International Civil Aviation Organization. PBN Airspace Concept. Victor Hernandez

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1 International Civil Aviation Organization PBN Airspace Concept Victor Hernandez

2 Overview Learning Objective: at the end of this presentation you should Understand principles of PBN Airspace Concept 2

3 Gate to Gate concept Phases of flight (Doc 9854) AOM DCB TS AUO Planning Ramp Ramp Cruise Collection Landing Surface departures Departure SDM CM AO Surface arrival COMMUNICATION (COM) - NAVIGATION (NAV) - SURVEILLANCE (SUR) 3

4 ATM Operational Concept, Doc 9854, (AOM) Airspace organization will establish airspace structures in order to accommodate the different types of air activity, volume of traffic and differing levels of service a) airspace management will be dynamic, flexible and based on services demanded. Airspace organizational boundaries, divisions and categories will be adapted to traffic patterns and changing situations and will support the efficient operation of the other ATM services identified in this chapter. Flexibility within airspace organization will include regular strategic planning processes and will allow actual operations to dictate a more optimum configuration b) airspace will be organized to facilitate the seamless handling of flights and the ability to conduct flights along optimum flight trajectories from gate to gate without undue restriction or delay c) airspace planning will be based on accommodating dynamic flight trajectories whenever practicable. Structured route systems will be established only in areas where the demand for dynamic trajectories cannot be accommodated d) airspace will be organized to be easily learned, understood and used by the ATM community as appropriate 4

5 ATM Operational Concept, Doc 9854, (AOM) Airspace management is the process by which airspace options are selected and applied to meet the needs of the ATM community a) all airspace will be managed flexibly. Airspace boundaries will be adjusted to particular traffic flows and should not be constrained by national or facility boundaries; b) airspace management processes will accommodate dynamic flight trajectories and provide optimum system solutions; c) when conditions require that different types of traffic be segregated by airspace organization, the size, shape and time regulation of that airspace will be set to minimize the impact on operations; d) airspace use will be coordinated and monitored in order to accommodate the conflicting legitimate requirements of all users and to minimize any constraints on operations; e) airspace reservations will be planned in advance with changes made dynamically whenever possible. The system will also accommodate unplanned requirements; f) structured route systems will be applied only where required to enhance capacity or to avoid areas where access has been limited or where hazardous conditions exist; g) uniform airspace organization and management principles will be applicable to all regions. Global principles will be applicable at all levels of density and will affect total traffic volume. Complex operations may limit the degree of flexibility; and h) areas that should strive for the earliest and shortest implementation are those where ATM community expectations are not being met. 5

6 PBN Manual Doc 9613 Volume I Part A Airspace Concept Part B Implementation Processes Volume II Navigation Specifications

7 Strategic Objectives SAFETY CAPACITY EFFICIENCY ACCESS ENVIRONMENT PBN AIRSPACE CONCEPT Airspace Enablers COM NAV SUR ATM Navigation Application ATS PANS OPS Navigation Specification PBN NAVAID Infrastructure CREW

8 PBN airspace concept Airspace concept is developed to satisfy explicit strategic objectives improved or maintained SAFETY increased ATS CAPACITY improved EFFICIENCY to allow more accurate flight paths mitigation of ENVIRONMENTAL impact These objectives are identified by airspace users, air traffic management (ATM), airports as well as environmental and government policy.

9 PBN airspace concept = Design Describes the intended operations within an airspace. Detailed practical organization of the airspace and its users based on particular CNS/ATM requirements, ATS route structure, separation minima, route spacing and obstacle clearance.

10 PBN, Strategic Objectives (eg.) Safety: The design of RNP instrument approach procedures could be a way of increasing safety (by reducing Controlled Flights into Terrain (CFIT)). Capacity: Planning the addition of an extra runway at an airport to increase capacity will trigger a change to the airspace concept (new approaches to SIDs and STAR required). Efficiency: A requirement to optimize flight profiles on departure and arrival could make flights more efficient in terms of fuel burn. Environment: Requirements for reduced emissions, noise preferential routes or continuous descent/climb operations CDO/CCO), are environmental motivators for change. Access: A requirement to provide an approach with lower minima than supported by conventional procedures, to ensure continued access to the airport during bad weather, may result in providing an RNP approach to that runway.

