Título ponencia: Introduction to the PBN concept

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1 Título ponencia: Introduction to the PBN concept Organizado por:

2 Index Introduction Background PBN Concept PBN Operations Conclusions

3 Introduction Subject This presentation addresses the Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) concept defined nowadays in the ICAO PBN Manual. What s PBN? Performance-based Navigation (PBN) defines performance requirements for aircraft navigating on an ATS route, terminal procedure or in a designated airspace. It is ICAO s effort and objective to redefine the regional differences of various Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) specifications into a globally harmonized set of PBN applications. Reference Documents The following documents and sources are applicable: ICAO PBN Manual (Doc 9613) vol. I Concept and Implementation Guidance ICAO PBN Manual (Doc 9613) vol. II Implementing RNAV and RNP Operations ICAO PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) vol. II Aircraft Operations. Construction of Visual and Instrument Flight Procedures ICAO resolution A37-11 Performance-based navigation global goals

4 Index Introduction Background PBN Concept PBN Operations Conclusions

5 Background: RNAV vs. Conventional (I) Conventional Navigation Conventional (or Traditional) IFR Navigation relies on aircraft crossing radio beacons and tracking to and from them directly, or via intersects. This contains IFR routes and procedures to what is achievable from a limited and expensive infrastructure of ground-based stations. Conventional IFR Navigation RNAV Area Navigation (RNAV) RNAV is a method of navigation that permits aircraft to follow IFR routes and procedures based on any desired routing, subject to the system limits of the RNAV technology. The sensors that allows the RNAV navigation are: GNSS DME/DME VOR/DME INS RNAV procedures can be based on ground radio beacons

6 Background: RNAV vs. Conventional (II) Conventional Procedures RNAV Procedures Execution is demanding: Selecting, identifying and displaying navaids Following track, distance and timing Repeated for each leg Execution is easy: Following GPS guidance from waypoint to waypoint Management is easy: Select the right chart and then follow the execution steps Management is more complex: Valid database, correct procedure loaded and verified RAIM availability checked; GPS, CDI and Autopilot mode selection Avoidance of gross errors and confusions with GPS receivers

7 Background: RNP (I) RNP Objectives First RNP ICAO definition (RNP Manual) led to a divergence between standardisation bodies, manufacturers, implementation in States Safety issues

8 Background: RNP (II) RNP Accuracy Requirement There are five main navigation performance criteria: Accuracy: difference between the true and indicated position and track Integrity: ability to provide timely warnings when the system is not safe to use Continuity: ability of the navigation system to provide its service without interruption during an operation Availability: ability of the total system to perform its function at the initiation of the intended operation Vulnerability: susceptibility to unintentional or deliberate interference The key requirement of RNP-X is an accuracy specification expressed as a Total System Error (TSE) of X Nautical Miles or less for more than 95% of the total flight time. Lateral Navigation Errors

9 Background: PBN origin PBN Manual After the 11th Air navigation Conference (2004), Performance Based Navigation (PBN) has been introduced: RNP concept (ICAO RNP manual) PBN concept Shift from sensor-based to performance-based navigation PBN Manual published by ICAO in 2007 (Fourth edition 2012 will be available soon)

10 Index Introduction Background PBN Concept PBN Operations Conclusions

11 PBN Concept: Definition (I) PBN concept overview - Performance of the on-board system (accuracy, continuity and integrity) - Functionalities of the system (ex type of display, ) - Usable infrastructures and sensors - Requirements for training and practice of controllers and flight crews Airspace Concept Navigation Navigation application Application which results from a navigation specification and an NAVAID infrastructure that allows an aircraft to fly in a designated airspace, on a route or on a procedure with the required performance level Navigation specification PBN Navaid infrastructure - Conventional - GNSS

