2 Objectives for Chapter 4 Describe how geography and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations influenced Greek culture. Compare the city-states of Sparta and Athens Identify the causes and effects of Greek wars with Persia. Describe Athens under the leadership of Pericles and reasons Athens declined.
3 Test Preview - Vocabulary Athens Age of Pericles Satraps Tyrant Cyrus the Great Hoplites Parthenon Peninsula Strait Upper-class Athenian Women
4 Test Preview Things to Know Who promised to pass on their fatherland in a better condition? Who wrote the History of the Persian Wars? Where did the Mycenaean come from? Who decides government matters in a direct democracy? How did Minoans make a living?
5 Test Preview Things to Know Who was Xeres? How did the Greeks win the battle of Salamis? What was the Delian League? Understand the map on page 121. Read Pericles Funeral Oration and understand its meaning.
6 Test Preview Essay Questions Compare the lives of Spartan women and girls to the lives of Athenian women and girls. Why was the Peloponnesian War bad for the winners as well as the losers?
7 Section 1 The Early Greeks The earliest civilizations in Greece were the Minoans and the Mycenaean. Greece s mountains, climate, and surrounding seas played a large role in their history.
8 The Early Greeks Greece is a mountainous land that is surrounded by water. To the west is the Ionian Sea, the south is the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east is the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands lie offshore stretching toward Asia. Mainland Greece is on a body of land with water on three sides. This is called a. Peninsula Many ancient Greeks make a living from the sea as fishermen, sailors, and traders. Although the rocky soil is not ideal for growing crops, the climate was mild and in some place people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. Some also raised sheep and goats.
9 The Early Greeks Ancient Greeks were divided by the mountains and seas. This resulted in communities that were fiercely independent from each other. The island of Crete, which lies southeast of the Greek mainland, was the center of what early civilization? Minoan The Minoans made their wealth from trading with other civilizations. They spread their culture throughout the eastern Mediterranean. About 1450 B.C., the Minoan civilization suddenly collapsed. Some historians think undersea earthquakes caused giant waves that destroyed their cities. Other historians believed Minoan cities were destroyed by Greeks from the mainland. These Greeks were the Mycenaean.
10 The Early Greeks The original Mycenaean people were from central Asia. The Mycenaean leaders were the first Greek kings. At the center of each Mycenaean kingdoms was a fortified palace on a hill. Soon after Mycenaean civilization began, they were visited by Minoan traders. Mycenaeans learned a lot about Minoan culture and copied many their customs. The also learned from the Minoans how to work with bronze and build ships. By 1400 B.C., the Mycenaean civilization had replaced the Minoans as the major trading power in the Mediterranean.
11 The Early Greeks By 1100 B.C. the Mycenaean civilization had collapsed. During this period of time people stopped teaching others how to write or do craftwork. Before long, the Greeks had forgotten their written language and how to make many things. Historians call this time period the Dark Age. One positive development during the Dark Age was that thousands of Greeks left the mainland and settled on the islands in the Aegean Sea. Others moved to Asia Minor. This wave of movement ended up spreading Greek culture. A Greek-speaking people that lived in the northern mountains began to move south. They were known as the Dorian. Many settled in that area known as Peloponnesus. The Dorians brought iron with them and gave this advancement in weapons and tools to the Greeks.
12 The Early Greeks Soon people begin to farm again and produce a surplus of food. This lead to more trade. As a result the Greeks came in contact with the Phoenicians and picked up from them the idea of an alphabet. A Greek alphabet was developed that had 24 letters each of which stood for different sounds. As Greece recovered from its Dark Age, the population grew to the point at which they could no longer grow enough food to feed everyone. As a result, cities began sending colonies out to other areas. Between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C. Greeks started colonies in Italy, France, Spain, North Africa, and western Asia. These colonies traded regularly with their parent cities. To make trading easier the Greeks created the use of coins.
13 The Early Greeks By the end of the Dark Age, many noble had overthrown the Greek kings and created city-states. Like in Mesopotamia, the city-states made up a town and the surrounding countryside. These city-states were called a polis and operated like independent countries. The main gathering place at each polis was a fortified area on top of a hill. This area was called what? An acropolis The acropolis provided a safe place in case of attack and would also have religious temples built on it. Below the acropolis was an open area called an agora that served as a market and a place people could meet.
14 The Early Greeks The city-state varied in size. Some where quite large. By 500 B.C. nearly 300,000 people lived in Athens. Each of the city-states was run by its citizens. In Greece only free native-born men who owned land could be a citizen. The citizens would gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws. The city-states were defended by armies of ordinary citizens called. Hoplites Hoplites made good soldiers because, as citizens, the took pride in fighting for their city-state. These hometown loyalties also divided the Greeks and caused them to distrust one another.
15 Section 2 Sparta and Athens Athens and Sparta became the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece. Sparta focused on its military force, while Athens focused on trade, culture, and democracy.
