Danish Shipping Statistics November 2016

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1 Danish Shipping Statistics November 216

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. Recent Developments in Danish Shipping 2 1. Key Figures of the Danish Merchant Fleet 3 2. Size and Composition of the Merchant Fleet Denmark 2.1 Development of the Danish Merchant Fleet Changes In the Danish Merchant Fleet Employment Of the Danish Merchant Fleet The Danish Merchant Fleet By Ship Type The Danish Merchant Fleet By Size And Age Groups 5 World 2.6 Geographical Distribution Of The World Merchant Fleet World Merchant Fleet By Flag State World Merchant Fleet By Owner Domicile World Merchant Fleet By Main Type And Owner Domicile World Merchant Fleet By Operator Domicile World Merchant Fleet By Main Type And Operator Domicile World Merchant Fleet By Ship Type Danish Share Of Various Ship Types The EU Countries' Merchant Fleets / Development of Major European National Fleets World's 25 Biggest Ship Owners World's 25 Biggest Ship Operators Shipbuilding and Purchasing Denmark 3.1 The Shipping Companies' Newbuilding Programme The Shipping Companies' Investments For Danish Flag The Shipping Companies' Yearly Contracting The Danish Merchant Fleet By Country Of Build 12 World 3.5 The World's Total Newbuilding Orders By Country Of Build The World's Total Newbuilding Orders By Ship Type The World's Total Newbuilding Orders By Owner Domicile Economic Key Figures 4.1 Danish Shipping's Foreign Currency Earnings Danish Shipping Exports Changes to the Global Economy Development in Freight Rates 5.1 Charter Rates For Tankers Charter Rates For Dry Cargo Ships Charter Rates For Containers Danish Maritime Employment Figures 6.1 People Employed in Danish Shipping People Employed in the Danish Maritime Cluster Geographical Distribution of People Employed in Blue Denmark Salaries and Tax Payment in Blue Denmark Educational Level in Blue Denmark World Trade by Sea 7.1 World Trade By Sea - Oil, Bulk And Container - Container capacity Sea Transport Of Important Bulk Commodities World Trade Flows Cargo Traffic In Major Ports Container Traffic In Major Ports Bunker Price 8.1 Development Of Bunker Prices And Crude Oil Price Environmental and Transport Cost Figures 9.1 Tank transportation And Incidents Of Tanker Spillage Energy Efficiency Future Requirements For SOx And NOx Reduction Piracy 1.1 Piracy Off Somalia Global Piracy 25 Vocabulary 26 Source References And Notes 27 1

3 Difficult Year for Shipping is Coming to an End Flash Analysis December will soon be history, and the year is unlikely to evoke warm memories for the shipping industry in general. The year has seen declining freight rates, weak global growth and global insecurity as a result of new political currents. Shipping, having begun consolidating, is now aiming for a brighter future. After starting the year off with the worst crisis in recent memory, dry bulk and container shipping lines saw their markets stabilize during the summer months. 216 has been a volatile year that saw the lowest level in the Baltic Dry Index ever. The fall affected particularly the very large capsize bulk carriers, which for a time were down to about $5, per day - far below the cost of the operation and depreciation of the ships. Tankers saw significant influx of capacity which, coupled with rising oil prices, meant that freight rates have fallen to their lowest level since before oil prices began to fall in June 214. Oil prices fell from $115 per barrel to $25 per barrel but have since stabilized at around $5 per barrel. On a positive note, Ro-Ro shipping is still going strong and is increasing its transported volumes. export activity. New Normal for Shipping Globally, the number of new buildings on order fell from 6,13 ships in October 215 to 5,476 ships in October 216, which equals a decline of 1.3 pct. This is part of the shipping industry s search for new equilibrium, where both increased scrapping of excess tonnage and restraining from ordering new ships play key roles. Both the number of scrapping and reticence are reinforced in 216. Scrapping has gone from being primarily relevant for bulk carriers to be broadly based in the challenged segments. So far in 216, the scrapping figures have exceeded those of 215 by more than 1.6 million TDW. Meanwhile, the number of new orders for ships has fallen from over 1,8 in 215 to an estimated 5 by the end of the year. Freight rates stabilized in the dry bulk and container after some difficult years. Tanker shipping experiencing declines due to oversupply of vessels. New export figures show declining EU share of Danish shipping activity. The number of new buildings fall as the market is seeking new equilibria. Table: Year 215 vs. 216 New Export Figures for Shipping Export figures for 215 are also published in this issue of Danish Shipping Statistics (p. 14). We observe a redistribution of the shipping companies export revenues, where Europe s and North America s market shares fall relative to last year. This is primarily due to lower growth rates in these regions than in the rest of the world. Europe and North America now account for respectively 27 and 1.3 pct. of Danish companies' Status quo for the Danish flagged merchant fleet The Danish flagged merchant fleet ends 216 where it started, with a small increase in the number of ships and TDW, respectively five ships and 75, TDW whereas the gross tonnage has fallen by some 33, GT. The order book for Danish shipping companies has shrunk in 216 due to ships being delivered whilst not many are being ordered. New buildings on order, globally New orders for ships Total decrease in pct. 1,3% 72,2% Contact: Rasmus With Economist Mobil:

