Cyrus the Great. A tolerant ruler he allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions. The Greeks called him a Law-Giver.

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3 The Persian Empire:

4 Cyrus the Great A tolerant ruler he allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions. The Greeks called him a Law-Giver B. C. E. The Jews called him the anointed of the Lord. (In 537, he allowed over 40,000 to return to Palestine).

5 Darius the Great ( B. C. E.) Built Persepolis. He extended the Persian Empire to the Indus River in northern India. (2 mil. s.q. mi.) Started to Build a canal in Egypt.

6 Darius the Great ( B. C. E.) Established a tax-collecting system. Divided the empire into districts called SATRAPIES. Built the great Royal Road system. Established a complex postal system. Created a network of spies called the King s eyes and ears.

7 Ancient Persepolis

8 Persepolis

9 Persian Royal Road

10 Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE: Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words Tree of Life

11 Dualistic Battle of Good vs. Evil Ahura Mazda Holy Spirit Angra Mainyu Destructive Spirit

12 The world is viewed as a battle ground between good and evil. Each soul is a soldier in this battle. Every action they make contributes to one side What action to take is the Golden Rule: Turn enemies into friends Make the wicked righteous Make the ignorant learned Main Ideas Quickly

13 Extent of Zoroastrianism

14 Why this religion? Darius I is hoping to unify all the people under his rule in one unifying faith. Ultimatley it fails to do this as traditional religions hang on and Zorastriansim dies out by 100 AD and the Magi and animistic polytheism come back to the area LEGACY???

15 Greece vs Persia Greek colonies came into conflict with the Persian Empire to the east. The Ionian Greek cities in western Anatolia revolted unsuccessfully against the Persians in 499 B.C. I hate the Greeks! Darius I, the Persian ruler, sought revenge against the Athenians for supporting the colonies. Sire, remember the Athenians.

16 Greece vs Persia In 490 B.C., Darius sent a fleet of 20,000 men to Greece, landing north of Athens, only miles away!!! The Athenians called on Sparta for help, which Sparta agreed to. Yet they could only send a few troops to the front. The Athenians had to act fast..they organized their citizen-soldiers and headed to meet the Persian army on the field of Marathon.

17 Greece vs Persia Although out numbered two to one (10,000 to 20,000) the Greeks had a superior military strategy. The Athenian army under the command of General Miltiades was made up of Hoplites. Hoplites are foot soldiers with a long spear, shield, bronze helmet, and body armor. The Hoplites were organized into a Phalanxes a tight square of twelve wide and twelve deep.

18 Greece vs Persia Deadly Greek Phalanx Formation

19 Greece vs Persia On the plains of Marathon the two armies met in 490 B.C. Even though the Athenians were outnumbered two to one they defeated the Persian army. Legend has it that Pheidippides was sent to Athens to tell of the victory at Marathon. Upon arrival in Athens he utters victory and dies. (26 miles) The Athenian army hurries back to defend Athens. When the Persian navy arrives at Athens they find her heavily fortified and the Persians go home war over??

20 Greece vs Persia Darius starts planning a larger invasion - Uh, I don t feel so good.(r.i.p) Xerxes (his son) plans an invasion of 100,000 men. Meanwhile Athens builds a large navy Xerxes invades Greece by land and by sea. Many of the Greek City-States unite under Athens and Sparta. XERXES

21 BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE Thermopylae was narrow pass through mountains Since only a few soldiers could get through at a time, Greeks hoped it would nullify Persian numerical advantage 1000 men held pass commanded by Leonidas of Sparta

22 Greece vs Persia The Greeks were on their heels, retreating from the powerful Persian army. Athens was deserted and burned by Xerxes. The Greeks prepare for a naval battle at the narrow Strait of Salimas. Themistocles sent a double agent to Xerxes to make him believe the Greeks could not agree, and the Athenians would be retreating during the night. Xerxes believed it, and had his fleet blockade the outlet of the straits. The Persian spent the whole night looking for the retreat - No retreat came.

23 Greece vs Persia The Greeks were on their heels, retreating from the powerful Persian army. Athens was deserted and burned by Xerxes. The Greeks prepare for a naval battle at the narrow Strait of Salimas. Themistocles sent a double agent to Xerxes to make him believe the Greeks could not agree, and the Athenians would be retreating during the night. Xerxes believed it, and had his fleet blockade the outlet of the straits. The Persian spent the whole night looking for the retreat - No retreat came.

24 Greece vs Persia Xerxes was so confident of a victory he watched the battle on a throne from the cliffs of Salamis. The Greek ships retreated back into the strait, the Persians followed. Then the trap was sprung from all sides, the Greeks made quick work of the slow and awkward Persian ships. The Persian navy was completely destroyed, Xerxes fled back to Persia leaving his army (with no supples) stranded in Greece.

25

26 THE DELIAN LEAGUE Athens began to act unilaterally Did not consult allies in Delian League Did not even hold meetings anymore Different city states tried to drop out of the League but Athens forced them to stay League funds began to be used exclusively for Athenian purposes By 446, Athens had clearly transformed the League into its personal empire

27 The Peloponnesian War Athens planned to win by staying behind its walls and receiving supplies from its colonies and powerful navy. The Spartans surrounded Athens and hoped the Athenian army would come out and fight. Pericles knew that the Spartan army would win in open battle, so the Athenians stayed behind their walls.

28 The Peloponnesian War In 430 B.C., a plague broke out in Athens. One third of the people were killed. Pericles died in 429 B.C. Nonetheless, the Athenians fought on for about another 25 years. Athens was finally defeated in 405 B.C. when its navy lost of series of decisive battles. Its walls were torn down, the Athenian Empire was destroyed, and the war ended. Pericles in Athens

29 The Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek city-states and ruined cooperation among them. For the next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled for domination. These internal struggles caused the Greeks to ignore the growing power of Macedonia, an oversight that cost the Greeks their freedom. Who is this guy?

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