16 Sparta and Athens The city-states were run by the nobles. Challenge to this rule came in 650 B.C. from the owners of small farms. They, along with merchants and artisans, demanded changes in the power structure that would allow them to have a share of the power. Merchants and artisans had become rich because of the increase in trade, but could not be citizens because they did not own land. This growing unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants. What is a tyrant? Someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority.
17 Sparta and Athens The tyrants were able to overthrow the nobles because they had the support of the common people. Key support came from the hoplites in the army, many of whom were also farmers. Once in power the tyrants made themselves popular by building new marketplaces, temples, and walls for the cities. Rule by one person was something that most people in Greece were against. By 500 B.C. the tyrants had fallen out of favor. Most of the city-states became either an oligarchy or a democracy. What are these? Oligarchy a system of government where only a few people hold power. Democracy a system in which all citizens share in running the government.
18 Sparta Sparta became the most successful examples of the oligarchy form of government. Sparta was founded by the Dorians. Like other city-states, Sparta needed room to grow. Instead of sending out colonies, Sparta conquered and enslaved their neighbors. The captive workers where called helots. Spartans feared that the helots might someday rebel against Sparta. As a result, their government was in firm control of the people. They also constantly trained the boys and men of war. At age 7 boys left their families to live together in a barracks. By age 20, Spartan men entered the regular army. All men remained in the military barracks for 10 more years. Spartans returned to their homes at age 30 but remained in the army until age 60. In battle they were expected to win or die.
19 Sparta Girls in Sparta were trained in sports like running, wrestling, and throwing the javelin. It was important to keep fit in order to become healthy mothers. Wives lived at home while their husbands lived in the barracks. As a result, Spartan women were freer than other Greek women. They could own property and go where they wanted. Sparta was ruled by two kings that headed a council of elders. The council would present laws to an assembly. All Spartan men over age 30 belonged ot the assembly. The assembly voted on the laws and chose five people each year to be ephors. What did the ephors do? Enforced the laws and managed tax collection.
20 Sparta Sparta was a very closed society and had very little contact with the outside world. The government discourage foreign visitors and banned travel to other city-states unless it was for a military reason. The were successful for nearly 250 years by fell behind other Greek city-states in the areas of trade, science, and culture. Spartan soldiers were especially strong and swift. They would play an important role in defending Greece from outside invaders.
21 Athens Athens was northeast of Sparta and was at least a two-day trip away. Athens developed democratic form of government. In Athenian schools, one teacher taught boys to read, write, and do arithmetic. Another teacher would teach them sports. Still another would teach them to sing and play a stringed instrument called a lyre. At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens. Athenian girls stayed at home. Their mothers taught them spinning, weaving, and other household duties. Only girls belonging to wealth families might learn to read and play the lyre.
22 Athens Athens was originally ruled by nobles. Around 600 B.C. the Athenians began to rebel against the nobles. Many farmers owned large debts to the nobles and had become their slaves. The nobles turned to noble named Solon that both sides trusted. Solon canceled all the farmers debts and freed those that had become slaves. He also allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts. A council of 400 wealthy citizens wrote the laws, but the assembly had to pass them. After Solon died, there were 30 years of fighting. A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power. He won support of the poor by dividing the estates of the nobles among landless farmers. He also gave jobs and loans to the poor.
23 Athens After Peisistratus died, the next important leader was Cleisthenes. He reorganized the assembly to play a more central role in the government. They assembly was given the power to debate openly all laws, hear court cases, and appoint army generals. He also created a new council of 500 citizens to help the assembly carry out daily business. Athenians chose the members of the council each year in a lottery. They believed that this system was fairer than an election.
24 Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks The Persian Empire gained control of most of southwest Asia. However, when the Persians tried to conquer the Greeks, Athens and Sparta united to defeat them.
25 Persia Attacks the Greeks The people of Persia lived in what today is southwestern Iran. Early Persians were warriors and nomads who herded cattle. When Cyrus the Great came to power he managed to unite the Persians into a powerful kingdom. In 539 B.C. Cyrus s armies swept into Mesopotamia and captured Babylon. They then took over northern Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Syria, Canaan, and the Phoenician cities. Cyrus treated the people in all the captured areas well. His merciful rule helped keep the empire together.
26 Persia Attacks the Greeks The leaders of Persian empire that followed Cyrus continued to add land to the empire. Eventually the Persian empire reached into Egypt, western India, and a region northeast of Greece called Thrace. As the empire became larger, it became very difficult to manage. When Cyrus s son Darius came to the throne, he reorganized the government to make it work better. Darius divided the empire into 20 provinces called satrapies. Each of these was ruled by an official with the title of. Satrap The satrap acted as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and head recruiter for the Persian army. All satraps reported to the king.
27 Persia Attacks the Greeks The king s power depended upon his army. Persia maintained a large army of professional soldiers. Persia paid people to be fulltime soldiers. Among these soldiers were 10,000 specially trained men who guarded the king. This group was called the Immortals. The Persians practice a type of religion similar to that which the Jews practiced. Zoroastrianism was a believe in one God. As Greeks went about setting up colonies in the Mediterranean area, they often clashed with the Persians. Persia controlled some Greek cities in Asia Minor. When the mainland Greeks tried to help those cities, King Darius decided to stop any future interference.