4 1: Key Figures on the Danish Merchant Fleet Size of the Danish Merchant Fleet Share (GT) of World Merchant Fleet Sailing 1 October 216 Under Danish Flag per 1 October 216 Percent Number of ships 666 Container ships 4.9% TDW (million) 17.3 Passenger ships, ferries 1.15% GT (million) 15.5 General cargo and Ro-Ro.78% Gas tankers.62% Product and chemical vessels 3.44% Oil tankers.5% Other dry bulk.5% Employment of the Danish Merchant Fleet Total 1.25% (Per cent based on GT) 1 October 216 Liner trade 76.3 Tramp 2.5 Tanker trade 21.3 Danish Shipping Companies' Exports Shipping Exports 215 (Billion DKK) 23.9 Danish Shipping Companies' Newbuilding Per cent of total Danish Exports 19.5% Programme 1 October 216 Number of ships 12 Employment in Danish Shipping Companies TDW (million) 6.3 Employment in Danish Shipping Companies, GT (million) 5.4 Total value (billion DKK) 4 Danish Shipping's Most Important Markets (%) EU 27 North America 1.3 China incl. Hong Kong 15.4 Other Asia 16.4 Danish Operated Merchant Fleet - Mill. DWT Danish Flag 17,4 Other Flags 18,4 Chartered Vessels 38,6 Total 74,4 For statistical information, contact Economist Rasmus With, phone *References for tables and figures is located at the back of this publication. 3

5 2: Size and Composition of the Merchant Fleet Table 2.1: Development of the Danish Merchant Fleet Total Fleet Tanker Fleet Dry Cargo Fleet 1 Jan Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Oct Table 2.2: Changes in the Danish Merchant Fleet Gain Loss Net Gain Year Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) YTD Table 2.3: Employment of the Danish Merchant Fleet Liner Trade Tramp Trade Tanker Trade Total 1 Jan GT (1 ) Per cent GT (1 ) Per cent GT (1 ) Per cent GT (1 ) Per cent Oct GT Merchant Fleet Trade Distribution Oct 216 Liner Trade Tramp Trade Tanker Trade 4

6 Table 2.4: The Danish Merchant Fleet by Ship Type 1 November November October 216 GT GT GT Vessels Vessels Vessels Vessel Categories (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) Liner Trade Container Ro-Ro Passengerships, ferries Total Tramp Trade Bulk carriers Other dry bulk etc Total Tanker Trade Oil Tankers Product tankers Chemical tankers LPG Tankers Total Specilized Cable layers Standby safety vessels Tugs, supply vessels etc Total Fleet total Table 2.5: The Danish Merchant Fleet by Size and Age Groups, 1 October 216 Age <5 years 5-9 years 1-14 years years 2+ years Total Size GT Vessels GT Vessels GT Vessels GT Vessels GT Vessels GT Vessels GT Total GT per cent

