Bremen School District 228 Social Studies Common Assessment 2: Fall Midterm

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1 Bremen School District 228 Social Studies Common Assessment 2: Fall Midterm 0222 World History 55 Minutes 50 Questions Directions: There are 50 reading passages in this test and forty multiple choice questions. Each passage is followed by several questions. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary. Written: , Revised

2 Document A: Herodotus Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BCE. He was a young boy during the Persian War, and interviewed Greek veterans of the Persian War to get the information he needed for his history. The following is an excerpt from his book The Histories that describes the Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae. Until they reached Thermopylae, Xerxes armament was free from misfortune. The king's sea forces amounted to 517,610 men. The number of foot soldiers was 1,700,000; that of the horsemen 80,000; to which must be added Arabs who rode on camels and the Libyans who fought in chariots, whom I reckon at 20,000. The whole number, therefore, of the land and sea forces added together amounts to 2,317,610 fighting men brought by Xerxes, the son of Darius, as far as Thermopylae. Source: From the book The Histories, written by Herodotus in the 450s-420s BCE. Document B: Ctesias of Cnidus Ctesias was an ancient Greek physician and historian from the 5th century BCE who worked for the king of Persia. Ctesias claims to have had access to the official Persian archives, which he used to write his own history of the Persian War in 398 BCE. The following is an excerpt about the Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae. Xerxes decided to make war upon Greece... having collected a Persian army, 800,000 men and 1,000 triremes set out against Greece. His general Artapanus, with 10,000 men, fought an engagement with Leonidas, the Spartan general, at Thermopylae. The Persian host was cut to pieces, while only two or three of the Spartans were slain. Source: From Ctesias of Cnidus's book Persica written in 398 BCE. This excerpt was included in a book by the scholar Photius in the 9th century. 1

3 Document C: Ernle Bradford Ernle Bradford is an English historian specializing in the ancient Mediterranean world. The following is an excerpt from his book The Year of Thermopylae, published in Although it is true that Herodotus... had access to all the records available, it is impossible to accept the figures that he gives for the size of the Persian army and of the fleet.... General Sir Frederick Maurice, who had the opportunity of covering the area of the march of the Great King not long after the First World War, came up with the conclusion that the total of the Persian army was about 210,000. Unlike most desk-bound scholars he [Maurice] had the opportunity to travel the whole area, and had excellent military and logistical knowledge of the terrain. He based his conclusion particularly on his observation of the water supplies available.... It seems that there is no possibility of the army of Xerxes having exceeded 250,000 men. Even this number... would have been sufficient to exhaust the water resources at a number of places along their route. Source: Ernle Bradford, The Year of Thermopylae, 1980, p. 34. Document D: Rupert Matthews Rupert Matthews is an English author and politician. He has written over 200 books on history. The following is an excerpt from his book The Battle of Thermopylae: A Campaign in Context, published in No aspect of the Thermopylae campaign has given rise to greater controversy than the size and composition of the army led by Xerxes into Greece Herodotus puts the strength of Xerxes' army at around two million men [see Document A] and says that they drank the rivers dry as they advanced.... As usual, Herodotus does not tell us where he got this information from, but it does bear all the hallmarks of being an official document.... Whatever the source of information given by Herodotus, it is quite clear that the list is not an accurate record of the army Xerxes led into Greece. It would have been physically impossible to march that many men along the roads available to them and keep them supplied. We know that Xerxes sent an advance guard of laborers and engineers forward to prepare the route for his invasion.... While it is not recorded exactly what these men did, it is clear that they were undertaking construction work that would aid the army. If streams were dammed to create reservoirs of water, Xerxes would have been able to move an army considerably larger than the 210,000 men that General Maurice [see Document C] thought the land could support. Even so, it is unlikely that the increase could have been more than around 50%, say a total of 300,000 to 350,000. Source: Rupert Matthews, The Battle of Thermopylae: A Campaign in Context, 2006, p