12 PBN Concept: Definition (II) RNAV vs. RNP Require on-board performance monitoring + alerting RNAV applications RNP applications Navigation application «X» = lateral accuracy of navigation required 95% of the total flight time RNP X specifications RNAV X specifications Navigation specification PBN Navaid infrastructure - Conventional - GNSS Do not require on-board self contained performance monitoring + alerting

13 PBN Concept: Navigation Specifications (I) Navigation Specification details PBN RNAV X RNP X RNAV5 &10 RNAV1&2 RNP 4 B-RNP 1 RNP APCH RNP AR APCH En-route Terminal En-Route Terminal Classical Approach APV Approach Approach with autorisation required Airways SID STAR Airways SID STAR RNAV (GNSS) RNAV (RNP) LNAV LNAV/VNAV LPV (GPS-NPA) (APV baro) (APV SBAS) NavSpec Type NavSpec Name Phase of Flight Procedure Designation Minima Designation

14 PBN Concept: Navigation Specifications (II) PBN focused on approaches VOR/DME NPA Conventional NDB LOC Non-precision approaches PBN RNAV NPA/GPS LNAV ICAO Classification APV Approaches with vertical guidance RNAV APV SBAS APV Baro LPV LNAV/VNAV ILS Conventional MLS PA PAR Precision approaches RNAV GBAS

15 PBN Concept: Navigation Specifications (III) RNAV approaches performance The typical performance of RNAV approaches depends on the applicable minima (DH) line flown: LNAV: from 300 ft LNAV/VNAV: from ft LPV: from 250 ft (or 200 for LPV-200) GLS: up to 0 ft, depending on the CAT NO PBN! Typical performance of RNAV approaches

16 PBN Concept: Navigation Specifications (IV) Navigation Specification meaning The navigation specification value (RNP 2, RNAV 1, RNP APCH) is proving an approach of the protection areas width taken into account in the procedure design for obstacle clearance: RNAV X / RNP X ½ A/W = 1,5 XTT + BV XTT Cross-track Tolerance = TSE (*) For RNP: TSE = RNP value BV: Buffer Value, depends on the phase of the flight For example: RNP 4 TSE = 4 NM XTT = 4 NM BVROUTE = 2 NM ½ AW= 8 NM RNP 1 TSE = 1 NM XTT = 1 NM BVTMA = 1 NM ½ AW= 2,5 NM RNP AR APCH ½ A/W = 2 x RNP value No secondary areas apply RNP ½ A/W RNP 1 2,0 NM RNP 0,3 0,6 NM RNP 0,1 0,2 NM Plan and profile view of protection areas

17 PBN Concept: Benefits PBN benefits overview PBN offers a number of advantages over the sensor-specific method of developing airspace and obstacle clearance criteria: Predictable and repeatable path trajectories Avoids developing sensor-specific operations Allows more efficient use of airspace (closer space routes) Clarifies how RNAV and RNP systems are used Facilitates the operational approval process for operator From Airspace and Airports perspective Increase in capacity in controlled airspace Improvement in safety through onboard monitoring and performance alerting to the flight crew Reduction in the effects that flights have on the environment from more efficient routes From ATM service provider Reduced service cost through reduced navigational infrastructure, increased systemisation and increased controller productivity Improvement in safety through the introduction of flight path monitoring tools and alerting to controllers Improvement in the quality of the service to meet new airspace-user requirements

18 Index Introduction Background PBN Concept PBN Operations Conclusions

19 PBN Operations: ICAO resolutions PBN resolutions and implementation 37 th ICAO Assembly (Oct 10), through its Resolution A37-11, resolve that states shall complete a PBN implementation plan to achieve: 1. Implementation of RNAV and RNP operations for en-route and terminal areas. 2. Implementation of RNP APCH procedures with vertical guidance (down to LPV or LNAV/VNAV, but including as well LNAV-only minima) for all instrument runway ends by 2016, with intermediate milestones as follows: 30% by 2010, 70% by 2014 (either as the primary approach or as a back-up for precision approaches) 3. Implementation of straight-in procedures LNAV-only, as an exception of 2) above, for instrument runways at aerodromes where there is no local altimeter setting available and where there are no aircraft suitably equips for APV operations. Implementation of APV-SBAS and APV Baro procedures in Europe (September 2012) Source: ESSP

