Growing Size and Complexity Prof. Amedeo Odoni

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1 Growing Size and Complexity Prof. Amedeo Odoni Istanbul Technical University Air Transportation Management M.Sc. Program Airport Planning and Management Module 3 January 2016

2 Growing Size and Complexity Objective: Discuss how traffic growth and the high concentration of traffic at relatively few airports, coupled with changing conditions and requirements, have increased greatly the size and complexity of airports Outline: The changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 2

3 Outline Changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 3

4 What *Was* a (Major) Airport Infrastructure facility ( terminal + runway ) serving originating + terminating passengers and some freight ( up to mid-1970s); few commercial or other services Practically all airports had one or two runways ( up to 1970s) Government-owned (national, regional or local) facilities, managed by either government organizations or by special-purpose Airport Authorities ( up to 1986) Often heavily subsidized by national governments, especially w.r.t. to capital investments ( up to 1980s) Security was not an issue ( up to late 1960s) and not a dominant concern ( up to 1990s) Environmental concerns (beginning in 1960s) centered on airport noise Page 4

5 and What *Is* a (Major) Airport The Airport City Very large complex of diverse facilities Big volumes of O-D and connecting passengers and high-value freight Level-of-service varies widely (airline type, market) Extensive commercial, logistic and supporting services Increasingly an inter-modal node Often privatized or semi-privatized, operating largely along private sector lines Self-sufficient economically and typically profitable Security is paramount Emissions and climate impacts are critical environmental concerns, in addition to noise Page 5

6 Growth Prospects Worldwide Number of pax worldwide has tripled in 30 years 2014: 3+ billion enplanements (~6.4 billion airport pax) Despite several global shocks, passenger traffic has grown by more than 40% since 2000 Uneven distribution of growth Mostly Asia (esp., China + India + Middle East) Large differences in growth among airports in the same region Prospect: Continued significant growth worldwide (~4%) faster in Asia, South America and Africa (~6%); slower growth in North America and Europe Page 6

7 Outline Changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 7

8 A Highly Concentrated Sector Only about 350 airports in the world with more than 3 million annual passengers! Handled >95% of all passengers! Top 30 airports processed close to 30% of passengers Top 100 close to 67% The busiest airports in the world are therefore extremely important to the global economy and to global connectivity Major job generators: roughly 1000 employees per million annual pax (includes all employees) Busy airports are perpetual construction sites Page 8

9 30 Busiest Airports in the World (2014) (1) = pax (million); (2) = movements (thousand) (1) (2) (1)/(2) (1) (2) (1)/(2) Atlanta ATL Singapore SIN Beijing PEK New York JFK London LHR Denver DEN Tokyo HND Shanghai PVG Los Angeles LAX Kuala Lumpur KUL Dubai DXB San Francisco SFO Chicago ORD Bangkok BKK Paris CDG Seoul Incheon ICN * 153 Dallas DFW Charlotte CLT Hong Kong HKG Las Vegas LAS Frankfurt FRA Phoenix PHX Jakarta CGK Madrid MAD Istanbul IST Houston IAH Amsterdam AMS Miami MIA Guangzhou CAN Sao Paulo GRU Sources: ACI + Websites * Estimated Page 9

10 Location of 30 busiest airports by region North America * Europe Asia (+ Middle East + Oceania) Source: Center for Asian and Pacific Aviation (2011) *One in South America (Sao Paulo Guarulhos) Expect increasing future presence of Asian airports Several airports on list operating at their capacity limit or close to it (e.g., PEK, ORD, LHR, DXB, HKG, IST, JFK, SFO, GRU) Page 10

11 IATA: Partial List of Badly Congested Airports (2014) Airports with full terminals: 90 in 2014; 223 in 2020 Airports operating at 90% capacity of the runways: 6 in 2014; 63 in 2020 [Courtesy Dr. Sulmona] Page 11