7 Table 2.6: Geographical Distribution of the World Merchant Fleet 1 July January 2 1 October 216 GT (1 ) Per cent GT (1 ) Per cent GT (1 ) Per cent EU Other I-Countries Open Registers Eastern Europe Dyn. Asian Countries Rest of Asia Latin America Africa Unknown Total Geographical Distribution of World Fleet Latin America Africa Unknown Rest of Asia Dyn. Asian Countries Eastern Europe EU-28 Open Registers Other I- Countries EU Share of World Merchant Fleet Per cent July January 2 1 October 216 Table 2.7: World Merchant Fleet by Flag State 1 October 216 GT TDW TEU GT TDW TEU Rank Flag (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) Per cent Per cent Per cent Vessels 1 Panama Liberia Marshall Islands Hong Kong Singapore Malta Bahamas China Greece Japan Cyprus Norway Italy Denmark Isle Of Man UK Indonesia Bermuda Portugal South Korea USA India Germany Malaysia Antigua & Barbuda Others Total

8 Table 2.8: World Merchant Fleet by Group Owner Domicile, 1 October 216 Rank Country GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) Per cent (GT) Vessels 1 Greece Japan China Germany USA South Korea Bermuda Singapore Hong Kong Norway UK Denmark Taiwan Switzerland Italy Monaco Turkey Canada Russia Netherlands Belgium India Indonesia France Iran Others World Total Table 2.9: World Merchant Fleet by Main Type and Group Owner Domicile, 1 October 216 Container Tank Dry Bulk Gen. cargo, passenger, etc. Rank Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) 1. Germany Greece Japan USA China Japan Greece Japan Denmark Bermuda China Norway Greece China South Korea China Japan USA Hong Kong Netherlands Switzerland South Korea Singapore Germany Hong Kong Norway Taiwan Italy Singapore Singapore Germany Singapore Taiwan Germany 8 81 Bermuda Bermuda UK Russia USA South Korea France UK UK UK South Korea 6 56 Saudi Arabia Monaco Brazil Kuwait 4 98 Monaco Turkey 7 35 Sweden USA Belgium India Russia Bermuda Denmark Norway Switzerland Cyprus 1 92 Canada Italy 4 26 Isle Of Man Chile Iran Canada Greece Turkey 1 51 Hong Kong Belgium 2 9 Indonesia Indonesia India Cyprus 2 83 Malaysia Israel Qatar Switzerland Hong Kong Norway 1 14 Italy Indonesia Turkey Isle Of Man 1 16 U.A.E Brazil 2 29 Denmark Netherlands 996 Malaysia 4 5 Isle Of Man 1 93 France U.A.E. 892 Indonesia Thailand Canada Belgium 845 Turkey 3 67 Denmark Vietnam Others Others Others Others World Total

9 Table 2.1: World Merchant Fleet by Operator Domicile, 1 October 216 Rank Country GT TDW GT (1 ) (1 ) Per cent Vessels 1 Greece % Japan % China % Singapore % Germany % USA % South Korea % Denmark % UK % Hong Kong % Switzerland % Norway % Taiwan % France % Bermuda % U.A.E % Italy % Netherlands % Turkey % Indonesia % Brazil % India % Belgium % Iran % Monaco % 257 Others % World Total Table 2.11: World Merchant Fleet by Main Type and Operator Domicile, 1 October 216 Container Tank Dry Bulk Gen. cargo and passenger Rank Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) Country GT (1 ) 1. Denmark Greece Greece USA Switzerland Singapore Japan Japan Germany UK China Norway Taiwan 2 38 Japan Singapore China China USA Germany South Korea France Norway South Korea Italy Japan South Korea Hong Kong Germany South Korea China Taiwan Singapore USA Denmark UK 1 31 UK Singapore U.A.E Switzerland 1 21 Netherlands Hong Kong Bermuda Denmark Brazil Kuwait Hong Kong USA 8 73 Indonesia Israel Qatar Turkey Russia Greece Iran Monaco 5 66 Turkey Indonesia India 6 28 Norway Hong Kong U.A.E Saudi Arabia Belgium Denmark Belgium 1 19 Indonesia Cyprus Greece Turkey 1 12 Germany 4 77 Canada Malaysia Iran 1 8 Belgium Bermuda France UK 843 Monaco India 4 14 Bermuda Netherlands 829 Russia 4 44 Netherlands Vietnam Thailand 685 South Korea Brazil U.A.E Australia 489 Italy Italy Switzerland Cyprus 374 Brazil Indonesia Australia Canada 346 Kuwait France 1 65 India Others 3 46 Others Others Others World Total

