GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS: GREEK ARCHITECTURE

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1 GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS: GREEK ARCHITECTURE

2 Setting the Stage- After Persian War: Athens comes out leader Creates Delian League Uses money to glorify Athens

3 GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE/ATHENS Pericles Legacy: - Strengthened Democracy -Introduce Direct Democracy - Increased number of paid public officials Rebuilt Athens after Persian War Parthenon Promoted Greek Culture: Financed buildings, statues, art and drama

4 Phidias designed the Parthenon and started the idealized style of sculpture Built under Golden Age of Pericles

5 Architecture Greek Columns Doric Ionic Corinthian

6 THE GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS, CONTINUED FOUNDING FATHERS Archimedes: Father of Mathematical Physics Science Hippocrates: Father of Medicine I will give no deadly medicine to anyone if asked Herodotus: Father of History History Thucydides: Wrote the first work of scientific history, describing the human world as produced by men acting from ordinary motives, without the intervention of the gods. Mathematics Pythagoras: Father of Numbers Euclid: Father of Geometry

7 THE GOLDEN AGE OF ATHENS, CONTINUED FOUNDING FATHERS Literature Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey Aeschylus and Sophocles were tragedies playwrights

8 Golden Age Comes to an End: Sparta vs. Athens Oligarchy Focus on Military Power Created Peloponnesian League Direct Democracy Focus on Art and Culture Created the Delian League Peloponnesian War: Sparta Wins!!! Long Term Result: Both Sparta and Athens become weak resulting in invasion by Macedonians (Phillip II and Alexander the Great)

9 With the decline in power of the Athenian state and its descent into corruption many began to wonder about the purpose of man and the world.

10 WHAT IS A PHILOSOPHER? Definition: Someone who tries to understand the laws of nature and the universe. Specifically, Greek philosophers used reason to understand the universe.

11 NOTABLE GREEK PHILOSOPHERS Socrates Aristotle Plato

12 Encouraged people to examine their own beliefs and ideas. Know thyself He used a method of questioning now called the Socratic Method. At age 70, he was put on trial for corrupting the city s youth and failing to respect the gods. He was loyal to Athens, accepted his death penalty, and drank a deadly poison. The unexamined life is not worth living

13 Founded the Academy in Athens: the first institute for higher learning. Courage is knowing what not to fear Focused on the importance of reason. Through rational thought, he believed people could recognize perfect beauty and learn to organize an ideal society. Better a little which is well done, than a great deal imperfectly

14 Plato s most famous student. A friend to all is a friend to none Believed that reason should be the guiding force for learning. Alexander the Great s tutor. "For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them"

15 PHILIP II, ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE

16 BIG IDEA THE MACEDONIAN CONQUEST OF GREECE FOLLOWED THE WEAKENING OF GREEK DEFENSES DURING THE PELOPONNESIAN WARS.

17 SETTING THE STAGE: PHILIP II OF MACEDONIA Geographically Speaking After the Peloponnesian War, the city-states of Greece were left vulnerable to invasion. Macedonia was the region to the north of Greece. Philip II was the king of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great.

18 Macedonia Aegean Sea Troy Athens Sparta Invasion of Greece Philip conquered the city-states of Greece and united them. He then prepared to invade the Persian Empire.

19 ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE SPREAD OF HELLENISTIC CULTURE

20 WHY WAS ALEXANDER SO GREAT? How he gained power Took throne after father s death He was only 20 years old. Alexander was prepared to lead General in army as teenager. Tutored by Aristotle. The army declared him King after his father s death. Many questioned his rule.

21 ALEXANDER S CONQUESTS Had to suppress some Greek revolts and then turned toward conquering the Persian Empire Invasion of Persia Alexander launched a massive phalanx attack. Alexander s victory ended Persia s power and represented the final defeat of Darius.

22 ALEXANDER S CONQUESTS, CONT D Conquers Egypt He founded the city Alexandria in Egypt. City becomes center of commerce and Hellenistic culture

23 ALEXANDER S CONQUESTS, CONT D Pushing on to the Indus River Valley Alexander expanded his empire to the Indus river in India. He adopted Persian and Egyptian customs This may have bred resentment in his men, because they refused to advance any further into India and he was forced to head back. Bottom line, the Indus river became the eastern border of his empire

24 ALEXANDER S LEGACY Alexander is considered one of the great military leaders of all time. He assimilated the cultures of his conquered regions into a common culture. Hellenistic Culture

25 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Hellenistic Culture: Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian (Further spread through Trade) Empire stretches from Greece to Indus River

26 CLOSURE Work on Study Guide Test on

27 Activity II: Greek DBQ Finish DBQ Test on December 13 th Reading Guide due on December 13th

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