DhanallJa)'lU'110 Gadgll Library. lem~mmd~llmmmml GIPE-PUNI:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DhanallJa)'lU'110 Gadgll Library. lem~mmd~llmmmml GIPE-PUNI:"

Transcription

1 DhanallJa)'lU'110 Gadgll Library lem~mmd~llmmmml GIPE-PUNI:

2 GAZETTEER OF THE GUJRANW ALA DISTRICT, REVISED EDITION Compiled and Published under the Authority OF THE PUNJAB GOVERNMENT..ARORE: "CIVIL UD MILITARY GAZETTE" PRESS

3

4 PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION. The period fixed by the Punjab Government for the compila.. tion of the Gazetteer of the Province being limited to twelve months, toe Editor has not been able to prepare any original matter for the present work; and his duties have been confined to throwing the already existing material into shape, supplementing it as far as possible by contributions obtained from district officers, passing the draft ~hrough the press, circulating it for revision, altering it in accordance with the corrections and suggestions of revising officers, and printing and issuing the final edition. The material available in print for the Gazetteer of this district consisted of the Settlement Reports, and a draft Gazetteer, compiled between 1870 and 1874 by Mr. F. Cunningham, Barrister-at-Law. Notes on certain points have been supplied by district officers; while the report on the Census of 1881 has been utilised. Of the present volume, Section A. of Chap. V (General Administration), and the whole of Chap. VI (Towns), have been for the most part"supplied by the Deputy Commissioner; and Section A of Chap. III (Statistics of Population) has been taken from the Census Report. But with these exceptions, the great mass of the text has been taken almost, if not quite, verbally from Mr. Cunningham's compilatip,n already referred to, which again was largely based upon :Major Nisbet's Settlement Report of the district. The report in question was written in 1868, and modelled on the meagre lines of the old sottlement reports, affords very inadequate material for an account of the district. No better or fuller material, however, was either avaiiable or procurable within the time allowed. But when the district again comes under settlement, a second and more Qomplete edition of this Gazetteer will be prepared; and meanwhile the present edition will serve the useful purpose of collecting and publishing in a systema.tic form, information which had before been scattered, and in part unpublished.

5 ii The draft edition of this Gazetteer has been reviseo by Major Nisbet and Messrs. Bulman and Tra.fford. The D.eputy Commissioner is responsible for the spelling of vernacular names. which has been fixed throughout by him in accordance with the preacribed system of transliteration. The final edition, though completeiy compiled by the Editor, has heen passed through the press by Mr. Stack. PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. The present edition of the has been completed in the cold weather of on the conclusion of settlement operations. It is based largely on the Assessment Reports of the variour tahshs and the Final Settlement Report for the district. Excepting small portions of Chapters II, III and VI this edition has been entirely rewritten, as it was found that owing to the opening up of the district by the Chemill Ganal, the alteration of boun.daries, the establishment of a new tahsil, all of which have occurred since the first edition was prepared, the information given in the latter was both meagre and obsolete. In the present edition an attempt has been made to bring the facts up to date and to include the most --I'ccent statistics. A small scale map has also been added which shows the principal towns and villages, main lines of communication, existing boundaries of tahshs, assessment circles, &c., the lines of the Cheflltb Canal and its branches, and the alignment of the \Vazirabad-Lyal1pur Railway now under construction. The account of tho agricultural system of the district in Chapter IV has been copied from the GazeUf'er of the adjoining district of Lahore. For the valuable notes on the history and working of the Chenab Canal, and. of the progress of the Chenah Oanal colonisation scheme, I am indebted to ~the kindness of :Mr. Sidney Preston, Superintending Engineer, and of Lieutenant Popham Young, Colonisation Officer, respectively. ~lr. H. D. Watson, Assistant Commissioner, assisted me throughout in compiling the information and recasting the text, and but for his aid the work would not have made such speedy progress.. GUJBANW ALA: 1 Phe 10th March, j ~I. F. O'DWYER, OlJiciating D~put]f OommiIBioner.

6 CON TEN T S OHAP. I.-THE DISTRICT A.-DESCRIPTlTI: B. -GtOLOGY, FLUR\ A~D FAC"YA " 11.-HISTORY " 111 -THE PEOPLE A.-S raibtlcu B -Socrn AXD RnIGrocs LIfE " " " C.-TPIBE3, C!STf3 A~I) LUDIXiJ FAlIILIl:S D.-YILUGE Comn:xlTn:c;, RluHTS AXD THer.n IV.-PRODUCTIO~ un DISTRIBUTIO~ A.-AGRlcnrt'Rr, ARBOp.lcLLrI:RI.lSD Lln:-srocs: B.-OcclJ"PATIOXS, IXI.IC::-TRIES ild COlIlIERCE.. C.-PRICES. WEIGHTS, 1hASt'RES.iSD COllllI:XICA.TIOXS V.-ADlIl.."USTRATIOY UI) FINANCE A..-GEN'ERU B.-LuD AXD LAND REu:sn VI.-TOWXS UD :MUNICIPALITIES. CHAPTER. I.-THE DISTRICT. Section A.-Descriptive- General description: changes of boundaries.. Physical features and Datural di mions The Chenab Natural divisions of the nplands: Charkhari circles of ranwala and Wazirabad Bangar circles of Gnjrinw&la, Waziraba.d and Hwt.bad Bar Clrcles of HAfizabad and Khangah Dogrin Canal irrigation: In1luence of canal ex.tension on agriculture Prevailing soils: drainage lines and nalas: the Kbot The Nanda.nwab nala The Palkhn the Sllkhnain: the Wagh Tbe Nakayan: rainf&ll Section B.-Geology, Flora. and Fauna- Geology: minerals: trees f" Fruita u.a~gardtqlb: wild anim&]s on.." Gnj. PAGI..I. ib ib ib ill ] I S ls l'

7 ii OHAPTER II.-HISTORY. [ Punjab Gazetteer, Genera.l rema.rks: colonisation of the district Ancient history: Asarur. Ransi or Nara Sinhu: Muhammadan period.. Leading tribes and their distribntiou.. Origin of existin,\, villages in Gujrnnwala and Wazirabnd Origin o~ proprietary right in Hafizabad: decline of Mogbal Empiro.,.., Riso of Sikh power.. Consolidation of Sikh power.. Establishment of Sikh monarchy SIkh adminlstration nnder Ranjit Singh.. J.Jcading Sikh jaglrdars..,.. l,eauing fhkh Kardars' overthrow of Sikh rule: effects of second Slkh war: the 'Nahva family.., Tho Man family: the Duttala Sirdars Other rebel Sikh jagirdars: the 10yl\1 Sirdars: conduct of tllc Muhammadan tribo Effect of annexation on the people: the mutiny PAGE. Attitude of the Sikhs during the mutiny Attitnde of the Muhammadan tribes Effect of the mutiny: history sinco annexation: list of District Officers. u. 36 Genera.l development since annexation 39 1~ 17 U 20 ib a Section A.-Statistical- Distribution of population Pro port ion per 1,000 of population Age, sex and civil condit'ion Infi mities CHAPTER III.-TBE PEOPLE. Section B.-Social a.nd Religious Life-..,..,., General statistlcs and distribution of religion: religions gather. ings : Wadrabad Mission, Wazirabad!bssion School.., 4,9 Hindu Girls' ~chool, Wazir~bac1!Va;zirabad Mission village schools: QUJranwala Amel'lcan!hsslon ~O Gujrauwala. Mission School: Mission SC}lOol for Girls.., 51 Language: tlducation $ ~2 Fpod of the people: poverty or wealth of the people ~~.. n G 47

