Important Peace Treaties from European History.

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1 Important Peace Treaties from European History. What was the Peace Treaty that established Catholic and Lutheran religions in Germany according to ruler of the region? 1

2 The Peace of Augsburg This peace established that the ruler s religion sets the religion for that area. It also made clear that any ruler who converted to Lutheranism was not allowed to then make his region Lutheran. This was a great victory for Protestants! It was official recognition of the newly arrived Lutheran church But, it would make German more fragmented. 2

3 What was the Peace Treaty that ended the Thirty Years War? 3

4 Treaty of Westphalia, Continued terms of Augsburg (1555) but with Calvinism added to Lutheranism as officially accepted religions. The extensive Holy Roman Empire was dissolved the Dutch and Swiss were now separate, Lorraine went to France, territory went to Sweden. The mouth of the Rhine was now controlled by Dutch. The Treaty maintained independence and Sovereignty of 300 separate German States. Germany was fragmented and wrecked by the war. This was the last great war over religious issues. 4

5 What was the Peace treaty between the Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire? 5

6 Treaty of Karlowitz, This treaty helps to end the Turkish invasions of Eastern Europe Last great incursion was during the Siege of Vienna Vienna is rescued by Eugene of Savoy and Jan Sobeiski of Poland. 6

7 Name the Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession-- 7

8 Treaty of Utrecht, 1713 The Victors are those who allied against Louis XIV s armies. Spain s dominions are broken up and dispersed: Gibraltar and Minorca (island) goes to British. Sardinia goes from Spain to Italy (Piedmont) The Spanish Netherlands (today s Belgium) goes to the Austrian Netherlands. Spain does retain South America. In Canada, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia go to Britain. British greatest winners at the treaty. 8

9 How about the Treaty that ended the Seven Years War? 9

10 Treaty of Paris French give to British all territory East of the Mississippi Canada is now controlled entirely by British Prussia gets to keep Silesia Prussia emerges as a strong German State. 10

11 And what about the Treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War? 11

12 Treaty of Paris, 1783 Britain also signed separate agreements with France, Spain, and the Netherlands which had been negotiated earlier. The colonies of East and West Florida were ceded to Spain, and Spain also reclaimed the island of Minorca, while the Bahamas Islands and St. Kitts were returned to Britain. The treaty with France largely reinforced earlier treaties, guaranteeing fishing rights off Newfoundland. 12

13 And can you name the six month Peace talks that ended the Napoleonic Wars? 13

14 Congress of Vienna, 1815 British retain possessions and make significant gains in India. Holland and Belgium united into Netherlands to form barrier against France Prussia takes left side of Rhine river to stop France aggression. Bourbons restored to thrones of France and Spain. German nationalism was ignored. New Poland is created under Alexander of Russia. 14

15 This Treaty got Russia out of World War I. 15

16 Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, December 3, Lenin promises Peace, Land and Bread and wants to end the War to consolidate Bolshevik power. Russia gives up Poland, Ukraine, Finland and the Baltic Provinces. Lenin believes that Germany will eventually be defeated and they will get some of the land back. With this peace agreement, Germany sends its soldiers to the Western Front to continue fighting against the Americans who arrived in May

17 Famous Treaty held after World War I 17

18 Treaty of Versailles, 1919 Wilson s fourteen points seen as idealistic Alsace Lorraine returned to France. Germany cannot have troops in Rhineland Germany loses all its colonies in Africa and Indonesia. War damages to be paid to France and Belgium. Germany forced to give up fleet, merchant marine ships, make coal deliveries, and give up all property owned by German citizens abroad. Germany must sign a war guilt clause accepting responsibility for the war. New independent staes of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. A cordon sanitaire is created to buffer Europe from the newly communist Russia. 18

19 Can you name the Peace Talks at the end of World War II? 19

20 Potsdam, July 1945 Germany divided into zones of occupation by British, French, Americans and Russia Germany disarmed and de-militarized. De-nazification process and war trials to be held Reparations from Germany to all zones, but additional reparations to be given to Russia from the three Western Zones. Cold War begins. 20

21 European integration is at present based on four founding treaties: The Treaty of Paris, establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, which was signed on 18 April 1951, entered into force on 23 July

22 The Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Also, the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), which was signed - along with the Euratom Treaty - in Rome on 25 March 1957, and entered into force on 1 January These two Treaties are often referred to as the "Treaties of Rome. 22

23 The Treaty on European Union, signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992, entered into force on 1 November It changed the name of the European Economic Community to simply "the European Community This is the Treaty that set the goal of a common currency. 23

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