WHI.05: Ancient Greece: Geography to Persian Wars

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1 WHI.05: Ancient Greece: Geography to Persian Wars The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Greece in terms of its impact on Western civilization by a) assessing the influence of geography on Greek economic, social, and political development, including the impact of Greek commerce and colonies; b) describing Greek mythology and religion; c) identifying the social structure and role of slavery, explaining the significance of citizenship and the development of democracy, and comparing the city-states of Athens and Sparta; d) evaluating the significance of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars; Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 59

2 Essential Understandings of Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 1. The physical geography of the Aegean Basin shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greek civilization. 2. The expansion of Greek civilization, through trade and colonization, led to the spread of Hellenic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas. 3. Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to the culture, politics, and art in ancient Greece. 4. Many of Western civilization s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology. 5. Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. 6. It became a foundation of modern democracies. 7. Contrasting philosophies of government divided the Greek city-states of Athens (democracy) and Sparta (oligarchy). 8. The Greeks defeated the Persian empire and preserved their political independence. Essential Questions about Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 1. How did the mountains, seas, islands, harbors, peninsulas, and straits of the Aegean Basin shape Greek economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization? 2. How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition? 3. What impact did Greek mythology have on later civilizations and the contemporary world? 4. How did democracy develop in Athens? 5. How did Sparta differ from Athens? 6. Why were wars with Persia important to the development of Greek culture? Why do I need to know this? 1. The seeds of much of Western cultural heritage wer planted during this time period. 2. Many political systems in today s world mirror the varied forms of government that evolved in Greece. Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 60

3 Geography Balkan Peninsula Ancient Greece 1. Greece is located on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe 2. Also over 1400 islands 3. Mild Climate supported an outdoor life (48 degrees in winter and 80 in the summer) 4. Mountains a. Cover 75% of Greece b. Difficult to unite Greeks under a single government, developed small communities instead c. Made land transportation difficult d. Poor in natural resources such as timber, metals and farmland The Sea 1. Greece is bordered by the Ionian Sea (West), the Aegean Sea (East) a. Both are part of the Mediterranean Sea 2. Important trade routes for the Greeks Colonization 1. Had to seek new colonies because: a. They were overpopulated b. Needed more/better land for crops c. More grassland for farm animals Mycenae a group of Indo-Europeans settled on Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. dominated Greece from 1600 to 1200 B.C. Trojan War (about 1200 B.C.) 1. the Trojan prince, Paris kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Spartan king (Menelaus), brother of the king of Mycenae (Agamemnon); the Greeks went to war with Troy for 10 years; Greeks pretend to give up and give Troy a large wooden horse (filled with soldiers); the soldiers open the gate to Troy and the Greeks destroy Troy 2. Real Reason control of the Dardanelles Straits Dorians 1. the Mycenaeans collapsed around 1200 B.C. and the Dorians took over the Greek peninsula 2. the Dorians were a warrior people and were not interested in trade or culture 3. created a Dark age of Greece no written record exists from B.C. Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 61

4 Map of Ancient Greece Greek Homeland in 750 B.C. Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 62

5 Homer Ancient Greece 1. blind poet who composed epics narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds 2. wrote the Iliad and The Odyssey; describe the battle of Troy, the Trojan Horse and the journey home of King Odysseus Myths/ Religion Myths a traditional stories about Greek gods; a way for the Greeks to explain natural phenomena, life events, and the power of human passions Greek Gods the Greeks attributed human qualities such as love, hate, and jealousy to their gods Zeus ruler of the gods, ruled the sky, weather and thunderstorms Poseidon god of the seas Hades god of the underworld Hera Zeus s wife, often jealous of Zeus s relationships with other women Athena goddess of wisdom and Zeus s favorite child Apollo god of poetry and music, son of Zeus and Leto Aphrodite goddess of love and beauty Rule and Order in Greek City- States Polis Greek city-state, made up of a city and its surrounding countryside; was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece; designed to promote civic and commercial life Acropolis fortified hilltop in the center of most poli Agora (public center) where male citizens gathered to conduct business Monarchy when a king or queen rules a government Tyrant powerful individual who gained control of the government by appealing to the poor and the discontented for support Aristocracy a government that is ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families Oligarchy a government ruled a few powerful people, usually by military leaders Democracy a government in which all citizens have power Phalanx rectangular fighting formation Hoplites foot soldiers Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 63