8 Gujranwala District.] CHAPTER. III.-THE PEOPLE-conclude". Section C.-Tribes, Castes and Leading Families- Statistics and local distribution of tribes and castes Virakhs Chimas : Chatb8.s Vartiichs:.Bhattis: Tarars Lodikes' Gurayas: Hanjras and Jags' Mans Dbotars and Sekhfts: SanStS Non-Jat tribes' Brahmans, Kbatris Sayads: jagirdars and leading families Section D.-; Village Communities, Rights and Tenures State of tenures at annexation: origin of village communities Effect of British ru Ie Canse of disruption of tbe village commnnities Village tenures. classification of tenures Zaildars Chief beadmen Village bf'admen Proprietary tenures~ tenants and rent Tenant rlght Tenants-at-will: rents of tenants-at-wil1 River usages Agricnlturallaborers: petty "Village grantees I'.. Villa.ge dues: poverty or wealth of the proprietors.. Causes of a.lienation of land CHAPTER IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. Section A.-Agriculture, Arboriculture and Live-stock- General character of the cultivation Agricultural seasons: soils Well irrigation Canal irrigation: Chenah Cana.l Project Extension project u Proil'el!s up to date System of canalworkag: river inunda.ted lands Unirrigated cultiva.tion: agricultural operati.ons Sowing: ploughing: rolling "'- Forming kiyaris :- weeding: ma.nuring Carts: fencing: wa.tching,.. Reaping: threshing: winnowing: agricultural calendar Principal staples...,. 1.-Khfl.riJ crops-rice ~ iii PAGE ib ~ "' 105

9 iv IPanj4b Gazotteer, P101. CHAPTER IV. -PRODUOTION AND DISTRIBUTION-concluded Section A.-Agriculture, Arboriculture and Live-stock-concluded. Sugarcan(' Cotton: maize.. JOWtll', moth and mung..- II.-Rabi (Wops-Wheat Barley: gram' oi1seeds MElhdl' tobacco: opium... F. ddcr crops crop diseases.. Average yield, prodllction, and consumption of food grains ForC'hts LIVC'-"tock Horl'lf'-breech ng.. Section B.-Occupations, Industries and Commerce- Occupation of the poople principal industries nnel manufacture Cutlery, brass and ivory u, Course and nature of trade Section C.-Prices, Weights, Mea.sures and Communications- PrICes, wages and rent rates' price of la.nd H' Weights and measures Communications: rivers and ferries... Railways, roads, rest-houses, encamping grounds, &c. Post Offices' Telegraph -- CHAPTER V.-ADMINISTRA.TION AND FINANCE. Section A.-GenerJloI- Executive and jadicia,l: crimina.ls: Police and ittils Pounds, reveune : excise Municipal in rome District E'llnds Education Gujdmwata Municipal School 'oo....ot.. log ib 109 no ~ Medical Gujranwala. Sadar Dispensary: ecclesiastical: head-qnarters of. other Departments. 141 Section B.-Land add Land Revellue- The SIkh revenue system 'If Summary settlement: regular aettlemedt: l'crision tlettlement.. _ Second revised settlement, of regular.,. " UO

10 Oujranwala District. ] PAGE. CHAPTER Y.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE-concluded. Section B -La.nd a.nd Land Reven~e- cot.eluded. Revision of the record of rights Re-assessment: standards of assessment Prodnce and ha.lf net assets' cash rent half Det assets Half net assets standard One-six!h gross produce: rates of last settlement increased in proportion to the rise in prices: assessment of pasture lands Assessment of canal-irrigated lands Resnlt of assessment for the Whale district Shares of revenue to be paid in each harvest Term of settlement, Chenab Canal colony I.-Situation and size of colony II.-Preliminary survey IIT.-Conditions prevailing before commencement of colonization operations.. (a) ::Mazbis; (b) nomads of the Bdr IT.-Disposal of Go.vernment waste lands.,. (a) Classes of grantees, (b) conditions of grants V.-Assessment VI.-Land allotted how distributed VII.-Peasant settlers. districts from which selected.r. VIII.-Initial charges how recovered.. IX.-Progress made in cultivation " X.-Initial difficulties XI.-Field maps XII.-General Revenue free grants Excise Stamps CRAPTER.. VI.-TOWNS AND ::MUNICIPALITIES. General statistics of towns: Gujranwala town.. Eminabad town Kils. Didal' Singh Wazirabad.. Ra,m.nagar.. Sohdra. "".. Aka,lgarh...., Pindi Bhattian H&fi%abad.. Ja.Ialpur: Sheikhupura. Khinsa.h Dogri.D-Shab.ko.It.,.. tt...,lo f' US ib. lb. ib. io. 161 lb.,0 ib lb. ib. 164 ib. ib ~ 186

11 [ Punjab Gazetteer. Table 1io. I,-showing LEADING STATISTICS Del<ul 01 Tan,{is. DETAILS. District , _.- ToLal squarr 11l1les (1893) CultivateJ Fj'l:ue milos (18D3),. Cultura.ble square miles (1893)" : Irrigated square nllles (1893) I Average square nllles under crops ( to )1 Annual rainfall II! ILiches ( to )..,, I 2,906 1,161 1,314 '161 1, '156 3' (} !, I ' I I--f--j-- Number of inhab!ted towns and villages (1891) 1,241 i 455 : 2tJ2 I Total population (1891).., I 690,169 i 269, ,600 I a '6 1, ,307 Rural population (1891).. I 62,109 I 35,469 I 26,640 Urba.n population (1891),.., , ,697 I 156,966 Total population per square t\111e (1891) I I 407 I Rural population per square mile (1891) I I.. I 1- --_--- H indus (1891),.. S 11ths (1891).., ".. ' ~ ains (1891).... :AI usalmans (18tH) I I ,316 '127 47S,49;J. 309 I I , I I '14,369 I 41,097 24,523 6, , ,2;)4 237, ,812 14, , Average annua.lla.nd revenue ( to ). 667,550 Average annual gross revenue ( to )t 928,730 FlXed, ftuctuatmg, and miscellaneous. t Laud. '1'nbu~ LocM l\aws.~. ull Stamp..

12 ERRATA.. Page S, line 5 from top, for "uplands utar" read "uplands or utar." /I,H " " " " II " 4 " J7 " bottom II ucharkhara Persian wheel I' r'(j' lc charkba a Persian wheel." 5 " 7 n It I, it extremly " read :t extremely." 10 "Srd, entry on margin, for "the Nagh" read "the Vagh." ) I, line 1 from top. for,i N agh )I read tr Vagh." 26 II 2 " bottom,afterstrong,/or oommainsartfullstop. 4,t) " 6 " top,/()r" " read u " 17 " 2 II" below statement, /01' "6,267" read" 4186.". 103 It 12,j bottom " II Magha" " II Mag~r." 106 " S I,,, " "years!' II" years." I, "2'",, " " S " II WI See/' "..,,1 II " " "an" " "and.it " 114' II 5 in.tatement " "Wamke"" :nvanike." " J from top II Ie or" " "nor." II 122 " 9 from bottom "., Sal,1 It cr salt.".