20 PBN Operations: PBN Operations (I) Complete PBN route Next figures shows the Navigation Specifications for each phase of flight, only including PBN operations: Phases of flight covered by PBN Manual The implementation of this operations in the rotorcraft domain is today resiudal, as the ATM system has been developed without taking into account the rotorcraft specific needs. As a consequence a specific Navigation Specification has been proposed for the rotorcraft community in the last PBN Manual

21 PBN Operations: PBN Operations (II) Helicopter Operations in the PBN Manual The new upcoming PBN Manual states that the helicopter community identified a need for a specification that has a single accuracy of 0.3 NM for all phases of flight, (thus RNP 0.3), recognizing that such a specification would enable a significant part of the IFR helicopter fleet to obtain benefit from PBN. RNP 0.3 benefits for Helicopters Operations Reduced protected areas, potentially enabling separation from fixed wing traffic to allow simultaneous non-interfering operations in dense terminal airspace; Low level routes in obstacle rich environments reducing exposure to icing environments; Seamless transition from en route to terminal route; More efficient terminal routing in an obstacle rich or noise sensitive terminal environment, specifically in consideration of Helicopter Emergency Service (HEMS) IFR operations between hospitals; and, Transitions to helicopter Point in Space (PinS) approaches and for helicopter departures. Helicopter en route operations are limited by range and speed and can often equate to the dimensions of terminal fixed wing operations.

22 PBN Operations: PBN Operations (III) Spain s policy for PBN implementation AESA s statement about PBN implementation. Source: PLAN DE ACCIÓN ANUAL 2012 AESA

23 PBN Operations: Example (I) RNP APCH Procedure Example of the RNP APCH procedure to Pau Airport. It includes LNAV and LPV minima.

24 PBN Operations: Example (II) RNP AR APCH Procedure Advanced procedure that requires special approval of the crew and the aircraft.

25 Index Introduction Background PBN Concept PBN Operations Conclusions

26 Conclusions: PBN and GNSS GNSS assets for PBN PBN directly benefits from GNSS assets (no ground infrastructure required, integrity of the signal). GNSS implementation permitted to change the way to define the airspace. GNSS can be used for all PBN operations: En-route operations: high benefits in terms of separation, particularly in oceanic regions Terminal: RNAV1 and RNAV2 using either GNSS or DME/DME (but DME requires a good coverage whereas GNSS is usually 100% available for these types of operations) B-RNP 1 based on GNSS as primary navigation system GNSS systems for the Approach (RNP APCH) NPA Non-precision approaches NPA/GPS Minima Line LNAV Current GNSS systems GPS + ABAS ICAO Standardised Navigation Specifications vs. Navigation Sensors APV APV SBAS LPV GPS + SBAS Approaches with vertical guidance APV Baro LNAV/VNAV GPS + ABAS/SBAS (horizontal) Barometer (vertical)

27 5. Conclusions Summary and Conclusions The ICAO PBN Manual provides a clear pictures of all Navigation Specifications and the standards for its implementation. GNSS is the key enabler for PBN implementation As rapid changes in technology still occur, PBN continues its evolution. The next evolutions of the RNP navigation specifications encompass: Radius to Fix (RF) capability to extend the possibility to use curved segments for other phases than the final approach segment; RNP 0.3 specification for low-level routes particularly for rotorcraft; And new Advanced-RNP (A-RNP) based on scalable navigation accuracy covering all flight phases to enable reduced route spacing on both straight and curved segments.

28 Legal Notice No part of this material may be copied, reproduced and/or disclosed, in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Pildo Labs 2012 This material reflects only the author s views and the company is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained herein.

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