10 Table 2.12: World Merchant Fleet by Ship Type, 1 October GT Rank Flag Tank Bulk Container Gen. cargo Other/Pass. Total 1. Panama Liberia Marshall Islands Hong Kong Singapore Malta Bahamas Kina Grækenland Japan Cypern Norge Italien Danmark Isle Of Man Storbritannien Indonesien Bermuda Portugal Sydkorea USA Indien Tyskland Malaysia Antigua & Barbuda Others World Total Table 2.13: Danish Share of Various Ship Types, 1 October 216 Danish Flagged World Total Danish share of Skibstyper Vessels GT (1 ) Vessels GT (1 ) GT (per cent) Containerships % Passengerships, ferries % General cargo and Ro-Ro % Gas tankers % Product and chemical tankers % Oil Tankers % Drybulk etc % Total % GT (1 ) World Merchant Fleet Development

11 Tabel 2.14: EU Countries' Merchant Fleet 1 October 216 Rank Flag Vessels GT (1 ) TDW (1 ) 1. Malta Greece Cyprus Italy Denmark UK Portugal Germany Netherlands France Belgium Sweden Spain Luxembourg Finland Croatia Estonia Lithuania Ireland Latvia Bulgaria Poland Romania Slovenia Hungary 26 Áustria 27 Czech Republic 28 Slovakia EU Total GT Top Ten EU Merchant Fleets on 1 October Development of Selected EU Merchant Fleets Index (198=1) Okt Norway Sweden Greece 216 Italy United Kingdom Germany France Netherlands Denmark

12 Table 2.15: World's 25 Biggest Shipowners by Owned Tonnage 1 October 216 Rank Company (Group) Country of Control Vessels GT TDW 1 Maersk Group A/S Denmark NYK Line Japan Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd Japan MSC Mediterranean Shipping Co Switzerland COSCO China PRC Shipping Group Co China Anangel Shipping Enterprises Greece PRC Merchants Energy Shipping China Carnival Corp USA Teekay Corp Bermuda Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd Japan Shoei Kisen Kaisha Ltd Japan Zodiac Maritime Ltd UK BAHRI Saudi Arabia SOVCOMFLOT Russia NITC Iran BW Group Ltd Singapore Euronav NV Belgium CMA CGM Holding & Co France Nissen Kaiun Co Ltd Japan Sinokor Merchant Marine Co Ltd South Korea Evergreen Marine Corp Taiwan Neptune Orient Lines Ltd Singapore SK Shipping Co Ltd-KRS South Korea PRC Shipping Development Co China Top 25 Total Others World Total Table 2.16: World's 25 Biggest Companies by Operated Tonnage 1 October 216 Rank Company (Group) Country of Control Vessels GT TDW 1 Maersk Group A/S Denmark MSC Mediterranean Shipping Co Switzerland NYK Line Japan Mitsui OSK Lines Ltd Japan Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd Japan Oldendorff Carriers GmbH & Co Germany CMA CGM Holding & Co France Evergreen Marine Corp Taiwan Hapag-Lloyd AG Germany Hyundai Merchant Marine Co Ltd South Korea Hanjin Shipping Co Ltd South Korea COSCON China COSCO Shipping Development China NITC Iran Hamburg Sudamerikanische Germany Orient Overseas Container Line Hong Kong Navig8 VL8 Pool UK Yang Ming Marine Transport Taiwan APL Ltd USA United Arab Shipping Co Saudi Arabia SwissMarine Services SA Switzerland Tankers UK Agencies Ltd UK SK Shipping Co Ltd-KRS South Korea Associated Maritime Co HK Ltd Hong Kong Zodiac Maritime Ltd UK Top 25 Total Others World Total