13 Gujranwa.la. District. 1 CHAPTER THE DISTRICT. SECTION A.-DESCRIPTIVE.. The Gujranw.ila district is the southernmost of the sil:: Chapter I, A. distl'lcts in the Rawalpmdl Division, to,vhich it was transferred Descriptive in 1885 from lhe Lahore nivisiod, aud lies betweeu north G 1 latitude 31 3:1' aud 32 J3' and east longitude 73 12' and 74 28'. t.io;~nera descrip. Its sha.pe is, roughly speaking, that of a. parallelogram. It occupies the upper centre uf the Rechna Doab, being intermediate in natural features, fertility and conditions of agriculture botween tho lllghly favoured submontane district of Siti.lkot on the north-east and the barren wastes of Jhang and Montgomery on the south-west. Its north-west boundary, a length of nearly 80 mlles, fronts the Uhenab, which divides lt from Gujrat and Shahpur, while on the Bouth east it gra.dua.lly slopes into the valley of the Deg, a.nd is bounded by the Lahore district. With the exception of the Chenah lowlands along the noi th west boundary sloping towards the river and the Deg valloy on the 80uth-ea.,t. the rest of the district consists of an alluvial pla.in, slightly elevated, and of. almost unbroken evenness, declining Imperceptibly towards the south-west. The mean length is 45 aud the mean width 65 miles. The district is fourteenth in orde~ of area and thirteenth in order of populatlon among the 31 districts of the Province, comprising 2',3 per cent. of the total area, 3'30. per cent. of the total population and 2'9 per cent. of the ul'ban population..it contains two towns with a. population exceeding 10,000, nz., Gujranwala, the head-quarters, which lies on the Grand Trunk Road and North.'Vestern Railway,39 miles Borth of Lahore, and 'Vazirabad, which is situated on the banks of the Chenab, where the North-\Vestern Railway crosses the river at a distance of 60 miles from Lahore. The bonndarie-s of the district have varied considerably at Changes of boondifferent times. At annexation the district was formed of four daries. tahsils :.-Gujranwala, Ramnagar, Hafizabad a~d Sheikhnpnra, thel head-quarters being first fixed in the Sheikhnpura. Fort from which they were transferred in ) 851 to Gujranwala. At tbe close of the regula.r settlement in 1855 the district was reconstructed into three tahsils, all of -Gujranwcila and part of R8.mnagar going to form tho two tahsils of Guiranwala. and

14 2 CHAP. I.-THE DISTRICT. [Punjab Qazetteer, Chapter I. A. Wazirabad; the south portiou of Sheikhupura. was a.t the same D. t' time attached to the Sharakpur tahsil in Lahore, while the new Chescnp ;v:, Hafizabad tahsil was reconstituted from the remaining portion darie:. nges 0 oun of Sheikhupura, the western villages of Ramnagar and the entire old Hti6zabad tahsil. No further change of importance occurred ti , when 13 rakhs on the southewest with an area. of 89,480 acres, were transferred from Jhang to round off the boundary.beveral transfers and retranslers of estates to and from'the Gujrat and Shahpur districts have taken place at various times owldg to river RctlOn. The most sweeping alteration has llowever been carried out in 1893,* when in connection With the scheme for the colonisation of the Government waste on the Chena.h Canal, the boundary with Jhang a.nd Montgomery was re-adjl1sted by the transfer of J 3 of the new Government esta.tes from Hafizabad to Jhang, while 9 Government estates from Jhang, 6 from Montgomery and an area of 399 acres from IJahore have been included in this district. In the same connection the Hafizabad tahsil which was of unwieldy size, embracing three-fifths of the total area, and was rapidly developing in population and cultivation by the extension of canal irrigation, was broken up into two; the northern part being retained as the Hafizabad tahsil, while the southern part embriteing 110 proprietary estates anti all the Government waste allotted to settlers has been formed into a. new tahsil with head-quarters at Khangah Dogran. The new arrangements have only come into operation from 1st October 1893, and all the statistics, settlement, census, annual returns, &c., which are the bmis of the Gazetteer, had been prepared prior to that date according to the old division into three tahsils. It is impossible to now work Ollt the figures for Ha6zabad and Khangah Dogran separately in any but the most important cases. Town. North Eal't; Feet. aoove lalltude. IODgItude. rea. level., GujrBDwala 3:!" 10' 7jO H' Wa,dralJad 3:!" 27' 71 10' H alizabad 3'J" 4' 7:1' 43' A pproxlm&te. The latitude, lon Jlitude and elevation of the sadr and tahsil head-quarters are 'shown in the margin. Phy!icnl featn!es The district occupies the most of the Doah from SialkoL to and natnral divl' Jhang, and within its limits the country passes tbrough the lions. various gradations by which the rich soil of the favoured submontane region tnerges into a waterless, almost rainless, and.therefore sterile plain, uncultura.ble save by canal irrigation which is now being supplied. Punjab Government Notifications Nos. 623 and 624, dated 22nd August 1893, and V66, 967 alld 968, dated 26th December 1893.

15 Gujranwala District.] ClIA.P. L-THE DISTRICT. 3 It naturally falls into two main divisions- Chapter t A.. (1). The lowland or Bithar, i.e., alluvial tract along the DescriPtive. Chenab on the north-west and the valley of the Deg in the extreme soutb-east. an:h1:!~ra~e&t::~~ (2). The nplands UtaI' embl"acing the rest a! the district. siollb. The Deg which enters the district frolll Si41kot, after a winding course of abont 12 miles throngh the south-east of the Gojranwala. tahsil, passes into Lahore. Some 19 villages in GDlranwila.are advantaged by its priodic floods, or irrigated from it by means of jhallarb, but no attempts have as yet been madu in this district as in Si8Jkot to utilise it on a large scale for irrigation by means of dams and banda. The Deg floods are most fertilising, leaving a deposit 01 rich m!1d, and the rice -grown in this tract is famous for its outtarn and quality. In this distjict, however, the inundations are becoming less year by year, as the practice of tapping the stream by Sialkot villages higher up for irrigatiou pnrposes ill rapidly growing. There is, however, always a permanent snpply from July to September, which is generally safficient to mature the rice crop. In high flood the overflow extends to two miles on either bank, and a.a the water subsides irrigation is effected by mea.ns of jh"zlar,. After the rains, the vulume of the stream is much redaced and in the cold weather it wouid of tell dry up altogether but for the springs in its bed. - There are 179 estates, viz., 67 ill Wazirabad and 112 in The'Chenab. Ha6zabad or one-seventh of the whole number, sitaated in the lowlands adjoiniug the river and more or less affected by its action. The area. retarned as,ailtiba or inundated in J is 38,109 aores or 4'5 per cent. of the total cultivation. The Chenab has been accurately and happily described in para.. J I of the Jhang Settlement Report in the following words :-. «The Chenab is.; broad.hallow stream, with a aloggish chaoda} and a. licentious course. Ita deposits are liaody, but ita flooda are extensive, and owing to _ the loose teztlu'8 of the soil OD its banks, the moisture percolates far inland," The description al"plies with eqaal trath to the course and action of the river in this district. 'rhe shiitings in the channel, present coarse of the stream, its inflilence on the villages affected by it, and the quality of the,ailtiba lands have been described at length in the Assessment Reports of Wazirabad and Ha6zabad. In the \V 8zirabad Tahsil the set of the river is towards the noj:th or Gajrat bank i liailciba lands on this side, which formerly received regular innndation, are now flooded only when the river rises very high, and wells have been sank in many villages to sllpplement the deficient. inundations. The s.ction of the weir across the river at Khanke will tend probably to concentrate the rivel' after it passes through the weir into a narrower bnt deeper channel discharging ltself on the n1tjranw81a side. In Its coarse through the Hafizabad tahsil the Cheaab has.senra.l alternative channels, and deserts one for the other in

