World History, November 19 Entry Task: Let s add some notes about Louis XIV s picture on your Concept Notes Announcements: - Test Corrections are due

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1 World History, November 19 Entry Task: Let s add some notes about Louis XIV s picture on your Concept Notes Announcements: - Test Corrections are due today! - Age of Absolutism (please add this to your notes) - Reasons for Absolutism? Economic, Religious, Political/Social - Absolutism = leads to Revolution, Enlightenment

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5 Why Absolutism? - King s goal: sovereignty - Chess: King is the weakest piece

6 World History, November 20 Entry Task: Fill out self-eval and take out paper: - Economic - Religious - Political/Social Announcements: - Test Corrections are due today! - Did you turn in your chart + paper? - Sydney Reid had a birthday YESTERDAY - sorry I forgot!

7 Why Absolutism? - CHECK! (Reverse checkmate) - Church: Bishops - Nobles (ex: Burgundy) - Representative Bodies - Parliament, Estates General - Towns and Cities - Universities

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10 Why Absolutism? Economic - Competition for colonies - Explorers wealth goes back to MONARCHS, not people. Leads to instability/inflation

11 Why Absolutism? Spain s downfall War with Ottoman Turks drained resources during Charles V s reign Spanish Armada defeated by the Royal Navy (Queen Elizabeth) - from this point on, power shifts away from Spain - to England

12 Why Absolutism? Religion - French wars Huguenots vs. Catholics - one king, one law, one religion - 30 Years War (1618) Holy Roman Empire (but other European countries are involved) - England: Catholic, then Protestant, then C, then P again

13 Why Absolutism? Religion - Example in France: St. Bartholomew s Massacre estimated 10,000 to 70,000 Protestants killed in the streets of Paris - Catherine de Medici, mother of King Charles IX, is in black (probably instigated by her) - Henry IV (of Navarre) - Paris is well worth a mass - Edict of Nantes (will be assassinated)

14 Witch Trials - Knowledge of plants/herbs = healers and respected in society - increase in syphilis? Change in weather patterns? Bad harvest? Find a scapegoat! - Malleus Malleficarum (1484) book (Hammer of Witches) - Primarily poor old women, often widowed - England witch trials (247 of them women)

15 It s Witchcraft... - Majority took place 16th and 17thc - 1 million executed overall (13th-19thc) - Anne Boleyn (Henry VIII s 2nd wife) was accused, executed small extra finger + mole on neck - signs/proof - Witch trials declined after Salem Witch Trials (North America)

16 Why Absolutism? Social IN ALL: People were willing to give up rights in exchange for stable government However, absolutism is typically characterized by a powerful, oppressive gov t and lack of freedoms for citizens

17 Why Absolutism? Ideas like: National unity, government efficiency, and control Growth of National Armies Louis XIV - built Versailles - Keep your friends close, and your enemies closer Political/Social

18 World History, November 23 Entry Task: What does it mean for a country to be a SUPERPOWER? Announcements: - Grades are updated - please check to make sure that I gave you credit for the Aztec/Inca Project - it was hard to remember who worked together! - Test Corrections are due today! - Did you turn in your chart + paper last week?

19 Spain Ferdinand II, prince of Aragon, married Isabella of Castile (began rule 1479) - Reconquista - In 1492, Spain took the last city (Granada) out of the hands of the Muslims

20 Spanish Inquisition - The Spanish Inquisition was ruthless in seeking Muslims, Jews, and heretics (later, witches, too) - 2,000 sentenced to die in Spain (150,000 charged); Portugal - 1,200 - Torture devices include: knee splitter, the wheel, head vice

21 Spanish Inquisition - Torture was meant for the person to confess (not to punish) - Continues for 300 years!

22 Charles V - Holy Roman Emperor - https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=mryzw3bsj0i

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24 Charles V - Retired gradually to a Monastery - Divided Empire: - Brother Ferdinand gets Central Europe - Son Philip II gets Spain, Netherlands, & Southern Italy

25 Charles II - example of in-breeding

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27 Philip II 29 years old when he begins rule of Spain (42 years) - Saw himself as a leader of the Counter-Reformation - expensive wars...that also end in failure! (Except Ottoman Turks) - Married Mary I (Tudor) of England (Bloody Mary) Spanish Armada defeated

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29 Philip II - Accomplishments - $$$$$$$$$$ (¼-⅕ of each ship goes to Philip!) - By 1600, 339,000 lbs of gold ,000 tons of silver galleons - Standing Army - 50,000 - Built the Escorial - Madrid - Became King of Portugal in 1580 (he was the late King s nephew) - territories in Africa, India, and East Indies - Defended the Catholic faith

30 Philip II - Accomplishments - El Greco - The Greek - Diego Velazquez - Don Quixote de la Mancha - Miguel de Cervantes (1605)

31 Philip II - Accomplishments - Marriage was not for love or a partnership; it was to get land, power, and sons to inherit - Married cousin, niece, etc - pure bloodline - Elizabeth of Valois (15 yrs old; Philip - 59)

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33 Philip II - involvement in other religious wars... - Financed Catholic League during the French Wars of Religion (Catholics vs. Huguenots) - Result? Edict of Nantes will grant freedom of worship for nearly 100 years (Louis XIV revokes it in 1685)

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35 - Netherlands - DUTCH Revolt This long, costly uprising against the rule of Spain occupied much of the energies of Philip II during his reign Causes: resentment of high Spanish taxes and Philip's efforts to suppress Philip II Calvinism -- Elizabeth I provided aid to the rebellion

36 Philip II - Netherlands Result ( ): - Duke of Alva sent to punish rebels (1500 in one day!) - 7 Northern provinces declared independence (not officially recognized until 1648) - 10 Southern provinces stayed part of Spain

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38 - Battle of Lepanto (1571) In this October 1571 naval battle a coalition of Catholic states led by Spain defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire off of the coast of Greece, eliminating the Turkish threat in the Mediterranean and allowing Philip II to focus his resources on restoring Catholicism throughout Western Europe Philip II

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40 Philip II - wanted to take over England This was a fleet of 130 ships and 33,000 men. Due to storms + English pirates: 40 ships and 15,000 soldiers were lost. This was an irreparable disaster which led to Spain's naval decline.

41 Philip II - at home... - Reinforcement of the Inquisition - Prohibited importation of books from Europe - Spanish students could not study abroad - Blood cleanliness in the Administration - Expelled Jews and Muslims - Declared bankruptcy 3x

42 FACTORS in Spanish Decline Inflation and Taxes Inflation weakens Spain s economy Taxes on lower class prevents development of middle class Making Spain s Enemies Rich Spaniards buy goods abroad, making Spain s enemies rich Expulsion of Jews, Muslims Philip declares bankruptcy three times due to weak economy

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