The Age of European Expansion

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1 The Age of European Expansion

2 Spanish and Portuguese America The Viceroyalty of New Spain was first established in 1535 by King Charles I 1 2. The 15 Captaincies of Brazil were first established in 1536 by King John III The Viceroyalty of Peru was the second established in 1540 by King Charles I 4. French attempts to establish colonies in Brazil between failed 5. In 1580 the Portuguese and Spanish created the Iberian Union under King Philip II of Spain (Spanish Habsburgs) 6. The Netherlands gained independence from Spain in 1581

3 The Dutch Portuguese War ( ) Netherlands gains independence from Spain in 1581 Spain closes all ports in the Spanish Americas to the Dutch The Dutch try to establish trade colonies in Portuguese territories in both the Americas & the Indies The Dutch West Indies trading Co. was chartered in 1621 to establish a trade monopoly in the Caribbean War broke out between the Dutch (and their British Allies) and Portuguese (and Spain) in both the Americas and the Indies Spanish and Portuguese forces eventually forced the Dutch to sue for peace The Dutch loose in the West Indies, but gain colonial territories in the East Indies

4 Europeans Claim Territories in North America ( ) French attempt to establish colony in Florida (near Jacksonville) fails in 1564 Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 Dutch establish colony of New Netherlands in 1624 Dutch settle Delaware and Pennsylvania by 1631 British founded their first colony in 1607 at Jamestown, Virginia British established Plymouth colony for Puritans by 1620 Maryland established in 1634 for Catholics British establish colonies in the Caribbean ( ) focused on Sugar Cane & supported by Dutch shipping

5 The First Anglo-Dutch War ( ) Dutch and French support for England s King Charles I (during the English Civil War) caused tension between them and the British Parliament under Oliver Cromwell British Navigation Act of 1651 allowed only British merchant ships to transport trade goods from British Caribbean and North American colonies to Europe. Parliament also issued Letters of Marque to British privateers to attack French ships The British and Dutch navies fought several naval battles Neither side was able to gain naval superiority Treaty of Westminster was signed in 1654 but tensions continued

6 The Second Anglo-Dutch War ( ) King Charles II was restored to the throne of England in 1660 In 1660, King Charles granted his brother James (Duke of York) a Royal Charter for the Royal African Company to gain a monopoly over the slave trade in West Africa The Navigation Act of 1660 was passed placing high tariffs and restrictions on non-british ships carrying tobacco, cotton & sugar The Navigation Act of 1663 required all goods bound for North America to be shipped through England Attacks on Dutch ships by British privateers in 1664 caused the Dutch to declare war

7 The Franco-Dutch War & Third Anglo-Dutch War ( ) As a result of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, Britain had given the Dutch permission to ship goods on the high seas without any threats from the British Royal Navy In 1668, England also joined a Triple Alliance with Sweden and the Dutch Republic to prevent France from invading the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium) In 1670, King Charles II of England signed a secret treaty with King Louis XIV In April 1672, France declared war and invaded the Spanish Netherlands and Holland Ships of the British Royal Navy attacked Dutch ships on the high seas & blockaded Dutch ports

8 Economic and Political Struggles in Europe Make the Americas Ripe for the Taking ( ) In 1655, the British gained control of the Island of Jamaica The Dutch sugar island of St. Eustatius changed colonial control ten times between 1664 and 1674 In 1674, the Dutch were forced to give up the colony of New Netherlands to the British (re-named it New York) France gained control of the Lesser Antilles in 1674 Pirates and Privateers made the Caribbean their homes By 1698, the British passed the Piracy Act agreeing to pay bounties for sunk ships

9 King William s War or the Nine Years War ( ) French success in the Franco-Dutch War gave King Louis XIV desire to expand his Empire His hatred for the Habsburgs caused him to set his sights on Spain, Austria and the Netherlands European alliance (Holy Roman Emperor, Spain England & the Dutch Republic) opposed him French and British forces allied themselves with opposing Indian Nations to fight in the colonies The bloody conflict ended in a stalemate and colonial borders remained status-quo

10 Queen Anne s War or the War of Spanish Succession ( ) King Charles II of Spain died leaving his throne to his sister grand-son, Philip of Anjou Since Philip was the grandson of Louis XIV, the King of France tried to claim Spain for France European alliance (Holy Roman Emperor, England & the Dutch Republic) opposed him French and British forces allied themselves with opposing Indian Nations to fight in the colonies Spain also attacked Georgia and the Carolinas from Florida The Treaty of Utrecht grave Britain Nova Scotia, New Foundland and the French Island of St. Kitts

11 War of Jenkin s Ear or the War of Austrian Succession ( ) Frederick the Great of Prussia opposed a women (Maria Theresa) from become Queen of Austria France & Spain joined Prussia against Maria Theresa The British and Dutch allied themselves with Austria Hostilities between Spain and Britain continued after the end of the War of Spanish Succession A British ship was boarded by the Spanish navy and the Captain had his ear cut off after being suspected of piracy The War involved another Spanish invasion of Georgia and Piracy by privateers from both sides

12 The Seven Years War or French and Indian War ( ) Conflict extended the rivalry between the British and the French/Spanish enemies European theater was characterized by sieges of towns and large land battles The war allied Great Britain and Prussia against France, Spain, Russia & Habsburgs French and British forces allied themselves with opposing Indian Nations to fight in the colonies Conflict became a training ground for future Revolutionary War leaders Treaty of Paris grave Britain control of Canada, the Mississippi Valley and Spanish Florida.

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