16 Cha.pter I, A. Descriptive. Tho Chenab. Natural di\lsions of the upla.nds, The Charkhari of ~lrtn;:~a. az ra, 4. CHAPTER I.-THli: DISTRICT. [ Punjab Gazetteer, the most irregular and arbitrary mannt3r. Its general tendency is however towards the north-west or Gojrat.Shahpnr bank, and tllough owing to th(~ distance of the high bank from the rlve'r and the actlon of nala8 or arms of the river-the clnef of which are the Palkhu in 'Vazirabad. the Snkhnain and Phlit in Hafizabad-the floods when high penetrate 4 or 5 wiles inland; they are uncertain and often destructive. It has also to be borne in mind that the canal will, year by year, take away an increasing volume of water from the river and will 10 tlme absorb the entire cold weather R.nq nn appreciable; proportion or the hot weather supp]y. The effect of this on the liailaba lands below the weir cannot fall to be unfavourable. The saildba land of both Wl\zirabad aud Hnfizabad is generally rather inferior. The Chenab deposits rarely contain any fertiltllwg mud. New alluvial land therefore forms slow]y, and is!lot fit for cultivation fol' many years. 'Wheat of inferior quality, pease and linseed in the rabi, Mjra or maize in the khat.f are the crops chiefly grown, and the ontturn is generally poor. The circumstances of the lowland villa~es affected by the Deg and the Chenah are fairly uniform, but in the uplands we :find a wen marked' gradation, not on]y in the qaality of the Boil and the conditions of agriculture, hut in the ha.bits of the people, as we go down the Doab. Along the east border in the Gujranwala and \Vazirabad and tahsils adjoining Sialkot, is a rich and highl'y developed tract, from 36 to 40 miles in length and 12 to 16 in breadth, with" dense and' industrious population but of rather poor physique. 'Vater is accessible, the level being 20 or 30 feet from the aur. face. CultIvation which has almost reached the limit is protected almost entirely by wells, aided by a rainfall of over 20 incbes, nnd is therefore fairly secure even in bad seasons. This i.. known for assessment purposes as the Charkhnri circle (from charkhara, Persian-wheel) and embraces nearly half the culti. 'vated area. (If these two tahsiis..it is intersected by the North. Western Railway, and contains th6 chief town of the district Gujranwala and most of the largest villages. ~he Bingar!>f Proceeding further down the Doa.h, the Boil becomes lighter Onlranwalo., Wo.Zll'. and is in pa.rts impregnated with kallar the rainfalllesq und abad and Hifizabad. '. J the water level deeper but not so maccesslble as to prevent wens bf'ing numerous and worked at a profit. This intermediate tract, which runs through all tahsils e:gcept Kbangnh Dogran, is knowt" aq tbe Bangar (a general term for uplands). Tho water level is ~;) to 45 feet; agricultnre is dependent mainlyon wens, though not so exclusively as in the Chal'khari; there is still a. considerable margin for expansion, and the lighter texture of the soil enables nnirrigated crops to IJe more freely grown. It has reached a, fairl'y high pitcb of deyelopment, and the inhabitants, system of cdltivation, &c., are similar to the Charkhari.

17 Gujranwala District. ] CHAPTER I.-THE DISTRICT. 5 Between this tract and. tho Bar proper, lies a belt of land Chapter I. A. along the west of Gujranwala and the east of Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran, which is known as the Adjoining Bar, and DeB~~ptiv~ ns regards SOli and agricultural conditions as in situation, is G ~djold! lag 'BBar'sOf mterme. d" 13. t e b e t ween t h e B' angar an d tear. h B' PIt' opn a 11)n 1S. abad ojranwa. and Khiogah z sparse, the villagoes become rarer, have large areas and great Dogran. capa.clty for expansion. The rainfall is slight, about 15 inches, and rather uncertain, the water level-40 to 55 feet-is so deep that wel13 can only be snnk and maintained at a great ex. pense of capital. so tha.t less than ha.lf of the cultivation is com. manded by wells, but the Roil, an excellent loam, is so ceol and retentive of moisture that nnirrigated crops can be grown successfully with even a slight rainfall. This tract is in many respects the most prosperons in the district. The popnlation, largely Sikhs, have more spirit and a. finer physique than elsewhere. They are good agriculturists though rather impatient of the wearisome drudgery of well cultivation, and great nnmbers of them take service in the army and the police. 'Vest of tbis tract we come to the Bar proper lying on the The Bar of Bibsouth-west of the district, containing over one-third of the total abad,and Khiogab area, of which ovel" half is the property of Goverument, and em- Dogran. bracing a large part of the lla6zabad and nearly au of the new Khaogan Dogran tahsil. In ik natural condition the Bar is a level prairie, thickly dotted ovel" with a stunted undergrowth of bush jungle consisting of the jam, (Prosopii spicigera), kariz (Capparls aphyua)!dan or pilu (Salvadora oleoides) and be,. (Zlzyphus jujuba). The rainfall is so slight, 10 to 12 inches, and well lrrigation so expensive, the water level ranging from 40 to 75 feet, that agriculture without canal irrigation is most precarious. 'fill mcently therefore the tract was mainly pastoral. The inhabitants who are for the most part descjndants of the nomad tribes who have roamed at will over this tract with their cattle and families for centuries, have only se'ttled down to agriculture within the last generation or two, and have not yet abandoned their predatory traditions. At the regular settlement, to induce them to settle on the Boil which was then H No Man's Land" they were allowed to define their own bonndaries. Hence the estates are of enor. mous size, in several cases exceeding 8,000 acres. Of this if seasons were favourabie they cultivated sufficient to provide themselves with food till the next harvest p but they looked chiefly to their crule, o[ which they still possess enormolls herds, and tbe spontaneous produce of the waste for their livelihood. The soil is on the whole an extremly fertile loam needing only favourable rains or sufficient irrigation to produce excellent crops. The grazing both in the village areas and the Govern.. ment Wtloste is huuria.nt a.nd abundant if rains are fa.voumble, and the income from sales of gh.i, wool, firewood, skins, &0., in this tract and the Adjoining Bar till recently amounted to about 3 19.khs per annnm. The great bar to the extension of cultivation

18 6 CHA.PTER I.-THE DISTRICT. [Punjab Gazetteer, Cha.pter I. A. in this tract, viz., the deficient rainfall and the prohibitive cost.. of sinking and maintaining wells has now been removed by Desc,,?ptive: the recent ictroduction of canal irrigation which haa revo!utionb Tdhe BdBr KOfh BIiZ'h' ised agriculture, totally changed the face of the country In the 8 B a00'8 Dogran. d d Kh h D. h '} ']}' th B' n Hafizaba an anga ogran ta 81 s. especla y m e ar tract, and materially affected the character of tho people. From the foregoing description it will be seen that there are five great natural divisions based on physical characteristics, differences of soil, rainfall, means of irrigation and agriculture, into which the district may be mapped out:- (t). The auu vial low lands of the Chenah forming tho north and north.west boundary of 'Vazirabad and Hafizabad. (2). Tbe Cbarkhari or rich, highly developed, fully irrigated, and secure tract on the east SIde of the district adjoining Sialkot in GujrAnwala and 'Vazirabad intersected by the Grand Trunk Road and North-Western Railway. The small circle of villages on the south east of the lahsn adva.ntaged by the Deg have been merged in tho Charkbari. (3). 'l'he leas favoured but fairly secure belt of land farthej' west, embracing part of the Guiranwala, Wazirabad and Hafizaba.d tabsils, known as the Bangar, in which the soil is light and rather inferior, but water is fairly accessible, wells can be worked with advantage and most of the cultivation is dependent on them, though it needs the aid of rain more tban in the Charkhari. (4). Tbe tract intermediate between the Dangar ami the Bar, known as the Adjoining Bar in Glljranwala, Hafizabad and Khangah Dogrin, in which the soil is excellent, bnt the rainfall slight, and the water level so deep that most of the cultivation is unirrigated. \;. (5). The Bar tract on the extreme south-west in Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran, in which, owino' to the small and uncertain rainfall, nnirrigated crope: can be raised only in favourable Tears, while the cost of sinking and working wells IS almost prohi. bitive, so that the expansion of cultivation is dependent on the extension of canal irrigation. These natural divisions have in the recent settlement been made the basis of the division of each tahsil into the following assessment circle ;- Tal"'J". Gujrlnwala Wazirabad Hafizabad Khangah DograB "', Charkharl, Charkbari,.., Bar, 1Jar, Bangar, Bangar. Bangar, AdJoiniog Bar. Adjoining Bar. Chenab. Chenab, Adjoining Bar.