13 3: Shipbuilding Table 3.1: Danish Shipping Companies' Newbuilding Programme, 1 October 216 Expected Delivery Vessels GT TDW Price, bn. DKK* I alt Table 3.2: The Shipping Companies' Investments to Danish Flag per 1 October Million DKK Year Newbuildings Secondhand Total Sales Net investment Net Investment to Danish Flag Mill. DKK Table 3.3: Danish Shipping Companies' Yearly Contracting Year Vessels GT Price mil. DKK* GT Newbuilding Orders by Danish Shipping Companies Table 3.4: The Danish Merchant Fleet by Country of Building, 1 October 216 Country of build Vessels GT (1 ) GT (%) Country of build, 1 October 216 Denmark % 3% 1% China South Korea Norway % 7% Germany Japan % Turkey Other Total % * Data for some vessels are estimates 1% Denmark China South Korea Norway Germany Japan Turkey Other 12

14 Table 3.5: The World's Total Newbuilding Orders by Country of Building 1 November November November November October 216 TDW TDW TDW TDW TDW Rank Country of Build Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) 1 China South Korea Japan Phillipines Brazil Romania Vietnam Taiwan India Iran Other Total Table 3.6: The World's Total Newbuilding Orders by Ship Type 1 November November November November October 216 Ship Type TDW TDW TDW TDW TDW Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) General cargo Container Ro-Ro Tankers Bulk carriers Offshore/Misc Total Table 3.7: The World's Total Newbuilding Orders by Owner Domicile, 1 October 216 Gen. cargo / Ro-Ro Container Tankers Bulk carriers Total Company TDW TDW TDW TDW TDW Rank Domicile Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) Vessels (1 ) 1 China Greece Japan Bermuda Singapore USA South Korea Hong Kong Denmark Norway Germany Taiwan UK Saudi Arabia Canada Brazil Australia Monaco France Netherlands Other Total

15 Economic Key Figures Table 4.1: Danish Shipping's Foreign Currency Earnings Region's Share of Shipping's Exports Value of Exports (ca., bn.. DKK) Region Europe (excl. Denmark) Other Asia China incl. Hong Kong North America Africa Latin America Middle East Oceania Bn. DKK Note: Percentages might not sum to 1 due to rounding Gross Exports DKK/USD 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,, Exports DKK/USD Foreign exchange rates towards the US dollar is of critical importance to the shipping industry as the USD is the preferred currency in international shipping. Index (1999=1) 5 Indexed Exports USD/EUR 1,5 45 1,4 4 1,3 35 1,2 1,1 3 1, 25,9 2,8 15,7 1,6 5, Exports USD/EUR 14

16 Table 4.2: Danish Shipping Exports Shipping's Gross Exports Yearly Change in Gross Exports (%) Shipping's Share of Danish Service Exports Shipping's Share of Total Danish Exports 8.9% 12.7% -28.3% 28.3% 1.% 7.8% 2.8% 3.2% -1.1% 51.5% 52.4% 46.2% 51.8% 5.5% 5.8% 51.% 5.7% 49.4% 19.4% 2.3% 17.6% 2.4% 18.9% 19.5% 19.6% 2.2% 19.5% Table 4.3: Changes to the Global Economy Yearly Change (%) Global GDP Global Trade Growth Global Export Volume North America Latin America Europe Asia Global Import Volume North America Latin America Europe Asia % Yearly Change % Global GDP Global Trade Growth (rhs) 15

17 5.1: Development in Tanker Freight Rates Table 5.1.1: VLCC Charter Rates 1 year T/C 31. DWT 3 year T/C 31. DWT $1 /day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Table 5.1.2: Suezmax Charter Rates 1 year T/C 15. DWT 3 year T/C 15. DWT $1 /day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Table 5.1.3: Handysize Charter Rates 1 year T/C 37. DWT 3 year T/C 37. DWT $1 /day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average