12 Outline Changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 12

13 The Big Get Bigger! On December 28, 2015, Atlanta (ATL) became the first airport in history to exceed 100 million passengers in one year! Traffic attracts traffic! Several more top airports are aspiring to serve more than 100 million pax within the next 5-15 years (at the existing airports or at new airports) In all of these cases, the capital investments involved are well in excess of $10 billion Size of required space and facilities is ENORMOUS, posing a new generation of challenges in handling traffic (pax, cargo, Page 13 aircraft) at reasonable levels of service (LOS)

14 30 Busiest Airports in the World (2014) (1) = pax (million); (2) = movements (thousand) (1) (2) (1)/(2) (1) (2) (1)/(2) Atlanta ATL Singapore SIN Beijing PEK New York JFK London LHR Denver DEN Tokyo HND Shanghai PVG Los Angeles LAX Kuala Lumpur KUL Dubai DXB San Francisco SFO Chicago ORD Bangkok BKK Paris CDG Seoul Incheon ICN * 153 Dallas DFW Charlotte CLT Hong Kong HKG Las Vegas LAS Frankfurt FRA Phoenix PHX Jakarta CGK Madrid MAD Istanbul IST Houston IAH Amsterdam AMS Miami MIA Guangzhou CAN Sao Paulo GRU Sources: ACI + Websites * Estimated Page 14

15 Adding to the Complexity It is not only the size of traffic (huge numbers) that make busy airports so big and complex A number of relatively new developments have been equally important in driving size and complexity Low cost carriers (different requirements) Security (critical choices) Commercial activities in terminals (more space, more complications) Environmental concerns (more constraints) Page 15

16 Outline Changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 16

17 Importance of Runway Systems q The ultimate capacity of an airport (in terms of annual number of passengers it can handle) is eventually determined by the number of its runways and their geometric layout [ An overly simplified, but quite true statement.] q Different numbers of runways and different layouts imply vastly different Land area requirements Passenger and aircraft capacities Complexity in design, planning and operations Page 17

18 Numbers and Configurations of Runways Single runway 2 close parallel runways ( close pair ) 2 intermediate parallels 2 independent parallels 2 close + 1 independent [3 runways total] 2 independent close pairs Intersecting runways Many other configurations including those planned for some of the 100+ million mega airports Page 18

19 Parallel Runways (IFR) Separation between runway centerlines Arrival/ arrival Departure/ departure Arrival/ departure Departure/ arrival Closely-spaced ft ( m) As in single runway As in single runway Arrival touches down Departure is clear of runway Medium-spaced * ft ( * m) Independent > 5000* ft (> 1525* m) 1.5 nmi (diagonal) Indep nt Indep nt Indep nt Indep nt Indep nt Indep nt Indep nt * 3400 ft (1035 m; ICAO) or 4300 ft (1310 m) are alternative limits Page 19

20 London Gatwick (LGW): single runway Page 20

21 Milan Malpensa: medium-spaced parallels 2640 ft (805 m) between runways Page 21

22 Munich: independent parallels 7530 ft (2296 m) between runways Page 22

23 Paris CDG: 2 independent close pairs 1260 ft between close parallel runways Page 23

24 Atlanta Hartsfield International (ATL) Page 24

25 DFW Airport Page 25

26 Singapore Changi Airport with Third Runway Source: Wikipedia (2011) Page 26

27 Istanbul Atatürk (IST) Airport Page 27

28 Outline Changing notion of what is a major airport High concentration of airport traffic The Big get bigger and more complex Additional complications Critical role of runway systems Land area requirements Page 28

29 Indicative Land Area Requirements q The numbers below are intended as rough indications of the land area requirements: Single runway 5 km 2 2 close parallel runways 7 km 2 2 intermediate parallels 9 km 2 2 independent parallels 11 km 2 2 independent close pairs 15 km 2 Expanded Singapore* (SIN) [3 runways] 20 km 2 New Istanbul Airport [5 + 1 runways] 50 km 2 Denver International [up to 12 runways] 130 km 2 Page 29

30 Final Comments Airports are a vital and vibrant sector of the world s economy Growth and complexity at the busiest airports is making the design, planning, operations, management and economics of these facilities extremely challenging We face problems/issues that have not been addressed before! Number and layout of runways plays a critical role Many of the busiest and most ambitious airports are trying to expand their runway systems Page 30

31 Questions? Comments? Page 31

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