19 h~jranwala. District., CHAPTER T.-THE DISTRICT. The opening of the Chenab Canal in , and its con- Chapter I, A. version from an inundation to a perennial canal which was carried out early in 1892, have already done much, aud will do much Descriptive. morc, in the way of making agriculture secure. The canal Canal irrigation. which takes out from the Chenab by means of a weir across the river at Khanki in the '\Vazirabad tahsil, 10 miles below'\vazirabad, now irrigates 15 per cent. of the total cultivation. It commands'some 20 villages on the west of the 1Vazlrabad tahsil in which it irrigates some 3,000 acres, and running transversely from north-east to Bouth-west through Rafizabad and Khan.. gah Dogran, it now irrigates about 200 settled villages in the Bangar, Bar and Adjoining Bar tracts, where owing, to the great.depth of water and the uncertain rainfall, conditions were formerly most unfavourable to successful cnltivation. Eventually when the Jhang Branch, which has already been begun, aud the Gugera Branch, which bas been projected, have been constructed, the whole of these two tahshs, execpt the alluvial villages of the Chenah valley, and some 40 villages along the south-east bound. ary adjoiuing Gujranwala will be commanded, and as there are enormous areas of waste only waiting for caual water to be broken up-the area irrigated from the canal, which now comes to 150,000 acres, or nearly 1 B per cent. of the whole, will, for many years to come, e%pand with great rapidity. Agriculture will, therefore, every year become more and more dependent on the canal, and lands at present unirrigated or attached to wells will become ca.nal-irrigated. 'l'he effect of this movement generally, and especially it.s InOnence of canlll results as regards well lands have been discussed at lepgth in the et~n8ion on agriclli. Hafizabad Assessment Report, and will be touched on in the t reo Chapter on Assessments. It will be snfficient here to state that within the last few years the influence of tile canal has revolutionised agriculture in Hafizabad and Klillngah Dogran, and has materially affected the character of the people. These nre, fo;,the most part, descendants of the nomads or pastoral tribes of the Dar, who have only gradually settled down to agriculture within the last few generations, and still retain a. strong leaning to their old predatory habits and a. strong aversion to steady manual labour. The uncertainty of cultivation prior to the advent of the canal, and the profits to be made with little or DO labour from grazing and breeding-cattle, in the vast uncultivated tracts included in the village areas and the Government waste, encouraged these hereditary tendencies. But the canal has even already worked a great change. By ensuring the success of the crops sown, and making cultivation easy and profitable, it has brought the zamindars to look rather on the land than on their cattle for their living. All over the tahsil ~he waste land is being rapidly broken np, tenants are being Imported from other districts to supply the local scarcity of labour, and withjn the last six years the cultivated area has increased from 258,000 to 340,000 acres. This does not include the progress made in bringing the Government was to uuder cultivation. About 200,000 acre~

20 8 CHAPTER I.-THE DISTRICT. t Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter I, A. have already been allotted in this district, and though tho allot... ment was begun only in the cold weather of lb91-?2, I under- I D~scrIptlve. lstand that the area. under cultivation last rabl amounts to Dlluence of cana extension on agricul. nearly 100,000 acres. ture. b Prevailing 80ils.As regards the composition of the soil generally, It may (). said that stiff clay (f'oh~} is most common in the Charkbari circlet', adjoining Sialkot, whe:'re a great mauynatural channelsthe Alk,-Nandanwab, Khat, &e., bring down the drainage in the raills. The strong loam (dosahi) is most common in the Adjoining Bar and Bar circles, and in the 'Vazirabad Cbarkhari and ]'5 the most workable and fertile soil growing all crops except rice. The lighter loams (maira and ti/jba) are common In the Bangar circles of all three tahelle, tile soil of which is mucb mferior to that of the rest of the district; kallar is all pervading and its influence on the cultivation which, when affected by It is known as kalrati can be traced every where. It is very common in the Gujranwala Charkhari, the \Vazirabad at}d Hli6zabad Cho!1ab and Bangar circles. The soil of the Adjoining Bar and Bar circles being a sweet clay or a good 1Qam has littlo kallar. Wlth canal water, however', the most hopeless looking kallar produces excellent crops of rice, inde6d It ]3 more suited for this crop than sweeter soils. It is a. question, however, whether contmued irrigation to the extent that is required for rice will not eventually bring to the surface, the (reh) efflorescence, which 18 now dormant In the subsoil and thus render the kalrati land perman&ntly unproductive. The water level in the cana,l-irriglttod tract is at present so deep that there is no danger of water-log-g'ldg for some years to come, but the subsoil drainage in the llafilablld tahs)) is not good, and the resnlts of cana.l irrigation, especia.lly in the kallar lands should be carefully observed, so that any tendency to water-logging or bringing tell. to the surface may be at once checked. Drainage Jines 'fhe quality of the soil and the system of agricul~ure, is in many places largely influenced by the preseuce of nam~ natural depressmns genera1jy mhrking draldage hnes, which form channels for flood water in the rains, and the chhamba, ponds or marshes which are formed by the overflow of these nalas. The most important are shown In the district map and --are as follows :- and naldl. The Khat. The I~hot enters the district from Sialkot at Pero Chak on the north-east of tahsll Gujranwala, flows south.west through Fer.ozwala.,close to Gujrtinwala. city and 8Quth to Sansrah, forming large chhc1mbs or jmb at Butala Sharm Singh and Khiali. Thence one branch finds its way south-east a.nd empties itself into the great Miraliwala. marsh six: miles south of Gujranwala, while the rest; loses itself for a. time in the ka1.lar plains around Eminabad. ~'urther on it re-appears with a wider and deeper bed, carrying a large volume of :water. in the rains, flows south west past Ka.moke, and final1'loins the