4 CC Standard 1: Textual Evidence (10 Questions: 5 Understanding / 5 Application) 1. Based upon the reading in Doc D, it can be inferred that the term reservoir refers to a: A. Book containing maps and charts B. Pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake, or river C. Large natural or artificial lake used as a source of water supply D. Narrow strip of land connecting two larger land masses 2. Which detail from the text best establishes validity in Document A: A. An ancient Greek historian named Herodotus B. Information taken from the Koran C. Statistics pulled from Homer s novel,, The Iliad and the Odyssey D. Ernle Bradford s work, entitled The Year Of Thermopylae 3. Which document would MOST LIKELY state that the size and composition of Xerxes army has created one of the greatest controversies of the Thermopylae campaign A. Document A B. Document B C. Document C D. Document D 4. According to the information in the documents, which document contained information from an ancient Greek physician and historian who worked for the Kind of Persia? A. Document A B. Document B C. Document C D. Document D 5. Based upon the reading, what was the name of the Spartan general who led his troops into Thermopylae? A. Homer B. Artapanus C. Leonidas D. Achilles 3

5 6. What author presented facts that Xerxes army, exceeding 250,000 men, could travel and NOT exhaust the water supply along their route? A. General Sir Frederick Maurice B. Ernie Bradford C. Rupert Matthews D. Herodotus 7. What is the main idea of all of the documents? A. Who won the Battle of Thermopylae B. What was the size of the Greek Army C. What was the size of the Persian Army D. Who were the commanding officers at the Battle of Thermopylae 8. Which of the following is the main idea in Document A? A. Xerxes was the son of Darius B. The Persian forces at the Battle of Thermopylae were extremely large C. The Battle of Thermopylae was a decisive victory for the Spartans D. Persia lost the Battle of Thermopylae 9. What detail shows why the Ctesias account in Doc B might be more accurate than Herodotus s in Doc A? A. Ctesias witnessed the Battle of Thermopylae first hand B. Ctesias supposedly had access to Persian archives C. Herodotus s account is based on first hand information D. Herodotus s account was written centuries after the Persian War 10. In Doc D, Matthews point of view is that Herodotus over estimated the size of the Persian army. Which of the following sentences best illustrates Matthews argument? A....it does bear the all the hallmarks of being an official document B. It would have been physically impossible to march that many men along the roads available to them and keep them supplied C....it is clear that they were undertaking construction work that would aid the army D. No aspect of the Thermopylae campaign has given rise to greater controversy... 4

6 CC Standard 8: Author s Argument (4 Questions: 4 Evaluation) 11. In Doc D, Matthews presents an argument that there is enough evidence proving which of the following? A. Xerxes sent an advance guard of laborers to prepare the route for his invasion B. Leonidas was actually a Persian spy C. Sparta had over 2 million soldiers during the Battle of Thermopylae D. Xerxes had no interest in attacking Sparta 12. Based on Doc A, which of the following statements is not true? A. The Persians had sea forces B. The Persians had men on horses, camels, and chariots C. The Persians had foot soldiers D. The Persians had Airplanes 13. Which of the following claims would the author of Document D agree with? A. Persians could have built bridges to help cross rivers to allow a much larger force to fight B. Persians could have built shelter for more soldiers to sleep in C. Persians could have built more weapons for the army D. Persians could have built dams to create reservoirs of water 14. The author of Document D presents an argument that Xerxes sent laborers and engineers before he sent his army because he A. He wanted to trick his enemies B. He was stalling until his troops arrived C. They were undertaking construction work that would aid the army D. It is impossible to know why from the document 5

