Ancient Greece: The Greek Mainland and Greek Colonies

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1 Name: Ancient Greece: The Greek Mainland and Greek Colonies Directions 1. Using page 117 in your textbook, complete the following task: Cities Continents, Islands, Regions Bodies of Water Carthage Athens Sparta Troy Byzantium Knossos Tyre Africa Italy Thrace Ionia Asia Minor Egypt Crete Sicily Sardinia Corsica A. Locate and label the following geographic locations: Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Red Sea B. Using two colors, shade-in the Greek mainland using one color, and shade-in the Greek colonies using the other color. Once completed, your map should appear similar to the map on page 117.

2 I. THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY Chapter 4 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section One (pages ) Name: 1. Most of the civilizations we have studied thus far (the Sumerians, the Egyptians, the Indians, the Chinese) have been large river-valley civilizations with lots of rich farmland. How is Greece different? Describe Greece s geography: 2. Now, explain how Greece s geography shaped the Greek civilization: II. THE GREEKS IN THE DARK AGE A. Homer 1. Define epic poem: 2. Identify two epic poems the Greek historian Homer is credited with creating: What two values did Homer s epic poems teach? In Homer s epic poems, what would the hero strive for? Describe arête: Critical Thinking Page 114 A. How the citizens of Athens and Sparta raise their children? Similarities: Sparta Athens Differences: Deference's: B. How did the similarities and differences in raising children suit the needs of each city-state?

3 Due Date: Chapter 4 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Two The Greek City-States (pages ) Name: I. THE POLIS: CENTER OF GREEK LIFE 1. What is a city-state : Acropolis The Polis 2. What was the acropolis used for? Agora 3. What was the agora used for? 5. Who lived in these Greek cities (polies)? 5. Describe what a hoplite was: 6. Describe what a phalanx was, using the word hoplites : II. GREEK COLONIES 1. What are two reasons Greeks left their homeland to establish colonies throughout the Mediterranean? 2. Some Greeks became very wealthy from the growth of trade in Greece. What did these Greeks want, and from whom? IV. TYRANNY IN THE CITY-STATES 1 What were the Greek tryants? 2 Who supported these tyrants? Tyrannosaurus rex = tyrant king in Greek 3. Complete the diagram below describing how the tyrants changed Greek politics: Tyrants ended the rule of the rule of aristocrats. The end of tyranny allows new people to participate in government. Leads to the development of two new forms of government in the Greek city-states: A. (Athens) B. (Sparta)

4 4. Who rules in a democracy? 5. Who rules in an oligarchy? III. SPARTA 1. Sparta did not establish colonies in order to supply it s growing population, what did Sparta do instead? 2. Who are the helots of Sparta? A. A Military State 1. Describe the life of a Spartan citizen: Men Women B. Government of Sparta 1. Who led the armies in Sparta s oligarchy: 2. Who were in charge of education and the conduct of all citizens (policing behavior) in Sparta? IV. ATHENS 1. What did Solon do for the many Athenian farmers who had been sold into slavery? 2. What did Pisistratus give to the poor peasant farmers of Athens? 3. How did the Athenian Assembly, created by Cleisthenes, operate? What were it s powers? Who belonged to it?

5 Due Date: Chapter 4 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Three Classical Greece (pages ) Name: I. THE CHALLENGE OF PERSIA 1. Why did the Persian Empire invade Greece (twice)? 2. Explain how each of the following battles in the Persian Wars were turning points in the war. Battle of Marathon 490 B.C. Battle of Thermopylae 480 B.C. Battle of Plataea 479 B.C. II. THE GROWTH OF THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE 1. What was the purpose of the Delian League and what was this alliance able to accomplish? 2. Which Greek city took control over the Delian League, creating their own empire? 3. What did Athens achieve during the Age of Pericles (a popular leader in Athens at the time)? III. THE AGE OF PERICLES 1. In the Athenian direct democracy, what were citizens expected to do in order to participate in the city government? 2.