21 Gujranwala District.] CHAPTER I.-THE DlSTR1CT. 9 Deg in the La.hore district. It is only in flow in the summ.er Chapter It A. rains, and occasionally in the winter months, when the rainfall Descriptive. is Budden and heavy. 'Xhe Khot. The villages along the upper part of its course where the bed is nearly level with the surrounding country receive more damage than benefit from its floods, and its overflow also often causes serious injury to the lowlying lands where it enters the Lahore district. In the lower part of its course through this district several villages, Katnoke, Khot, Raja Bhola, Ghoma, Harpoke, Naulamvah, &c., irrigate from it by means of jhazlar8 1 and a great deal of rice is grown along its banks. The Nandanwah nala, also known as the Narowana and The Nandan"ab. Khilri iq different parts of its course, is a continuation of the Aik nala (see Sialkot Gaz~tteer) which enters the Wuirabad tahsil at Arayanwala in the north-east corner. From this point it forms two branches; one of which, known as the Bachera, passes into the Chenab valley where it joins the Palkhu (see below); the other flows south-west across the 'Vazirabad Charkhari, and then passes into the Gujranwala. Bangar. Neal' Nokhar on the Gujranwala-Hafizabad road, another offshoot banches off, catches the drainage from the surrounding kallar, and working its way throug4 Dogranwala and Pbamme Sarai, where it forms a very large marsh, passes into the Hafizabad tahsil and runs due west through Kile and Kakkar Gill to the Mfan Ali chamb in the heart of the Bar. This branch is said to have been a. canal in olden times and to have supplied water to Milio Ali (Asrilr) and BangIa. wh~ they were flourishing cities. Traces of it are said by General Cunningham to have been fonnd 20 miles- south-west of BangIa. In the Jhang district. The main branch runs almost due south frodl Nokhar throu~h the AdjOIning Bar of Gujranwala. and Hafizabad, and finally los 's itself in the great :M:ughal tap.~ near Sheikhupura. TraditIOn says that this main branch was cnt by the Emperor Jahangir from the Chenah or the Aik to supply water to this tank, an artificial Jake, 26 ncres in area and 30 feet in depth, surrollnding the shooting lodge in the Haran Munara rakh. In the upper half of its course through this district from Adytlnwtila to Nokhar, the nala is well defined, brings down a graft t deal of drainage and flood water from the Slalkot side in the rains, and for.ma several marshes or ponds along its course on the banks of which rice is grown in abnndance. The villa.ges h'om ArayanwAla to Jhandiala, where it crosses the Grand Trunk Road, are'lowlyicg and often suffer from swamping of the stanrling crops if hea.vy rain falls when the crops a.re ripening, and the floods sometimes prevent the ground being sown in time. West of the Grand Trunk Road down to Nokhar, many villages irrillate largely from.it by means of jhallarlj and water-courses, and a good deal of the lowlying land here ha.s been broken up and wells bave been sunk in it to supplement -the naza floods. From Nokhar 0!lwards traces of the bed are found only a'

22 Chapter I. 4 Descriptive. ThePalkhu. The Sukhnain. The Nagb. 10 CHAl'TER t.-tue DISTnlCT. (Punia.b Gazetteer. intervals. In parts it has silted up to the level of the surrounding land, in places it has 'been cultivated. The Palkhu, which is a perennial stream, also enters the district at tho north-east corner of 'Vazriabad from Bialkot (see SIIHkot Gazetteer), where its course is roughly parallel with the Aik. It flows.through the Chenah lowlands from Sohdra to 'Vazlrab(ld near which it is joined by the Dacllera, a bra,nch of the Aik. Up to'vazirabad its Inundations in the rains extend to a milo or 80 on eith~r sido, but have little ferti. lising value. Tho combined stl'eams formerly inundated the alluvial villages to a distance of eight mile's boiow \Yazfrabad where thoy j('ltn the Chenab at!lalllke, a little abovo the heatlwol k~ of the Chonah Canal at Khanke, but tho Grand Trl1ulc Hoad and the protective works in connection with the Chenah bridge at Wazirabad now bar their passage, and most of the flood water is di V 'rted back to the river above W azirabad. On~ result of this is that the lowlands above 'Vaz~rabad ure flubmcrged during the autumn, and kbal'if crops are rendered precarious, while the saildba lands below 'Vazlrahad are cut off from Palkhu floods, and wells ha. e been IIUI,I.: to secllre the cultivation. Another result is that \V azlrabad has been relldered more unhealthy than before as the nala which formerly flowed In a perennial stream nnder the town, kept the wells sweet and flushe1 the City sewag-, bas now been changed iuto It stagnant pool which is said to contamin~te tho drinkldg wells In its vicinity and to taint t11e atmosphere. TIle Sukhnq,in is a branch of the Chenab,. which, as its name Imphes, was formerly a dry channel. It leaves the river close to Harnnagat' and receives the surplus water from the escape dlannel of the Cbenab Canal; it is now in flow all the year round. Aftor n, COUrRtl of :W mile Q, through some 20 riveram villages of 'Vazirabad and llaflza.ba,i, it r~juin8 the Cheno.b at J ogo. The action of this ann of tba river, though often injurious to tho kbarh crops, i15 on the whole bent'ficlllj, as the Silt is fertilising and the vlllagps along Its banles are among the b~st in the ChenaL valley. tl'he Vagh or Lund hrs its source in the kllllar (li-ainago around Gajar Gola in the Waztlabad tahsn. enters linthabad at Kot Panah in the Dangar, and after a very irregular conr~e of about 20 miles during which it forms the two great.ihil, or marshes of Hamke and Kaulo Tarar, it passes into the Cbenab valley at Muzaffar Nau. Thence it pursues It winding course, more or I~ss parallel with the river, for another 20 mile's till it tlnally joins the Chenab at Dmgoa. It has a fairly deep channel not unlike the Dpg, and though it cafl'ies water nearly all the year the supply is entirely dependant upon rain. Its overflow is beneficial to tbe surrounding land which is chiefly Do shft clay growing good crops of rice and wheat and gram. A bout 25 jhazldt''' Q,re erected on its l>adks, irrigatidg 6om~ 500 acre

23 Gnjranwa,ia, District. 1 CRAPTER I.-TRE DISTRICT. 11 The Rohi is an overflow from the Nagh which it leaves near.jalalpur in the Hafizabad tahsil, and after a course of about 20 mlles through the Bangar and Chenab circles it joins th~ river below PlDdi Bhattian. It is in How only durmg the rains and often damages the kharif. There is no,hallci.r irriga. tion from It. The nallt known as Nikayan or Degwala. is a cut from tho Deg made by Ram Nikayan, wife of Ranjit Singh, to irri.. gate her jagi,. around Sheikhupura. It leaves the Deg at Pindi Rattan Singh in the Lahore district, enters this district at Klampur on the south-east, passes through Mar1s1a, Kilar Amir Siugh, Shelkhupura, Arayh.wala, Jlwanpura Khnrd, enters the Bar circle at Jlwanpura. Kalan, thence on through Kharianwii.ia, Bhikbi and ~Umuw9.lj and back to the Lahore district. ThiS cnt appears to have been formerly of considerable utility to the Lahore, and Glljranwalar viljag-es on Its banks, but for many years it was neglected and silted up. In 1876 the Gnjranwala District Board agreed to co-operate With the District Board, Lahore, to clear the cha.nnel, and increase the supply by putting So weir across the Deg at Pmdi Rattan Singh j Gujranwala paying two-fifthh of the cost, La.hore thre9-fifths. This was done at So cost of Rs. 5,000, to which the Gujranwala District Board co!ltribnted Rs. 2,129. 'Vhen the work was completed the La.hore villages intercepted all the supply by means of dams. The Gnjranwala villages complained of this, and after a. lengthy correspondence Government decided (Pnnjab Government No dated 3rd September 188u) that the money advanced by Glljranwala could not be refunded, but t.hat an!' d;spnte as to the distribution should be arranged by the Deputy Commissioners of Lahore and Gujranwala in co-operatiou. No action in this direction appears to have been taken, and the Gujra.nwala villages now I"pceive none of the Deg water through this cha.nnei, though it sometimes is in How after the raii1s. 'fable No. HI shows in tenths of an inch the total annna.l ra.infall registered at each recording station from , or snch date a.s figures are available, to The mean rainfall at the chief stations over the whole period is:- Gnjranwala 258 Wanra.bad 236 nafizabad 197 Sheikhupnra. 162 The fall at head-quarter for the last four years is shown in y,a,.. Tenth. of \ Year. Tmthl of t?e mfarhgin. Tfh1e} thdistribhllall,nell. /Ill 'tleh. tlon 0 t e ra.id a rong :3 2a 8 Ollt the year at the district 1890 tl H. 33 G and tahsil head-quarters is shown in Ta.bles ill A. and III B. In the Assessment Reports Chapter r. A. Descriptive. The Robi. The Ndtayan. Rainfall.