7 CC Standard 7: Multimedia (10 Questions: 5 Application / 5 Analysis) 15. Which of the following is best supported by information presented in the Ancient World Chart? A. All three regions relied very heavily on their agricultural output. B. Greece was by far the most difficult to invade based on their mountainous regions. C. Mesopotamia was the most dominate region during ancient times mainly due to their unification. D. Egypt was heavily supported and protected by their mountains that divided their region into separate city-states. 16. What piece of information is not contained within the Ancient World Chart? A. All three regions were very reliant upon an economy based on farming. B. Each of the regions varied in their level of protection from outside invasion. C. Ancient Egypt was a unified region because of the Nile. D. Ancient Greece was a very mountainous region. 6

8 Use the below Ancient Egyptian Hierarchy Pyramid to answer questions 17, 18, and Which of the following is best clarified by the Ancient Egyptian Hierarchy Pyramid? A. Scribes made significantly more money than their social class equals, soldiers. B. Nobles and priests did not share a similar standing in Ancient Egypt. C. Contributions from the craftsmen were far more valuable than those of the scribes. D. Farmers and slaves represented the lowest social class in Egyptian society. 18.The information presented in the Ancient Egyptian Hierarchy Pyramid would best support an article entitled... A. The Pharaoh Stands Above the Rest B. Lower Class Egypt: Farmers, Slaves, Soldiers and Nobles C. Egypt, A Nation of Soldiers D. Craftsmen, the Educated Individuals of Egypt 19. Which information from the Ancient Egyptian Hierarchy Pyramid most strongly supports evidence that Egypt was most populated by slaves and farmers. A. Slaves and farmers were not seen as equals in ancient Egypt. B. Slaves and farmers make up the lower base of the pyramid. C. Farmers were far more valuable to Ancient Egypt, there for there were more of them. D. There is nothing to support this claim. 7

9 20. Which of the following pieces of information is presented in the Ancient Greece Map? A. Farming produced the most viable trade goods in Ancient Greece. B. Timber was the most abundant resource in Ancient Greece. C. Marble was most abundant on the mainland of Greece. D. Crete was an island rich in iron deposits. 21. What is the major theme communicated by the Ancient Greece Map? A. There was little variation in trade good available to the Ancient Greeks. B. The island of Crete was an area free of any natural resources. C. Ancient Greece was an agriculturally based economy. D. The region of Ancient Greece was an area rich in natural resources. 8

10 22. Which of the following theme is best clarified by the venn diagram on democracy? A. The United States used many of the basic ideas establish in Ancient Greece in establishing their form of government. B. Greece had a better form of democracy which allowed their citizens equal rights and voting privileges. C. The only commonality between the two that exists is that citizens vote. D. Both Athens and the U.S. do not consider you a citizen until you reach the age of eighteen. 23. Which of the following is best supported by information presented in the venn diagram on democracy? A. Government is best run when placed in the hands of that country s citizens. B. The U.S. form of democracy has very little in common with that of Ancient Greece (Athens). C. Democracy functions properly through the establishment of three branches of government. D. The executive branch is the most important branch of government. 24. Which information from the venn diagram on democracy most strongly supports evidence that the citizens both in Ancient Greece and the U.S. had/have a voice in their government? A. Citizen Power B. Laws voted on directly C. Citizens were male, born of citizen parents D. Born in the U.S. or complete the citizenship process 9

11 Unit 1 River Civilizations: 10 Questions (7 lower order, 3 higher order questions) 25. What was the Neolithic Revolution? A. the change from hunting and food-gathering to farming B. a rejection of Paleolithic values by Neolithic people C. the migration of people from Asia to the Americas D. the evolution of animistic spiritual beliefs 26. The earliest known writing was invented by the A. Egyptians B. Babylonians C. Sumerians D. Akkadians 27. Which of the following is NOT considered to be a main feature of civilization? A. domestication of animals B. record keeping C. the use of tools and advanced technology D. the establishment of advanced cities 28. Hammurabi's Code was an important achievement because it A. was the first major collection of laws B. treated men and women as equals C. ended capital punishment D. rejected the principle of an eye for an eye 29. What was the importance of Mesopotamia being developed by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers? A. encouraged trade and commerce B. discouraged trade and commerce C. encouraged polytheistic religion D. discouraged polytheistic religion 30. Mesopotamia was located between which two rivers? Unit 1 A. Nile and Amazon B. Mississippi and Illinois C. Yangtze and Yellow D. Tigris and Euphrates 31. Which of the following is a defining geographic feature of life on the Indian subcontinent? A desertification B deforestation C a lack of arable land D monsoons 10