18 5.2: Dry Bulk Charter Rates Table 5.2.1: Capesize Charter Rates 1 year T/C 17. DWT 3 year T/C 17. DWT 1. USD/day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Table 5.2.2: Panamax Charter Rates 1 year T/C 75. DWT 3 year T/C 75. DWT 1. USD/day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Table 5.2.3: Baltic Dry Index Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Baltic Dry Index

19 January March May July September November January March May July September November January March May July September November January March May July September November January March May July September November January March May July September 5.3: Container Charter Rates Table 5.3.1: Clarksons Average Container Earnings Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Table 5.3.2: Container Ship Charter Rates 6-12 months T/C 4.4 TEU 6-12 months T/C 1.7 TEU 1. USD/day Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Average $1,/day Shipping Market Overview $1,/day TEU 4.4 TEU Capesize, 1y Panamax, 1y Suezmax, 1y Handysize, 1y VLCC, 1y 18

20 6: Danish Maritime Employment Figures Table 6.1: Employment in Danish Shipping Companies Category Danish Officers Danish Ratings Danish Students* Danish Seafarers, total** EU Officers EU Ratings EU Students* EU Seafarers, total Officers, Other Nationalities Ratings, Other Nationalities Students, Other Nationalities* Other Nationalities, total*** Seafarers total Land Employment in Denmark off which are trainees etc Total Danes Employed Danish Shipping Companies, total Source: Danish Shipowners' Association *Students incl. cadets, trainees and ordinary seamen and other educational positions that receive a salary from the shipping company. **Danish seafarers is defined as seafarers who resides in Denmark and Danish nationals who are living abroad. ***Other Nationalities is defined as seafarers from countries outside the EU. Table 6.2: Employment in the Danish Maritime Cluster Direct Employment Indirect Employment Total Share of Blue Denmark Share of Total Employment Oil and Gas %.1% Ship Building %.2% Shipping# %.4% Equipment %.7% Other Maritime Industry %.8% Blue Denmark % 2.2% # The number of employes in Table 6.1 and 6.2 deviate from each other as a consequence of different definitions, meaning that Table 6.2 does not include all shipping companies. Tabel 6.3 Geographical Distribution of Employment in Denmark Employed Persons Share of Blue Denmark Share of Total Regional Employment Capital Region % 1.7% Zealand Region % 1.6% South Denmark Region % 3.2% Central Denmark Region % 2.3% Northern Denmark Region % 2.4% Total % 2.2% Table 6.4: Salaries and Tax Payment in Blue Denmark in 215, 21-prices Sector/weighted average Avg. Income Tax Payment Oil and Gas Ship Building Shipping Equipment Other Maritime Industry Blue Denmark total Denmark, total Table 6.5: Educational Level in Blue Denmark Number of Workers in Blue Denmark Share of Blue Denmark Share of Educational Level's Employment Grade School % 2.% High School or Equivalent % 1.7% Apprenticeships or Equivalent % 2.8% Other Post-High School Degrees % 3.2% Bachelor's Degree % 1.7% Master's Degree or Higher % 1.6% Total % 2.2% 19

21 7: Seaborne World Trade Tabel 7.1: Seaborne Container Transport (Clarksons Research) Mill. TEU CAGR TEU % Growth, y-o-y 13.3% 11.2% 1.8% 4.% -9.2% 13.7% 7.2% 3.% 4.9% 6.2% 2.3% Tabel 7.2: Seaborne Dry Bulk Transport (Clarksons Research) Million tonnes CAGR Crude Oil % Growth, y-o-y 1.6%.7% 1.1% -.5% -4.6% 2.9% -.9% 2.7% -3.6% -1.5% 3.5% Oil Products % Growth, y-o-y 9.6% 8.2% 3.7% 3.1% 1.3% 6.6% 3.%.9% 3.9% 2.% 4.9% Iron Ore % Growth, y-o-y 11.7% 7.7% 9.% 8.2% 6.8% 1.4% 6.2% 5.5% 7.1% 11.7% 2.4% Other Bulk % Growth, y-o-y 7.1% 6.6% 7.4% 1.2% -6.1% 12.7% 6.7% 7.2% 5.1% 1.1% -7.1% Seaborne Dry Bulk Transport, Mill. Tonnes Crude Oil Oil Products Iron Ore Coal Total (rhs) Mill. TEU Seaborne Container Transport TEU Growth, y-o-y (rhs) 15% 1% 5% % -5% -1% -15% Bn. tonne-miles 1. Seaborne World Trade Iron Ore Coal Grains Other Bulk Crude Oil Oil Products Gas Chemicals Container Other General Cargo E 215E 2