24 Chapter I, A. Descriptive. - :Rainfall. 12 CHAPTER I.-THE DISTRIOT. [Punja.b Gazetteer, the fau at the sadr and tabsh stations up to data has been ascertained to be- Gujrauwi.la... "Wazlrabad... Hafizaba.d.... I., 22 [; 22'27, 1750 a.nd as tbe registering stations are more favourably situated than the rest of the tahsil, the averages for each tahsil have been assumed as follows;- Gujranw'la... Wazlrabad... Hafizabad.. ' t35 "fhe mean for the whole district may be take~ aa 1'8 inches with a maximnm of 32 inches in and Ito minimum of 9 inches iu ls The rainfall, though moderate in amount for a Punjab district, is liable to great fluctllation,' and though nearly three~fourtbs of the cultivation is protected by wells or canal irrigation, the area of sowings and the success of the crop depend largely on the rainfall being copious and semonable. Thus in , when the mean rainfall was only 9 inches, th1.3 area of crops sown was in rouud numb6rs 630,000 acres, of which 85,000 failed and 545,000 were harvested, of.which only ]41,000 acres were grown on unirrigated land; while in the rains having been full and well dish ibuted, the area of crops sown (excluding the returns for the new colonies in whicb canal irrigation was for the first time introduced) rose to 795,000 acres, of which only 26,000 acres failed and 769,000 acres came to maturity, including 301,116 acres of unirrigated crops., The success of the crops lu kharlf depends on timely monsoon rains for sowing -and these are fairly certain, and ou their continuance well into September, but the September raids in tbis district are very precanous, and of late years (September 1893 is an exception) have shown a tendency to fail altogether even when the monsoon rains have been heavy. The rabi crops benefit most by abundance of rain for p'loughing in JUly to September, and for sowing in October, and If they once sprout a. timely fall in January or Febraary will bring them to maturity. - An analysis of the figures shows that the monsoon and winjier rains are decidedly poor one year in three, the autumn rains two years in three, so that the kharif crop which is mainly dependent on rain is more liable to failure than the rabi, which receives more aid from artificial irrigation. The extension of canal irrigatiou accompanied by an ej'pansion of cultivation and extensive tree planting operations cannot fail to fa.vourably affect the rainfall, especia.lly in the hitherto dry and sterile JUr tract'.. - ~

25 GujranwaJa, District.) CHAPTER L-THE DISTRICT. 18 The variation of temperature as - shown Table of tempratur,. I TemJ)e'rl4Ure j ' e'; S~ :;a.i e~ S~...i ead'e,u 91 ~~ -a ~.; ~~ ~~ '0 ~.. 1 ~~ 1i: 5!~ ~: ::: ~~~ I ~- ;i- ~O.. :;- Si- ~C;.. :;--1-::---:- --::-I~ ~ JuIl 118" 69"3 03 a!llu G December 7Ii Ii 31 :8 lito' 73 Ii 29 3 M 9 in the margin is very great, from the excessive heat of t he months from April to September to the severe cold of December and January, 'yet the change of seasons is gradual, a. n d the district enjoys a healthy reputation. Th(O extremes of climate are greatest in the Bar tract where the fall of ra.in is scanty and the heat in the summer months is excessive j the residents, llowever, of tha.t part a.re an exceptionally strong and healthy race, but to strangers and Hindustanis the temperature ill most trying, and Its effects on them nry painful j ophthahnia, blindness, and severe cutaneous disorders beldg common among them from exposuro to a glaring sun and eitraordinary heat. SECTON B.-GEOLOGY. FLORA AND FAUNA. Our knowledge of Indian geology is as yet, so general in its nature; and so little has been done in the Punjab in the way of detailed geological investigation, tha.t it is impossible to discus!). the local geology of separate districts. But a sketch of the geology of the Province as a whole has been most kindly furnished by Mr. Medhcott, Superintendent of the Geological Survey of India, and 15 published in e~tensq in the provincial volume of the G~zetteer series, and also as a separate pampalet. The only minera.l of importance is kanka.r, qua.rries of which are found in abundance all over the district and are much utilised by the Publio Works Departmeut for meta.lling the Grand Trunk: Road, ballasting the Railway and burning lime for the caual works. Hitherto the kankar beds or quarries have been leased by the owners of the land in which they lie to contractors or the Publio 'Yorks Department direot at 80 mlloh per Buperficie" and a. small royalty of 10 per cent. on the proceeds has been realised by Government. They have now been recorded as the property of Government. The income except in some villages along the Grand Trunk Road and close to canal work~ is not; considerable. The district is not rich in trees. Tho raiufall is hardly sufficient for sp~ntaqeous prodnctiou, a.nd till recently not much had been done in the way of planting road-side avenues, probably, because most of the main roads run through Band, or k",uar soil unfavourable to growth. The line of the Grand - Chpter I, B. Geology. Flora andfaua. RainfalL GeQ],og. lfineraa. Trees.

26 14 CHAPTER I.-THE DISTRICT. t hlljab -GAzetteet I C-hapter I. B. Trunk Road is fairly well 'Shaded with kikar (Acllcia arabica) and Geology, :Flora 8hi~ham, (Dalbergia sissu), and there are some good plantations a,nd ~:FaUB", along It. Trees. Fruits and gardens. WiH aminals. The Forest and RaIlway Department have flome promising shisham. plantations in the vicinity of 'Vatirabad, but, except in the Qbenab valley, the district is on the whole bare of trees, and the landscape presents rather a blank and desola.te appearance. Good timber for building purposes is rare, and has to be imported from Akhnur or Jammu through the Jammu State and Forest Department depots at 'Vazirabad. In the wllder portion of the district, and especia.l1y in the Bar, there 18 a scattered growth of jand, karil, tl.'ahn or pilu and be'/' or malla. The jand has a bipinnate leaf and thorns. It is fonnd usually in low lertile land, and is very valuable as fire-wood and for making charcoal. Most of it has now been sold to contractors who. retail It for fnel ill Gujranwal80 and Lahore. 'l'he wahn has a. smooth leaf; it is of little use for fuel or agri. culture. The karir no leaf at all but thorns; it is used for small rafters (karis). All bear berries whlch are edible, but the. karir berry js very astringent, and is, therefore, used for preserves and medicinal purposes. The fruit Df the ber and pllu is much prized and has saved the Bar population from famine III more than one season of scarcity; notably in the hot weather of 1892, wben the crops failed completely in this tract and the whole population was for several weeks dependent on this fruit for their support. With advancing cultivation the Bar jungle is now rapidly disappearing. A great deal is, however, being done to plant avenues of trees, chiefly 8hilham, along the ba.nks of the canal and the main roads where canal water is available, and after some years the Hafizabad and Kbangah Dogran tahsus will be fairly well woeded. In Gujranwala and Waziral>ad many fine ga.rdens have been planted around the towns of Gujranwala., Eminabad, 11ut818o, Sohdra, 'Varirabad, Akalgarh by the leading Sardars or wealthy Dewans. In addition to the ordinary fruits, limes, lemon, pomegran. ates, figs, grape!!, &c., Malta oranges which were imported 40 years ago by 'Colonel Clarke, direct from Malta, have spread all over the district and thrive wonderfnlly in the loamy soil a.round Gujranwala.. Mango topes and palm groves are unknown, in fact all trees valuable for their fruit or timber are rare. Black bnck are to be found over Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran, especia.lly in the vicinity of Sbeikhnpnra j ravine deer and hog deer are to be met with allover the district, but are not now numerous, a.nd are rapidl, disappearing as the waste lalld is brokea up. A. few llilgai are to be aeell in the bela,.