6 Forms of Government Directions: Copy the information from the chart on page 117 into the chart below. Make the chart colorful (one color for each category). Then answer the questions below. Monarchy state ruled by a king rule is hereditary some rulers claim divine right practiced in Mycenae (1450 BC) Aristocracy state ruled by nobility rule is hereditary and based on land ownership social status and wealth support rulers authority practiced in Athens (594 BC) Oligarchy state ruled by a small group of citizens rule is based on wealth ruling group controls military practiced in Sparta ( BC) Direct Democracy state ruled by its citizens rule is based on citizenship majority rule decides vote practiced in Athens (461 BC) 1. Which forms of government feature rule based on wealth or property ownership? Aristocracy and Oligarchy 2. In which form of government do citizens have the most power? Direct Democracy 3. What form of government was practiced in Sparta? Oligarchy 4. What forms of government were practiced in Athens? Aristocracy and Direct Democracy Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 64

7 Sparta Ancient Greece Geography 1. located in the southern part of Greece known as the Peloponnesus Society 1. built a militaristicstate; ruled by an oligarchy 2. rigid social structure a. Spartans the elite warrior class, only class considered citizens b. Perioikoi free people who weren t Spartans, not considered citizens, conducted all business within Sparta; sometimes served as a military reserve c. Helots slaves (largest class in Spartan society) 3. valued duty, strength, and discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom Education 1. education centered around military training 2. at age of seven, boys left home and moved into army barracks 3. girls ran, wrestled, and played sports; learned to put service of Sparta above love, even family 4. from 600 to 371 B.C., the Spartans had the most powerful army in Greece 5. all forms of individual expression were discouraged 6. did not value the arts Athens Evolution of the Government 1. Monarchy aristocracy tyranny democracy 2. only free adult males could be citizens women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded from citizenship; Athenian women focused on child rearing, weaving cloth, preparing meals, and managing the household Important Leaders 1. Draco wrote the first legal code, punishments were very harsh; included debt slavery 2. Solon outlawed debt slavery; allowed all citizens to participate and debate policies in the Athenian assembly; initiated profitable overseas trade, but neglected land reforms 3. Cleisthenes worked to make Athens a full democracy by reorganizing the assembly to break up the power of the nobility; created the Council of 500 which proposed laws and counseled the assembly; members of the Council were chosen by lot (random) Education 1. boys entered school at age 7, graduated at 18; girls did not receive a formal education Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 65

8 Persian War Timeline Directions: Using pages 118 & 119 in your book, fill in the major battles of the Persian War. Battle: Battle of Marathon Winner: Greeks (Athenians) Battle: Battle of Thermopylae Winner: Persians 490 B.C. 480 B.C. Battle: Battle of Salamis Winner: Greeks (Athenians) Battle: Battle of Plataea Winner: Greeks (Spartans) 480 B.C. 479 B.C. Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 66

9 Ionia Persian Wars B.C., the Persians conquered Ionia (Greek controlled territory in Anatolia) 2. Ionian Greeks revolted with the help of Athens 3. Darius squashed the rebellion and vowed to destroy Athens in revenge Persian War Battle of Marathon (490 BC) 1. Greeks won even though they were outnumbered (10,000 Greeks to 25,000 Persians) 2. a young runner Pheidippides raced the 25 miles back to Athens with news of the victory and then collapsed and died Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) 1. Xerxes (Darius s son) tried to crush Greece marched into Greece with about 300, King Leonidas led a group of 300 Spartans and about 7000 other Greeks at Thermopylae held them for 3 days; all the Greeks were killed, but the Persians lost an estimated 50, Persians won Battle of Salamis (480 BC) 1. Themistocles knew to defeat the Persians, he had to attack the Persian navy and supply ships 2. the 360+ Greek ships easily defeated the Persians at the Battle of Salamis, ending the threat of another Persian invasion Greece 3. Greeks Won Battle of Plataea (479 BC) 1. the Battle of Plataea was the last battle of the war 2. Greeks won Consequences of the Persian Wars 1. Greek city-states felt a new sense of confidence and freedom 2. Athens became the leader of the Delian League a military alliance of 140 city-states 3. Athens entered its Golden Age Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 67

10 Summary DIRECTIONS: Choose one of the following: a) write a summary (25-75 words) of what you believe was the most important aspect of the notes/lecture b) write what you believe to be the most interesting or memorable part of the notes/lecture (25-75 words) c) draw something that symbolizes the notes/lecture to you (has to be different than your title page) Notes WHI.5, Part 1: Ancient Greece, Geography to Persian Wars 68

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