6 2. How would the process of ostracism keep politicians deemed harmful from being too influential in the assembly? 3. What all flourished during Pericles rebuilding program? IV. THE GREAT PELOPONNESIAN WAR 1. What two Greek powers fought one another in the Great Peloponnesian War. 2. Which of these two powers lost the war, after 27 years of on-and-off-again fighting. 3. How did the war lead to another group, the Macedonians, conquering all of Greece? Ancient Athens V. DAILY LIFE IN CLASSICAL ATHENS 1. How many Citizens lived in Athens? Foreigners lived in Athens? Slaves lived in Athens? A. The Athenian Economy 1. What was the Athenian economy based on? (What did most people do to make a living?) 2. What did Athens lack, and have to import a LOT of? B. The Family and the Role of Women 1. Women in Athens were expected to be a good wife. What was a good wife in Athens expected to do?

7 Due Date: I. GREEK RELIGION Name: Chapter 4 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Four The Culture of Classical Greece (pages ) 1. Describe Greek religious beliefs: chief gods/goddesses were thought to live on Mt. Olympus. Virtually no spiritual beliefs or morality. were extremely important. Honoring the gods could earn their favor or protection. Believed that they could learn the will of the gods at the oracle: Define oracle: Describe what would occur at the oracle at Delphi: II. GREEK DRAMA 1. Describe the outdoor plays Greeks would produce: The first were (usually a trilogy a set of three plays) Dealt with universal themes good v. evil, human nature, will of the gods Even though many characters failed, the struggle to succeed was what Greeks admired. Later, Greeks developed. Used to criticize politicians and intellectuals. Tried to entertain, and be thought provoking. III. GREEK PHILOSOPHY 1. Define philosophy: 2. Explain what philosophers like Pythagoras attempted to do with philosophy. A. Sophists 1. Define rhetoric: 2. Explain what the Sophists believed true wisdom was.

8 B. Socrates 1. What did Socrates believe the true goal of education was? 2. Explain how the Socratic method works: 3. Explain what happened to Socrates for teaching Athenian youth his philosophy? C. Plato 1. Explain what question Plato was fascinated with. D. Aristotle 1. Describe how Aristotle sought to discover the true meaning of the world. IV. THE WRITING OF HISTORY 1. Identify who created history in the Western world (be specific!). 2. Explain why Thucydides is considered a more accurate historian.

9 Due Date: Name: Chapter 4 Reading Guide/Study Guide Section Five Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms (pages ) I. THE THREAT OF MACEDONIA 1. How did the Greeks view their Greek-speaking neighbors to the north, the Macedonians? 2. How did Philip II conquer ALL of Greece? II. ALEXANDER THE GREAT 1. How old was Alexander when his father Philip II was assassinated, and Alexander became king? A. Alexander s Conquests 1. Describe Alexander s campaign to conquer the Persian Empire: Entered Asia Minor with an army of men. Including a cavalry (men on horseback) of about. Freed the Greek cities of western Asia Minor. Turned south, and captured Syria, Palestine, and. Built as the Greek capital of Egypt. Turned east, defeated the Persians at Gaugamela, and then took the rest of the Persian Empire. Continued east and northeast, as far as modern. Entered India before he was finally stopped.. 2. Why did Alexander stop at India? 3. Alexander the Great died at the age of 32. What killed him? B. The Legacy of Alexander 1. What was the cultural legacy (the mark he made upon human history) Alexander left behind?

10 II. THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS 1. What does Hellenistic mean AND what happened during this time in history to Greek culture? 2. What were the chief agents (most important things that did something) in the spreading Greek culture as far as India and Southwest Asia? III. HELLENISTIC CULTURE C. Science 1. Describe the scientific achievements of the following: Aristarchus What did theory did he develop? Eratosthenes Determined that the Earth was! Calculated the circumference at! He was only off by! Euclid Wrote the. The textbook on. Archimedes Bar far the most famous. Established the value of the mathematical constant. Practical inventor as well. Invented a machine that could pump water. Invented military weapons for the king of Syracuse. D. Philosophy 1. According to the philosophy of Epicureanism, what is the goal of life, and how do you achieve this goal? 2. According to the philosophy of Stoicism, what is the goal of life, and how do you achieve this goal?

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