c. Themistocles d. Cyrus 2. Persian King Darius I a. centralized the government by doing away with separate governors in each province. b. sent the Zoroastrians into exile. c. established a citizen army to serve during times of war. d. reorganized the Persian government to make it more efficient. 3. Cyrus the Great held his growing empire together by a. establishing harsh military rule. b. limiting travel between provinces. c. treating conquered people fairly. d. building strong fortresses in each conquered land. 4. Under King Cyrus, in the 540s B.C., the Persian Empire conquered the lands of Anatolia, Syria, Canaan, and a. Athens. b. Sparta. c. Crete. d. Mesopotamia. 5. Which factors led to the decline of the Persian Empire? a. The army was weakened after losses to Greece, and rulers disagreed about who should have power. b. The people began to rebel against the Persian kings, causing a long series of civil wars. c. A series of natural disasters (droughts and earthquakes) devastated the Persian homeland. d. The king s sons plotted to take over the throne, causing a civil war. Page 8

9 Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. A. Zoroaster B. Cyrus C. Darius I D. Xerxes E. Leonidas 6. Defeated the Greeks at Thermopylae 7. Religious teacher who preached a new monotheistic religion 8. Reorganized the government and divided the Persian Empire into satrapies 9. King from Sparta who led soldiers into battle at Thermopylae 10. Expanded the Persian Empire with his strong army 11. Describe the Royal Road. 12. Describe where the modern marathon race comes from. Page 9

10 Lesson 7-4 Study Guide: Glory, War, and Decline Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Aspasia was a popular, well-educated woman who encouraged women to become more involved in government. a. True b. False 2. Pericles was a dominant figure in the politics of Sparta. a. True b. False 3. In a representative democracy, a small group makes governmental decisions on behalf of many. a. True b. False 4. The Delian League was named for the Greek philosopher Delos. a. True b. False 5. The government of Athens was an example of a direct democracy. a. True b. False Page 10

11 Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 6. The Age of Pericles was known as a golden age of a. farming and trade. b. prosperity, culture, and achievement. c. military conquest and rebuilding. d. politics and religion. 7. Beginning in 478 B.C., which league served as a protective group and a defensive league? a. Persian b. Athenian c. Delian d. Artisan 8. The Athenian economy was supported by a. merchants and artisans. b. government intervention. c. pottery and jewelry. d. farming and trade. 9. In 431 B.C. Sparta and other city-states joined forces against Athens to fight the a. Peloponnesian War. b. Spartan War. c. Persian War. d. Greek Civil War. 10. Direct democracy worked well in Athens because a. women were allowed to participate in government. b. elections were held to help select representatives. c. every resident of Athens could participate in government. d. there was a relatively small number of citizens. 11. What are the four main reasons that Athens lost the Peloponnesian War? Page 11

12 12. Why did Athens need to trade with other city-states and colonies, and what products did they trade with? Page 12

13 Chapter 7 Review (Lessons 1-4) True / False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Colonies were first established by Greece around 700 B.C. because they could not grow enough food to feed their growing population. A) True B) False 2. The Greek alphabet was based on the alphabet created by the ancient Egyptians. A) True B) False 3. The Minoans made their living as traders. A) True B) False 4. Because of the conquests of King Cyrus, Persia had control of Athens. A) True B) False 5. Sparta s economy was based on trade. A) True B) False Multiple Choice Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 6. Which Greek tyrant became popular by giving land to landless farmers? A) Xerxes B) Solon C) Peisistratus D) Cyrus 7. Which of these did the Mycenaeans learn from the Minoans? A) navigating by the sun and stars B) advances in philosophy and the arts C) making iron tools D) pottery making Page 13

14 8. A 300-year period of time in Greece beginning around 600 B.C. is called the Dark Age because A) Persians conquered Greece and ruled with absolute power. B) trade and farming failed, and many stopped reading and writing. C) there were natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, droughts, plagues, and famines. D) the Greek city-states fought one another so much that the economy failed completely. 9. The Athenian assembly appointed ten generals, who A) were educational leaders. B) led armies into battle. C) carried out the assembly s laws. D) tried to increase trade. 10. Sparta finally was able to defeat Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War A) by burning the city. B) because they killed the leaders of the Athenian army. C) when they received assistance from Macedonia. D) by destroying their naval fleet and blockading the city. Matching Match the person with the appropriate description. A) Pericles B) Cyrus C) Darius D) Leonidas E) Xerxes 11. Persian king who invaded Greece and led his army at the Battle of Salamis 12. Persian king who invaded Greece at Marathon 13. leader who made Athens more democratic 14. Spartan king who led 7,000 soldiers at Thermopylae 15. king who built a strong Persian army and expanded the Persian Empire Page 14

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