Greece at War. Persian Wars. May 01, 2013

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1 Bell Work: Make sure these are in your notes. Things to remember about Persian and Greek Wars: 1. Persia under the reign of Cyrus the Great wanted to take over Asia Minor and Greece. 2. Asia Minor was important to Greece because many Greek colonists lived there. 3. Greek colonists attempted to fight the Persians but they were defeated even with the help of Athens. 4. Persia was able to control a number of Greek polies. 5. Sparta allied itself with Athens and others in order to get the Persians out of Greece. 6. The entire Persians army of 10,000 men was slowed by only 300 Spartans. 7. The Persians were defeated by the Athenian navy. 8. The Persians left the Greeks alone for a time. 9. Athens started the Delian League. 10. In response the Spartans started the Peloponnesian League with Thebes and Corinth. Greece at War Persian Wars The Greeks believed that if an individual became too successful, the gods might become jealous and rain hardships, even death on him or her.

2 Cyrus the Great --In 550 BCE Cyrus, king of Persia revolted against the Medes people. --Treated conquered people with tolerance and allowed some self-government. Greek colonists revolted against the Persians. Where does this parallel American History? --Within 20 years he conquered the Fertile Crescent and Asia Minor. Who lives in and near Asia Minor? 493 BCE 490 BCE Darius launched an attack near the plain of Marathon. Athens got involved, but the Persians crushed the Greeks. Locate Marathon on your maps. In the meantime, Cyrus died and his son-in-law Darius took over his empire. According to legend, Pheidippides, the best runner in the Athenian army, was chosen to carry the news of the victory to Athens. He ran 26 miles over hilly terrain. What is a marathon?

3 The Athenian leader Themistocles convinced Athens to build a strong navy to protect itself against foreign invaders. Darius died and his son Xerxes prepared a huge invasion force. Where have we heard these names before? Greek Fire Bomb Locate Thermopylae on your maps. Spartans Deconstructed Many Greek polies surrendered to the Persians. The remainder formed an alliance with Sparta. A small Spartan force attempted to block the Persians at a narrow mountain pass called Thermopylae. A traitor betrayed the Spartans by showing the Persians another route through. All 300 Spartans were killed, but the Persians suffered tremendous casualties. The delay, however, gave the Athenians time to get a plan for victory into place. Battle of Salamis The delay at Thermompylae gave the Athenians time to trick Xerxes. Xerxes thought the battle would be quick and easy so he brought his throne to some cliffs so he could watch a Persian victory. But...

4 The Persian's were tricked into bringing their naval fleet into the straits of Salamis where the Athenian navy destroyed them. Peloponnesian Wars Persia was forced to leave Asia minor. Delian League Athens exhibited great leadership during the Greek wars with Persia. As a means to protect Greece as well as Athenian power, the Delian League was formed. Athens became powerful Various polies united with Athens to maintain a strong Greece. These polies paid Athens money which, in turn, brought more trade and wealth to Athens.

5 Sparta became jealous and perhaps a bit worried. What do you think the Spartans were thinking? They created their own league -- The Peloponnesian League WAR to 445 BCE Where is this heading?

6 May 01, 2013 Sparta controlled Greece from 404 BCE to 371 BCE And another war in 431 BCE A plague broke out in 430 BCE which killed 1/3 of Athen's inhabitants but Athens attacked Syracuse, an ally of Sparta located in southern Italy (Sicily). But many Greeks were upset with Sparta's oligarchic rule. What is an oligarchy? Sparta allied itself with the Persians and defeated the Athenians. The Spartans destroyed Athens' walls. Small group of people having control of a country or government. Thebes revolted in 371 BCE. Others followed suit. Amid the resulting chaos Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians and Thebans.

7 May 01, 2013 Where in the %^&* is Macedonia? Macedonians were ethnically and culturally Greek, but they were looked down upon as "country bumpkins" Philip defeated Sparta, Athens, and Thebes in battle of Chaeronea 338 BCE. In 337 BCE Philip established the League of Corinth. Under the League the Greek city-states had to pledge to stop warring with one another. Think of Nephi City as Athens and Macedonia as Levan.

8 336 BCE Philip was assassinated. Alexander was determined to take over the world! His son Alexander took over. -- Alexander the Great-- Began...+ with the Persians in Asia Minor Down with the Persians on to Egypt. +

9 May 01, 2013 He then completely annihilated the Persians. Not only did he take over, he built his own city. What do you think he named it? Established his capital in Babylon. Locate Babylon on your maps. He then went into India but faced difficult battles and mutinous soldiers.

10 May 01, 2013 Between 334 and 323 BCE Alexander had conquered the largest empire the world have ever seen. What were the results? Spread of Greek culture and civilization throughout the world. Cities established by Alexander were modeled on the Greek polis. Alexander married a Persian princess and encouraged those in his courts and under his rule to inter marry in order to unite his kingdom. Alexander worshipped Persian gods as well as Greek gods. The new culture that emerged in Greece and other lands conquered by Alexander was known as Hellenistic Civilization. Alexandria in Egypt was the center of Hellenistic Civilization.

11 Hellensitic civilization saw advances in Science -- Greeks described human nervous system and circulation system Learned how to perform surgery wtih anesthtics Astronomers reasoned that the earth was round and that the earth revolved around the sun Diameter of the earth was accurately computed Euclid -- Mathematical proof Archimedes discovered the principle of the lever, double pulley, and catapult as well as math

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