Warring City-States. Chapter 5, Section 2

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1 Warring City-States Chapter 5, Section 2

2 Rule and Order in Greek City- States Polis city state, fundamental political unit in Ancient Greece. - most controlled 50 to 500 square miles. - less than 10,000 residents Acropolis fortified hilltop where citizens gathered to discuss city govt.

3 Political Structures Monarchy king rules the government. - some cities ruled this way. Aristocracy others adopted, govt. ruled by small group of noble, landowning families. - usually gain power after serving in kings military cavalry. Oligarchy govt. ruled by a few powerful people. - many artisans/merchants

4 Tyrants Seize Power Tyrants powerful individuals who seized control by appealing to the people. - not harsh/cruel - helped their supporters when in power

5 Athens Builds a Limited Democracy. Democracy rule by the people - takes root in Athens - citizens participate directly (Direct Democracy) Draco 621 B.C., developed legal code. - equality under the law - dealt harsh w/ criminals - upheld debt slavery

6 Cont. Solon 549 B.C: outlawed debt slavery. - organized all into four social classes based on wealth. - top 3 classes could hold office, but all can participate in political assembly. - any citizen can bring charges on others.

7 Cont. Cleisthenes 500 B.C: organized citizens into 10 groups based on address. - all can submit laws for debate - created Council of Five Hundred, who proposed laws/ chosen at random. - Only adult property owners could be citizens/ have rights.

8 Education Only sons of wealthy were educated mostly. - began at 7yrs. - training in logic/public speaking - athletics important/ later boys go to military school. - girls did not attend school, prepared household

9 Sparta Builds Military States Peloponnesus S. part of Greece where Sparta was located. Sparta: Built a military state instead of Democracy. (Contrast w/ Athens) - helots peasants forced to stay on land they worked. - revolted, but lose. Forces Spartans to revamp military.

10 Spartan Govt. Several Branches Assembly all Spartan citizens elects officials Council of Elders 30 older citizens propose laws 5 Elected Officials carry out laws (court) 2 kings rule over military forces

11 Social Order Citizens- original inhabitants/ ruling families Noncitizens worked in commerce/industry Helots bottom servants

12 Daily Life Individual expression was discouraged. Valued duty/strength/discipline Men serve in army until 60 yrs old. - very hard life Girls receive some military training - service before all else

13 Persian Wars Iron replaced Bronze for making weapons. - cheaper, allowed ordinary citizens to serve. Hoplites foot soldier army, stood side by side. Phalanx formation of side by side fighting. - most powerful formation

14 Cont. Persian Wars btwn Greece and Persian Empire. - begins in Ionia on coast of Anatolia B.C. Persian fleet of 25,000 lands NE of Athens. - Greeks defeat Persians using Phalanx

15 Pheidippides Runs 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to bring news of Persian defeat. - collapsed and died - Greeks move more to Athens to defend city. Persians retreat.

16 B.C. Xerxes (son of Darius) decides to invade Greece. - Some Greeks sided w/ Xerxes, which allowed Persians to land on E Greece coast safely. Thermopylae narrow mountain pass Spartans Greeks defend

17 300 cont. 7k Greeks stopped Persians for 3 days Traitor leads Persians to a secret path. 300 Spartans defend the narrow pass while Greeks retreat All were killed. Athenians decided to flee Athens and fight Persians at sea.

18 Battle at Sea Xerxes burned Athens - sends warships to block channel Greek ships are more maneuverable than Persians - 1/3 of Xerxes fleet was destroyed

19 Delian League Alliance of Greek city-states Eventually drove Persians from Greece

20 Consequences Athens became head of Delian league Began to control other league members using military power. City-states became provinces of Athens

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