11 Navigation Specification FLIGHT PHASE NAVEGATION SPECIFICATION En-route Oceanic/ Remote En-Route Continental Arrival Approach Initial Interm. Final Miss DEP RNAV 10 RNAV 5 RNAV 2 RNAV 1 RNP 4 RNP 2 RNP 1 Advanced RNP RNP APCH RNP AR APCH RNP a 1 a 1 ab 1 a,c 2 2 or

12 Navigation Specification Aim is to limit number of Nav. Specs in global use 23 NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION Navigation Specifications published in Volume II of ICAO PBN Manual What PERFORMANCE is required of the RNAV system? What Functionalities must RNAV system have to achieve Performance What Navigation Sensors must be integrated in RNAV system to achieve Performance What requirements are placed on the Air crew to achieve the required Performance from the RNAV system? Accuracy Integrity Continuity Document used by State as basis for developing Certification & Operational Approval 12

13 Navigation Specification Navigation Specifications published in Volume II of PBN Manual PERFORMANCE 32 NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION Functionalities Navigation Sensors Air crew requirements Document used by State as basis for developing Certification & Operational Approval 13

14 Navigation Specification 32 NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION RNAV System PERFORMANCE Accuracy Integrity Continuity RNAV RNP Document used by State as basis for Certification & Operational Approval On-Board performance Monitoring and Alerting 14

15 Navigation Specification RNAV RNP On-Board performance Monitoring and Alerting On-board performance monitoring and alerting does not only refer to containment in the MASPS; Annex 11 or PANS-OPS. On-board performance monitoring and alerting allows the air crew to detect that the RNP system is not achieving the navigation performance required of the RNP system 15

16 RNAV and RNP RNAV 1 RNP 1 2*RNP Alert to Pilot Track Centerline 1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time RNP isn t fundamentally different from RNAV: RNP is MORE Than RNAV The Key Difference: On-Board Performance Monitoring and Alerting 1 Nautical Mile 95% of flight time 16

17 Navigation Specification NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION RNAV SPECIFICATIONS RNP SPECIFICATIONS Designation RNP 10 For Oceanic and Remote Continental navigation applications Designation RNAV 5 RNAV 2 RNAV 1 For En Route & Terminal navigation applications Designation RNP 4 For Oceanic & Remote Continental navigation applications Designation RNP 2* B-RNP 1 A-RNP* RNP 0.3* RNP APCH* RNP AR APCH for various phases of flight * * Designation RNP with additional requirements to be determined (e.g. 3D, 4D etc)

18 Navigation Application 13 NAVIGATION APPLICATION The APPLICATION (use of) the Navigation Specification and Navaid Infrastructure - For example: Routes based on RNAV and RNP Specifications (these rely on the Navaid Infrastructure); For example: SIDs/STARs based on RNAV and RNP Specifications; For example: Approach procedures based on RNP Specifications 18

19 Navigation Specification by Flight Phase Example of an application of RNAV and RNP navigation specification to ATS routes and instrument procedures

20 PBN implementation Navigation based on specified system performance requirements for aircraft operating on a air traffic route, instrument approach procedure, or in a designated airspace 20

21 PBN Airspace Concept Implementation Regional approach National Upper Airspace Lower airspace & terminal areas Comprehensive implementation PBN Approach Procedures States Aerodrome Capacity & Efficiency Short term Medium term Long term

22 FIR UTA CLASS A FL195 TMA CLASS D CTA CLASS E CTA CLASS E CTR CTR CTR CLASS G GND

23 Link between airspace design & PBN Separation minima in procedural environment; Configuration/proximity of ATS Routes (including SIDs, STARs and IFP) for an airspace organisation. Above determined in part, but not exclusively by area navigation system performance stipulated in the Navigation Specification (required for operation in an airspace). Accuracy Integrity Continuity 23

24 24

25 Airspace Design: particularly Routes and IFPs e Conventional Navigation Airspace Designbased on assumptions that all aircraft equipped with NDB/VOR and/or DME and airspace designed RNAV (pre-pbn) Airspace Designbased on assumptions that 'RNAV equipped' aircraft can use RNAV routes. Exceptionally, Nav Spec required e.g. RNP 4. PBN Airspace Design, must in all cases match... (a) Aircraft fleet capability, which must match... (b) An ICAO PBN Navigation Specification + (c)... and available NAVAID Infrastructure 25

26 ICAO 2012 Flight Plan & PBN Example of RNAV 1 In Item 10: R = PBN levels that can be met are shown in Item 18 if FPL In Item 18: Amendment 1, Doc

27 PBN implementation RNAV system needed Operational approval needed for airspace implementation Different sensors can be used to achieve the same performance 27

28 Benefits of PBN airspace concept Transition to a total RNAV environment Flight efficiency, optimise airspace etc. PBN systematises RNAV Avoid proliferation of standards (costs for certification) RNP allows increased reliance on RNAV Closer routes Avoid need to cross check against point source Nav aids (e.g. VOR) Infrastructure Once Dual GNSS (supported in certain dense airspace by DME) 28

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