Located in southwestern Iran Building an empire Same time Athens was becoming a democracy

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3 Located in southwestern Iran Building an empire Same time Athens was becoming a democracy

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7 Built a strong Persian army Began creating an empire that became the largest in the ancient world

8 Armies took over Egypt, western India, and lands northeast of Greece From the west to the east stretched 3,000 miles About the size of the continental United States today

9 Persia conquered Mesopotamia, Syria, Judah, and the Greek citystates of Anatolia Cyrus treated conquered people fairly Allowed them to keep their own languages, religion, and laws Allowed the Jews to return to Israel

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13 Persians improved road begun by the Assyrians Royal Road was 1,500 miles long From Persia to Anatolia Messengers could travel from Persia to Anatolia in just 7 days Would have take 3 months before the road was built

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18 Darius I Ruled Persia from 522 to 486 BCE Divided empire into provinces called satrapies Each ruled by a satrap, or governor Means defender of the kingdom Collected taxes Judged legal cases Managed the police Recruited soldiers for Persian army

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20 Maintained a full-time, paid, professional army Immortals The best 10,000 fighters Name came from when one died another soldier immediately took his place

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27 Persians were polytheistic Teacher named Zoroaster Preached a monotheistic religion Religion was called Zoroastrianism

28 Taught one supreme god Called Ahura Mazda or Wise Lord Was Creator of all things Leader of the forces of good Believes people were free to choose between good and evil Religion still has about 200,000 followers Most in South Asia

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31 Persians clashed with the Greeks Greeks in Anatolia revolted against Persians Athenians sent warships to help rebel Persians crushed the uprising King Darius decided to punish the Greeks

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33 Darius sent fleet of 600 ships and army to invade Greece Persians landed at Marathon Persians waited for Greeks to fight Athenians: 10,000 troops Persians: 20,000 troops

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35 Citizen soldiers Fought on foot Heavily armed Carried a round shield, sword, and spear Fought in a formation called a phalanx

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46 Persians decided to sail to Athens to attack by sea Loaded their ships with cavalry When Persians loaded horsemen on their ships, Athenians attacked Athenians caught Persians soldiers standing in the water

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48 Messenger ran 25 miles from Marathon to Athens News of the victory Reached Athens, cried VICTORY Collapsed and died from exhaustion Today s marathon races are named for this Just over 26 miles

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51 Persians vowed revenge Xerxes invaded Greece with 200,000 troops and thousands of warships Greek city-states banded together Had to for chance to win

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53 King Leonidas of Sparta supplied soldiers Themistocles of Athens supplied navy ships Cut off Persian supplies by attacking their ships King Leonidas had to stop Persian army from reaching Athens

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60 King Leonidas led 7,000 soldiers into battle Lasted for three days Traitor showed Persians a way behind the Greeks King Leonidas sent most of his troops away Knew he was about to be surrounded Leonidas and 300 Spartans remained and fought to the death

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63 Spartans heroic stand gave Athens time to attack Persian ships Athenian fleet lured the Persian ships into the Strait of Salamis near Athens Athenian ships smaller and faster Most of the Persian fleet was destroyed Persian foot soldiers set Athens on fire

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65 Combined forces of the Greek citystates Largest army yet Improved fighting with better weapons and armor Faced Persians at Battle of Plataea Two sides even: ~100,000 men

66 Greeks defeated the Persians Freed Anatolia from Persian rule Peace did not come until 449 BCE

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68 Persian army was no longer strong Could not defend empire Persian people not happy with the government Kings taxed heavily Persian empire fell when Alexander the Great attacked and a new Greek empire began

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