22 Table 7.3: World Trade Flows Main Routes for Container Traffic, Product Tank and Bulk Other Short Sea 1% Container Traffic Other Deep Sea 26% Asia-North America 23% Europe-North America 3% Asia-Latin/South America 5% Asia-Africa 6% Intra-Asia 9% Asia-Europe 23% Asia-Middle East 4% Dry Bulk Traffic Dry Bulk 21% Latin/South America- Europe 32% Africa-Asia 4% Europe-Asia 7% Intra-Asia 2% Oceania-Asia 19% Latin/South America-Asia North America-Asia 8% 7% Tanker Traffic Other 33% Middle East-Asia 36% Middle East-Europe 6% South America-Asia 9% Africa-Asia 9% Middle East-North America 7% 21

23 1 units Table 7.4: Total Cargo Traffic in Major Ports (Mill. tonnes) Rank Port Country Unit CAGR Top 1 1 Shanghai China mt % 2 Singapore Singapore ft* % 3 Tianjin China mt % 4 Guangzhou China mt % 5 Qingdao China mt % 6 Rotterdam Netherlands mt % 7 Ningbo China mt % 8 Port Hedland Australia ft* % 9 Dalian China mt % 1 Busan South Korea mt % Other Selected Ports 14 Houston USA mt % 17 Port Kelang Malaysia mt % 18 Antwerpen Belgium mt % 2 Xiamen China mt % 28 Itaqui Brazil mt % 32 Tanjung Pela. Malaysia ft* % 33 Yokohama Japan mt % 44 Richards Bay South Africa mt % 5 Bremen/-haven Germany mt % - Fredericia Denmark mt % *Note: Some ports state cargo traffic in ft (freight tons) which is not directly comparable with mt (metric tons) (See explanation of freight tons in the vocabulary) Table 7.5: Container Traffic in Major Ports (1 TEU) Rank Port Country CAGR Top 1 1 Shanghai China % 2 Singapore Singapore % 3 Shenzhen China % 4 Hong Kong China % 5 Busan South Korea % 6 Ningbo China % 7 Qingdao China % 8 Guangzhou China % 9 Dubai Ports U.A.E % 1 Tianjin China % Other Selected Ports 13 Rotterdam Netherlands % 14 Hamburg Germany % 24 Laem Chabang Thailand % 25 New York/NJ USA % 3 Tokyo Japan % 35 Algeciras Spain % 38 Santos Brazil % 4 Balboa Panama % 48 Bandar Abbas Iran % -Århus Denmark % Turnover in the Top 5 Container Ports, by Region China Rest of Asia Europe USA Other ports

24 USD per ton 8: Development in bunker prices Table 8.1 : Prices of IFO 18 cst. (Heavy Fuel) and MDO (Marine Diesel Oil) in Europe and USA USD per ton Europe (includes Hamburg, Rotterdam and Le Havre) Month IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO January February March April May June July August September October November December Average USA (includes Los Angeles, Houston and New York) Month IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO IFO 18 MDO January February March April May June July August September October November December Average Development if Bunker Prices , 12, 1, 8, 6, 4, 2,, IFO 18 EUR IFO 18 USA MDO EUR MDO USA USD Crude Oil Price per Barrel - Brent - Yearly Average , 12, 1, 8, 6, 4, 2,,