12 32. A key geographic advantage of the river valley was its a. barriers against invasion b. sunny climate c. fertile land d. monsoon winds 33. The pharaohs built the pyramids for which of the following reasons A. tombs. B. houses. C. temples. D. school. 34. Cuneiform was the writing style of which culture: A. Egypt B. Mesopotamia C. India D.. China Unit 2 Greece: 10 Questions (7 lower order, 3 higher order questions) 35. Which Greek city-state had a democratic government? A. Athens B. Sparta C. Thebes D. Marathon 36. The geography of Greece helped create A. a large Greek empire B. many small city-states C. unity among Greeks D. isolation from the outside world 37. Conflict between Athens and Sparta resulted in the A. Persian Wars B. Trojan War C. Peloponnesian War D. Punic Wars 38. Foot soldiers who stood side by side, holding a spear in one hand and a shield in another are in what military formation: A. Spartans B. Trojans C. Helots D. Phalanx 11

13 39. The best example of Cultural diffusion took place in A. Athens B. Alexandria C. Ur D. Carthage 40. What would you NOT change if you were Xerxes leading the Persians in the Persian Wars? A. The final outcome of fighting the 300 Spartans at Thermopylae B. A better way of fighting to match up better against the Greek hoplite phalanx C. The overall outcome and final winner of the Persian Wars D. The final outcome of the Battle of Salamis where Xerxes ships were in the narrow channel 41. What would result if you had acculturation between the Mycenaeans and the Dorians A. the Mesopotamians B. the Egyptians C. the Greeks D. the Romans 42. What examples can you find to show that the Greeks began to lean toward science over just accepting the Gods/Goddesses explaining the world? A. Aristarchus proposing the sun is the center of the universe B. Having the Gods examine your newborn child on top of a mountain C. Praying to Demeter for a successful harvest of your crops D. Believing that Apollo allowed the sun to come up everyday 24 hours 43. The most lasting achievement of Alexander the Great was the A. library in Alexandria, Egypt B. developing a vaccine for malaria C. spread of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean D. Training with Aristotle 44. Which Greek philosopher was executed and why? A. Plato because he wrote the Republic B. Socrates because he challenged the existence of the Greek gods C. Aristotle because he refused to train Alexander the Great D. Thales because he was the first Greek philosopher Unit 3 Rome: 6 Questions (4 lower order, 2 higher order questions) 45. What might have happened if Carthage defeated Rome in the Punic Wars? A. Rome would have increased their power. B. China would have dominated Europe. C. Carthage would have dominated the Mediterranean region. D. None of the Above 12

14 46. Which of the following points to a decline in patriotism in the Roman empire? A Poor farmers abandoned their own farms to work for wealthy landowners. B Caligula appointed his horse as consul. C Mercenaries replaced citizen-soldiers in the Roman army. D Diocletian fixed the prices of goods and services. 47. In the early republic, members of the landholding upper class were called A. Tribunes B. Plebeians C. Consuls D. Patricians 48. A ruler who has complete control over a government is a A. Dictator B. President C. Representative D. Senator 49. Our founding fathers, such as Thomas Jefferson, admired ancient Rome because at one time the Roman government had been a(n) A. theocracy. B. oligarchy C. anarchy. D. republic. 50. The lasting contributions of the Romans include A. government, architecture and language. B. monotheism and Confucianism. C. temples and mummification. D. the Parthenon and the marathon 13

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