Minoan and Mycenaean Societies

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1 Minoan and Mycenaean Societies Pages Island of Crete 2000 BCE Knossos most notable Located in Pelopennesus (southern Balkan Peninsula) Written language: Linear A undecipherable Traded with other early civilizations Thugs of the Mediterranean overpowered Minoans Linear A based on syllables not words or pics Traded olive oil and wine; mined copper Minoan Society Developed written languages that later disappeared Centers for Mediterranean trade Mycenaean Society Adapted Minoan writing = Linear B undecipherable War with Troy (1200 BCE) Known for beautiful frescoes and luxurious palaces Their wealth attracted invaders War inspired the Illiad and the Odyssey by Homer Established colonies Fell apart under constant foreign invasion

2 The World of the Polis Pages 234 Within the square, write the various political forms of the poleis Often ruled by tyrants who took power by force Within the circle, write characteristics of the poleis Polis = city state (local gov. institutions) Each polis was independent Sparta and Athens = most famous Tyrants were often very popular (not like modern tyrants) Developed due to political chaos Greek Polis Originally were forts for refuge Taxed the surrounding lands Became political, cultural, and economic centers Some were small monarchies ruled by a group of nobles

3 Athens vs. Sparta Pages Located in Attica Democratic principles Citizen participation in decisionmaking Citizens = free adult males only Aristocratic landowners became wealthy through trade Wealthy soon forced small landowners to sell which created high debts and slavery Solon and Pericles worked to reduce tensions and prevent class warfare Both developed formidable land and sea forces Neither had an absolute ruler Women in both societies were involved in athletic activities and worked to impress the men with their beauty Both had slaves Same lang, religion, and gods Located in Peloponnesus Military powerhouse Used military to control the region and maintain order Forced original inhabitants to work as slaves (helots) who cultivated the fertile agri. Region Helots outnumbered the Spartans resources used to maintaining power and discipline Equality was highly valued Led simple, frugal lives Distinction earned through physical strength, discipline, & military talent Women = strong to produce powerful soldiers

4 Solon and Pericles Pages 237 Created a compromise between classes Height of Athenian power and prosperity Allowed aristocrats to keep their land rather than redistribute it Pioneers of Democracy Most popular Athenian ruler Cancelled debts and forbade slavery Solon Gave more rights to the lower classes Pericles Gov. = 100s of officeholders from common classes Provided representation in gov. for common classes Were aristocrats by birth Supported building programs to create employment Councils of the polis anyone with time for politics Created compromises between social classes Athens thrived as a community of scientists, artists, philosophers, and architects Set the stage for further reforms Boasted that Athens was the education of Greece.

5 Greek Colonization Pages Effects of Greek Colonization Expansion caused conflict with Persians Led to contact and eventual domination by Alexander of Macedon Resulted in immense commercial and cultural exchange from India to Egypt Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions beyond the Greek mainland Characteristics of Greek Colonization Growing populations = expansion Colonies along the Mediterranean and Black Seas Growth not controlled by a central gov.; based on pop. growth in individual poleis Colonies developed independent political, social, and economic structures Diverse trading centers for local and regional products Fish, fur, metals, honey, gold, amber, and slaves

6 Conflict Pages The Persian Wars The Delian League leads to The Peloponnesian War Significant international and domestic consequences Persia wanted to control Greek cities on the Ionian coast (Anatolia) Greek cities revolted in 500 BCE Athens sent a fleet of ships to support by ultimately lost in 493 BCE Darius = wanted to punish the Greeks for rebellion so he attacked Athens Athenians defeated the Persians at Marathon and then returned to hold off the Persian fleet in Athens FUN FACT: A marathon is 26.2 miles which is the distance from Marathon to Athens Xerxes attacked ten years later ; captured and burned Athens Fighting continued on and off for more than 100 years Neither side really had the resources for full on war Delian League was an alliance among the poleis to discourage further Persian attacks Athens = leader of the alliance; supplied the military force while others gave $ support $ = vast construction projects and a complex bureaucracy; others felt Athenians were arrogant No Persian threat = resentment of others about giving $ Peloponnesian War = bitter and decisive civil war ( BCE) Poleis divided themselves between Athens and Sparta Brutal war tactics used on fellow Greeks Athens lost its reputation as the moral and intellectual leader of the Greek people Left Greece weak for conquer by Philip of Macedon

7 Philip and Alexander of Macedon Pages King Philip II Alexander the Great Kingdom of Macedon was to the north Cultivators and sheepherders who traded with Greece Philip II built a powerful military of landowners and aristocrats Win at all costs; systematically conquered opposition Focused on Greece and Persia after consolidating Macedon Greece was in such chaos it could not defend itself Killed by an assassin in 336 BCE before moving on to Persia Alexander drove the engine his father built! However, some historians believe Alexander played a role in Philip s assassination Philip s son (20 years old) One of the great, complex personalities of history Known for brutal ruthlessness but also as a brilliant strategist and inspired leader By 330 BCE his had conquered Persia and take the title of Emperor of Persia Invaded India and captured the exotically wealthy Punjab region but his army wanted to return home His sudden death in 323 BCE during an extended round of feasting and drinking cut short his exploration and expansion plans Never developed a system of administration; relied on established institutions

8 The Hellenistic Empires Pages The Antigonid Empire Background Information Alexander s generals divided his land after his death A time when Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece to a much larger world. Cosmopolitan societies Integrated economies and societies in distant regions Through trade, beliefs, values, and religions spread further than ever before Ai Khanum Ancient Bactria (modern Afghanistan) 250 BCE established an independent Greek kingdom Greek culture mixed with Persian and central Asia deities General Antigonous ruled Greece and Macedon (smallest) Tension between rulers and Greek cities that wanted to keep their independence Inequitable distribution of land caused internal social tensions Athens and Corinth flourished due to trade Large population led to more colonies The Ptolemaic Empire General Ptolemy ruled Egypt (wealthiest) Did not interfere in Egyptian society Organized agriculture, industry, and tax collection Royal monopolies over the most lucrative industries = textiles, salt making, and brewing of beer Alexandria = wealthy city on the Med. with many migrants; different ethnic, religious, and cultural traditions in one city Alexandria Museum and Library The Seleucid Empire General Seleucus ruled the former Persian empire (largest) Brought in many Greeks for administrative roles; created a Mediterranean style urban society Provided the greatest channel for the spread of Greek influence

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