28 Persia Attacks the Greeks In 490 B.C. a Persian fleet landed about 20,000 soldiers on the plain of Marathon, only a short distance from Athens. The Persians, who had double the number of soldiers, waited for the Athenians to attack. When the Athenians refused to attack, the Persian commander decided to load his army back onto their ships and attack Athens directly. As soon as the Persians were half-way aboard their ships, the Athenians attacked. The Persians where unable to defend themselves and were defeated. Legend has it that the Athenians sent a messenger named Pheidippides running back to Athens with the news. After running the 25 miles back he collapsed from exhaustion but with his dying breath announced, Victory.
29 Persia Attacks the Greeks After Darius died in 486 B.C., his son Xerxes became the Persian king. Xerxes vowed revenge on the Greeks. In launched a new invasion of Greece with 180,000 troops, thousands of warships and supply vessels. To defend themselves the Greeks joined forces. Sparta sent the most soldiers, and their king, Leonidas. Athens provided the navy. An Athenian general, Themistocles, came up with a plan to fight the Persians. The Greeks know that the large Persian army would be depended upon shipments of food brought by its navy as it marched south. The Greeks decided to cut off the supplies.
30 Persia Attacks the Greeks To get their fleet ready for battle, the Greeks needed to slow down the Persian army. The Greeks decided the best place to block the Persians was at a place called Thermopylae. Thermopylae was a narrow passage through the mountains that was easy to defend. 7,000 Greeks held off the Persians for two days. Only a traitor prevented the Greeks from holding out longer. Although they last the battle, the Greeks were able to assemble 200 ships. They attacked the Persian fleet in the strait of Salamis. The Greek ships were smaller, faster, and easier to steer. They were able to destroy almost the entire Persian fleet. Still the Persian army advanced and they were able to capture Athens and burn the city.
31 Persia Attacks the Greeks By burning Athens, the Persians only made the Greeks angry. Now they had a common enemy that they could join together against. In 479 B.C. the largest Greek army ever assembled defeated the Persians at Plataea. The Persians retreated back into Asia Minor. The Greek defeat of the Persians weakened the empire. A series of murders of Persian rulers and rebellions weakened the Persian empire until it was easily defeated by a young Greek conqueror named Alexander the Great in 334 B.C.
32 Section 4 The Age of Pericles Under the leadership of Pericles, Athens became a powerful city-state and culture blossomed.
33 The Age of Pericles Although the Greeks defeated the Persians at the battle of Plataea, the Persians still remained a threat. Athens joined with other city-states (but not Sparta) to form the Delian League. The Delian League promised to defend its members against the Persians. It also worked on driving the Persians out of Asia Minor.
34 The Age of Pericles Athenians had strong faith in their system of government called direct democracy. In a direct democracy, all citizens gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters. Each can vote on laws and policies. In the United States we have a representative democracy. Do you understand the difference between the two. Which do you think would work better? Athenians usually elected their favorite generals again and again. One of the leading political figures in Athens was a general named Pericles. Pericles enabled Athens to dominate the Delian League. He also made it easier for common citizens to run for public office in Athens.
35 The Age of Pericles Greek culture blossomed under the rule of Pericles. He had numerous temples built and supported artists, architects, writers, and philosophers. Slavery was common in Athens. Almost all Athenian homes had at least one slave the wealthy had many slaves. Many Athenians depended on farming for a living. The city did not have enough farmland to support its population. The city had to import grain from other places. During the 400s B.C., Athens became a major trading center in the Greek world.
36 The Age of Pericles Athenian men usually worked in the morning and then exercised or attended meetings of the assembly. For women, life revolved around home an family. Even educated women were not considered the equal of men. They had no political rights and could not own property. As Athens became more rich and powerful, some of the other city-states grew suspicious. Led by Sparta, they joined forces against Athens. Finally war broke out in 404 B.C. This conflict is called the Peloponnesian War. In the first winter or the war, the Athenians held a public funeral to honor those who had died in battle. As was custom a leading Athenian addressed the crowd. On this day Pericles spoke. Look at what he said on page 145.
37 The Age of Pericles During the Peloponnesian War, Athens was pulled its army back behind its city walls. Although Sparta surrounded the city, the Athenian navy was able to keep the city supplied. Athens was about to escape harm for some time. Then in the second year of the war, a deadly disease spread among the city. It killed more than a third of the people, including Pericles. Despite their losses, Athens fought on for 25 more years. Finally, Sparta made a deal with the Persian Empire to exchange money for ships. The new Spartan navy was able to defeat the Athenian navy and Athens surrendered.
38 The Age of Pericles Sparta and their allies tore down the city walls and broke up the Athenian empire. Sparta tried to rule all of Greece but within 30 years the other city-states rebelled. The war weakened all of the major Greek city-states, both winners and losers. Many people died and farms were ruined. The war made it impossible for the Greeks to unite and work together again. While fighting among themselves, the Greeks failed to notice the growing strength of the kingdom of Macedonia to their north. This would cost them their freedom.
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