The Persian Empire. An Outsider Invader Threatens the Greek Mainland.

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1 The Persian Empire An Outsider Invader Threatens the Greek Mainland.

2 Hello Sports Fans!

3 Read Section 1: The Persian Empire

4 2. How did the Persians build their empire? Persia started in southwestern Iran today.

5

6 2. How did the Persians build their empire? They then conquered their neighbors by using archers to surprise and stun their opponents! They would then rush them with spears before they could recover from their shock!

7 Darius s Infantry (Persians).

8

9

10 Greek Hoplites Hoplite Definition: Ordinary citizens of Greece that were foot soldiers

11 Hoplites Regular foot soldiers were called hoplites They were named after the Hoplon (the large round shield that protects the soldier from the front). Hoplon

12 A Phalanx

13

14

15

16

17 3. How did King Darius rule the Persian Empire? Divided the land he conquered into 20 provinces and appointed an official to rule each and report back to him. The official also collected taxes The people were able to keep their culture and religion

18 Darius s Plan Does Darius s plan sound like anything you have ever heard of before?

19

20 In 521 BCE Darius also created Creates a professional army!

21 4. What happened during the Ionian Revolt? The Greek polis, Ionia, was captured by the Persians

22 4. What happened during the Ionian Revolt? Athens helped them revolt and then left leaving Ionia to fight by itself

23 4. Why was it important? The revolt upset Persia and so they asked for the surrender of all Greece! Thus, the wars start! If you want Greek earth and water help yourself!

24 And then.

25

26 Battle of Marathon In 490 BCE the Persians, under the control of Darius, came to Greece and landed outside of the plains of Marathon. What the Persians didn t realize was that the Greeks were hiding behind a hill. When the Persians went to reboard their ship and sail on to Athens 1/3 of the hiding Greek army rushed over the hill and started attacking the Persians who were standing in the water.

27 And then

28 What really happened? The Persians had their best warriors on the ships. Once the Persians regained their composure and started to fight back the Greek ran for the hill. The Persians still in the water followed thinking it was a retreat. In truth 2/3 of the Greek army was waiting on the other side of the hill and demolished the Persians who followed. The remaining Persians sailed away. Greek Victory

29 VI. City-States Unite! Greek city states knew the Persian threat was real. SO THEY UNITE TO FIGHT! Sparta sends foot soldiers Athens provides the navy Together they develop a strategy to defeat the mighty Persians!

30 The Battle of Thermopylae After the loss at Marathon the Persians left the Greeks alone for 10 years. During that time the ruler Darius died and his son Xerxes took over. During these 10 years the Greeks united and Sparta and Athens, although not friends, realize they fight the best if they are together. Sparta with the help of Corinth takes 7,000 soldiers to the tight pass at Thermopylae to slow if not stop the advance of the Persians 200,000 soldiers from reaching Athens. This way Athens could get its naval ships out of port and ready to fight and the Persians wouldn t be able to burn the Athenian ships. As the Persians walk through the small pass they were ambushed by the Greeks. After the initial ambush King Leonidas (Spartan) sends all of the Corinthians and the Spartan away. He keeps only the best 300 Spartans. In the next instance the 300 Spartans look up and the night is filled from the thousands of Persians arrows. A Spartan soldier says in response..

31 And then

32 What really happened? We will fight in the shade! The 300 Spartan soldiers will hold of the mighty Persian army until they are betrayed and a traitor shows the Persians a secret passage that enables them to surround the Greeks. The Spartans will lose but take 30,000 troops with them when they are killed three days later. This also allows the Athenians to successfully get their ships out of Athens in order to fight the Persian navy.

33 How will the Persian Army get their supplies? So what do the Greeks have to do??

34 The Battle of Salamis The Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Athenians to get their ships out of Athens and they were ready to help attack the Persian supply ships and the Persian navy. The Persians knew the Athenians had gotten their ships away safely and searched for them, exhausting themselves, while the Athenians rested. When they did meet the Athenians realized that their ships were much smaller while the Persians had huge ships.

35 And then

36 What really happened? So the Athenians have to use their brain and their knowledge of the geography of Greece and trick the Persians into the Strait of Salamis What is a strait? The Greeks will battle the Persians in the strait (David V. Goliath) The strait is so narrow the large Persians ships cannot move and the Greek ships slowly destroy the large Persian navy and they literally sail circles around them.

37 Burn Athens Burn! Persian Army marches on to Athens after winning at Thermopylae. When they get there they find an abandoned city and burn it down!

38 The Battle of Plataea In 479 BCE the Persians marched to Athens and found it abandoned. The Persians burnt down Athens. At the same time the rest of the Greek poleis got together and formed one massive army. The unified Greek army met up with Persian at Plataea.

39 And then

40 What really happened? With the largest Greek army ever the Greek attacked the Persians in hand to hand combat and defeated the Persians. The Persians ran back to Turkey (Asia Minor) By working together the Greeks saved their homeland from invasion

41

42 What does the Persian war show us about teamwork?

43 Was anything really accomplished from all the battles and death of the Persian War?

44 Persians Vs. Greeks What happens when two cultures meet and want the same resources? Answer this question in your passport for homework.

45 The Persian Army Greeks weaken the Persian Empire and the Persians flee across the sea, but they keep their area in Asia Minor and the Greek city-state involved!

46 Is the War over?? Athens wants to follow the Persians and take back all of Greece Sparta wants to just keep what Greece has & they are afraid of Athens new found power!!!

47 The Delian League Persia is still a threat!!!!! 150 city-states meet (all but Sparta) Bind themselves to Athens Follow their leadership Pay money and military items In return Athens gives them Continuing protection from Persia

48 Pericles The founder of the Delian League & Leader of Athens

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