WARRING CITY-STATES polis Monarchy- rule by a king Oligarchy- rule by nobles and wealthy merchants Democracy rule by the people

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1 WARRING CITY-STATES There were different ways to rule a polis, (city-state) IN ANCIENT GREECE: Monarchy- rule by a king Oligarchy- rule by nobles and wealthy merchants Democracy rule by the people

2 Question #1: How was ancient Greek civilization and culture affected by geography? Be sure to consider the sea, the land, and the climate.

3

4 Greece is a peninsula, surrounded by many seas, divided by rugged mountains, and with mild Mediterranean climate. Access to the sea links Greek trade, travel and economy to other civilizations. Mountains make overland trade and political unity difficult. This explains also why the early Greece did not become an united nation. With difficult overland trade and communication their city-states developed independently. The moderate climate formed an outdoor civic and cultural way of life.

5 Question #2: What were a few ways in which Sparta and Athens were similar and how were they different?

6 What is a POLIS? A polis was the typical structure of a community in the ancient Greek world. A polis consisted of an urban centre, often fortified and with a sacred centre built on a natural acropolis, which controlled a surrounding territory of land. The term polis has, therefore, been translated as city-state as there was typically only one city and because an individual polis was independent from other poleis in terms of political, judicial, legal, religious and social institutions and practices, each polis was in effect a state. Like a state, each polis was also involved in international affairs, both with other poleis and non-greek states in the areas of trade, political alliances and wars.

7

8 Sparta v/s Athens Similarity: Greek language Religion-many Gods and Goddesses. Women and slaves had no political power. Citizens were a minority of the population. All of the citizens were free adult males.

9 Sparta v/s Athens differences: 1. Values 2. Government 3. Education/Social life

10 Values : Sparta Athens DUTY STRENGHT DISCIPLINE - INDIVIDUALITY - BEAUTY - FREEDOM OF THOUGHTS

11 Government SPARTA OLIGARCHY 1. Two kings- only in time of war 2. Assembly free adult males 3. Council of Elders- 5 ephors (nobles)

12 Government ATHENS DEMOCRACY The Athenians avoided civil war by developing democratic rule. However only free men can be citizen. Draco- Solon- Pisistratus- Cleisthenes-

13 Draco around 620 BC Gave the Athenians a written code of laws (Draco s code gave a person accused of murder the right to be tried. The accused have to be proven guilty before being punished)-positive ( He helped to develop a government based on written laws) -positive (His laws were said to be written not in ink but in blood.)- negative

14 SOLON- 594 BC He made economic and social reforms to the laws, which helped the poor. He created a political reform, a court for all citizens. (the idea that all citizens are responsible for justice was revolutionary) Every male citizen could participate in political debate. He neglected land reforms- led to fight between rich and poor

15 Pisistratus (c bc) He was a great general and tyrant of Athens. His enemies were the rich aristocrats who he drove out the city. He was a popular ruler, reducing taxes, helping the poor and disabled, uniting Attica and beautifying Athens with new buildings. Because of the increasing export, he was able to finance water pipes for the city. He was a patron of the arts and is credited with the first written versions of Homer's works. He also founded the first public library of Athens.

16 Cleisthenes 570 BC 508 BC Established democracy in Athens- Cleisthenes' reforms at the end of the 6th Century BC made possible the Golden Age of Athenian civilization that would follow in the 5th Century BC. 1. Increasing the power of the Assembly he allow all citizens to submit laws for debate. 2. Created a Council of 500 instead of 100. This body proposed laws and counseled the Assembly. 3. The Council members were chosen by lot, or at random. 4. These reforms allowed Athenian citizens to participate in a limited democracy.

17 Question#3 What is the main difference between Athenian democracy and the democracy in the USA?

18 Individual citizens in Athens participated directly, while U.S. citizens elect representatives.

19 Question #4 If comparing the two democracies which one you think is more democratic and why?

20 The USA democracy because in ancient Greece only 1/5 of the people were citizens. Women, slaves and foreigners were not allowed to vote.

21

22 EDUCATION/Social Structure SPARTA

23 SPARTA

24 SPARTA

25 ATHENS

26 ATHENS

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