25 Table 9.1: Tank Transportation og Oil Spills Global Seaborne Oil Transport and Incidents of Tanker Spillage Billion tonne-miles No Seaborne Oil Transport (tonne-miles) No. Of spills per year > 7 tons Table 9.2: Energy Efficiency Table 9.3: Future Requirements for SOx and NOx Reduction Pct Reduction Requirements SOx - Globally SOx - Emission control -areas NOx - New engines - Emission controlareas NOx - New engines - Globally 24

26 Table 1.1 Piracy off Somalia Piracy incidents Gulf of Aden, Red Sea, Indian Ocean off Somalia Q3 Attempts Fired upon Boarding Hijacked Total Somalia Q3 Total incidents Attempts Fired upon Boarding (only) Hijackings Table 1.2 Piracy in the rest of the world 3 Piracy incidents, world, excl. Somalia Q2 Attempt Fired upon Boarding (failed) Hijacked Total World Q3 Total incidents Attempts Fired upon Boarding (robbery) Hijackings * Data for 216 includes only the first three quarters of 215. A lower number does not imply a decrease in piracy attacks. 25

27 Vocabulary Bareboat Charter - A shipping company lets or leases a ship without crew, typically for a longer period. Bulk Carrier - A ship constructed for transport of bulk cargoes, such as coal and grain. Bunkers - Trade term for ship s fuel, typically oil. Oil Tanker - Ship transporting oil or oil products in bulk. Panamax Vessel of about 6, 8, DWT. The largest type of vessel being able to pass the Panama Canal. Product Tanker - A ship transporting refined oil products. Cable-layer - A ship specially constructed Reefer - Ship transporting refrigerated and for the laying and repairing of telegraph frozen goods such as fruit, vegetables and meat. cables across oceans. Ro-Ro Ship - A ship where the cargo is driven Capesize Bulk carrier of the size from on board and ashore via ramps by lorries or other 1, to 2, dwt. special vehicles. The cargo itself is often vehicles Chemical Tanker - A ship transporting chemicals. Container Ship - A ship transporting containers. CAGR Compound annual growth rate Shows the average annual growth rate CAGR = Ending value Starting value 1 Number of years 1 Dry Bulk - Cargo carried by bulk carriers, e.g. ore, coal and grain, as opposed to tank cargo. DWT - The total weight which a ship can carry, including cargo, provisions, fuel, stores, bunkers, crew, spares, etc., up to the ship s summer load line. (Plimsoll Line). EEA - is description of all EU countries + the EFTA countries Norway, Iceland and Lichtenstein. Freight tons (ft.) - The unit on which freight is calculated. It can be the measurement, e.g. cubic metres, or the weight, e.g. metric tons. General Cargo - Miscellaneous cargo. GT - The total volume of all the enclosed spaces within a ship. 1 GT is equal to 1 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic metres. Liner Trade - Describes ships in regular traffic between ports laid down in a fixed schedule. LPG Tanker - A ship transporting liquified petroleum gasses. LR (Long Range) - Product tankers for transport of refined oil products in the order of 65, - 1, DWT. Salvage and Tug Ship - A ship helping other ships in and out of ports and when salvage is required. Stand-by/Safety Vessel - A vessel working as a stand-by safety, fire fighting and waste disposal vessel in the offshore industry. Tanker Market - Transportation of liquid cargo on board ships in free trade, typically chartered for single trips (trip charter). Time Charter - A shipping line lets or leases a ship complete with crew for a certain period of time. Tramp Trade - Ships in free trade, carrying either full or part cargoes being offered along the way, between ports not following a fixed schedule. Trip Charter - The time charter of a ship for one specific trip, rather than for a period of time. Also occasionally to mean a voyage charter. Supply Ship - A ship working in the offshore industry for the carriage of stores and equipment, towing and anchor handling. VLCC (Very Large Crude Carriers) Crude oil tankers in the order of 28, 35, DWT, typically load capacity of 2 million barrels of crude oil. Unable to pass the Suez Canal. Worldscale - A unified scale by means of which tanker freight is quoted. Its purpose is to enable shipowners and charterers to easily agree on the freight for a given voyage. Worldscale 1 signifies the average cost for a great number of standard voyages, and the freight for a specific voyage is then agreed upon as either a higher or a lower figure. 26

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