27 Glljranwala Diatrict.] CHAPTlCR I.-THE DISTRICT. 15 around 'Vazirabad and in the Bar after beavy rains, but big Chapter I. B. game is, on tbe whole, scarce', and it is impossible to secure a Geology. Flora. good bag witbout covering a great deal of ground and giving and Fauna. up at least a couple of days to it. Wild animal&. Wild pig abound in the Railway and Forest Department reserves around 'Vazirabad and are also found down the river in the bela. opposito CLak Bhatti and Chuchak. The nattlre of the ground makes it difficult, to ride them, bot at night they wander up into the young crops of maize, sugarcane and wheat. and one ('an sometimes ldtercept them.at day-hreak as the'y return to cover. ',oh'es are found in the jungles along the Jhan~ border j hares and jackals are faidy common nil over the district. Yery good gray and black parttidge shootmg is to be got around Sheikupura in Raja Harbans SIDgh's rakhs, and on both Sides of the.lahore-shabpur road up to Khangah Dogran. The small sand.grouse is found all over tbe Bar at all seasont', the Imperial variety is ran'. The gray goose is ra.rely met with on -the Chenab, but llerons, Kt,zin (kulii) and several varieties of dock, from the mallard to the teal, abound all along the river and wherev~r there are large ponds C'f swamps as at Miraliwala, Kao,lo Tarar, &c. The openmg up of the Hafizabali and Kbangah Dogran tahsils by the canal bas now attracted the geese and duck from the river, and excellent sbootmg is to be fonnd In the reservoirs for the canal waste water near ~J;:Il'h and other places. A few snipe are to be Feen along the Deg,' anti m a few of the larger marshes, but they will probably soon be found along the canal. In the Deg Rnd the Chenab tbe ordinary fish of the Punja.b river, fltu1uisir, rtihu, chilwa are found, but they are rarely of good quahty und have a stron~ muddy flavour' when full grown. The mhabitant.. of the Deg Villages use fish largely as an artjcl!:' of ctiet, and Qutsulers or non-owners are allowed to fish OIl]Y on conslileration of glvldg one-fonrth of the haul to!hf' t"lpnt'lan (,wners. Government formerly used to lease tbe ri~ht to fish for a small sllln to <'ontractors supplying the GUJranwala nn 1 Lahore market q, but disputes arose between th-j le st's-s and the inhabitants, and the system has now.been given up. On the whole it may be said that as regards }lora and fauna, the dlstrict Jl~sents httle to interest the scieu!lfic observer, or -to arouse the energies of the sportsman.

28 [Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter 11. History Gener"[ remarks. Colonis3,honof tbe district. CHAPTER II. HISTORY.. Lying 8S it does on the highway by which the snccessive hordes of invaders from the north marched down to the struggle for the empire of HindastaD, and by which they returned victorions or defeated j closely identified also with the stirring events which led to the rise of the Sikh monarchy on the Tuins of the old Mughal empire, few tracts in the Central Punjab have had a more Dnsettled hi:otory than this district, and Its P' esent condition bears evldent traces of what it has suffered from the marches of invading armies, from political troubles and inter-tribal struggles. One result of tho chaos and confusion that prevailed is the absence of any authentic information as to the history of the district. prior to Mug-hal rale to the early days of which most of the present tribes date their settlement in this district. As to the trlbes that preceded them, even tradition is silent and even for the first two and a half centuries of Mughal rule there is no record of the condition of the district beyond vague traditlons and an occasional passing reference in the A'l.fI,.i.Akbari or other chronides of the day. The researches of antiquarians have however established the fact tha~ the tract was of historical importance in the earliest days, that. it contained' in Sangla or Sakala near the JhanG' border the capital of the Punjab wbf.'re Alexander met with one of the most se:'riou8 checks in his career of victory, and that at a later period about 630 A.D. wlen the Chinese pilgritr. Hwen Thsang visited India, Asarur near Khangah Dogran (also known as 1Iasrur) was the capital of a kingdom stretcliing from the ludus to the Beas. 'rhe ruins of ancient cities of vast extent, the sites of ruined villages, the remains of wells and ancient Irrigation works, scatte.red over the wildest portions of the district, w llere till the change wrought by the canal a few years ago, there was nothing but an expanse of barren jungle, and "DO fixed popnlation, all point to a. period when the tjact must have been densely populated and highly cultivated; and though popular tradition associates this golden age, " when every t"ood of land maintained its man," with the name of Akbar, it clearly belongs to a much earlier period. Could the veil tha.t shronds the past be dra.wn aside, a glimpse into the early history of the district would no doubt reveal a picturesque and momentous past. In the present etate of our information further speculation on the subject, howev~r fascinating is likely to bear no fruit" and it 'Only remains to set forth the conclusions arrived at by the la.te Sir AleXAnder

29 Gujranwa.la. District. ] CllAPTER H.-llISTOllY. 17 Cunnmghanl in the" Arc]JlBological Sur\'~y Report," II nnd XIV and in. the Ancient Geography of India, II page"! 148, 180, 19J, 193. The Clnnese f))]grim, llwen 1'h~ang, in A D. 630 visited a town, which he ca.lls Tse-kia, anu.describes as the capital of a kingdom embracmg tjle wliole of the plains of the Punjab from the lndu! to the Dea!'l, and from the foot of the mountains to tlle Jnnctiou of the fi\"e rivers below 1\looltan. 'l'he site of this town is wlth a. near approach to certainty, identified by General CUlllllugham with a mound ill this district near the mouf'rn vll~ lago of Asarlir, sltua.ted two miles to the south of Khangah MaBI ur, commonly called Khangah Dog-ran, on the road froul Lahore to Pmdi Bllatlitill, 45 miles Ihstant from the former, Rnd 24 from the latt~'r place. It is t:;ald that the people of Khangah Uasrur nelver sleep 011 beds, but on 11Je ground, ont of respect to the liaints 1urieu there who prnctlsed smlllar ansteritles. 'rho force of General Cunnmgham's identification mainly hinges upon the more celebrated discovery of the site of the Stingala. of Alexander in tlhc' nuns at Sanglawala. 'l'tbba in the Jbnng dlstrict, J 6 miles to the south-west of Aearur. This Sangala-or :Sakala* General CUlJulUgllam beheves to have beon the most ancient capital of.. he kmgdom, and to have been superseded by Tse-kld, or Taki, at some time during the nine centuries which elasped between the im'asion of Alexander and the trave'ls of Hwec Thsang; anu he dlscnsses the geographical identification of Ai>arur wlth the Tse kui. of Hwen 'l'hsang in terms which, reud tog-ethel' with his account or Snng-ala. (abridged in the Gazetteer of the Jhang dhmict), leave little room to doubt Jts correctness, II The pil~rim," he says,.. places thl8 new tt)'ll'n Tse-kla at 15 h, or 2l miles to the north east of S'ke.la. but as all the country 'i\ ullin th,\t range is open nud flat, It is certain that no town coald ever )l&l"b'exlsted in the poi!jtjon Indicated. In the same direction. bowel'er, but. at 19 mlles, or 115 ll, I found th" ruln8 of a large to. o. called AJ;lUur. which accord almost exl\ctl) with the pll;;rim'li description of the new town of Tse-kIa.t It is necesm1ry to fil[ th" p;>t>i llon of this place, because n wen Theang's mea.suremedt~, boll) commg and goiil~, are referred to It and not. to S"lmla. From K~llmir the pilgrim proceeded by Panch to }(ajpura, a small town in the lower bills, which IS now called RaJ8111'l. From thence he travelled to the south east over a mountain, aud across a river ('.11ed Chea ta-lo.jl(rk'4, which i8 the Chandrabhliga or modern Chenab, to 8h.-ye-pu-lo or Jayapura (probably Hafiaabad), where he slept for the D1ght; and on the next day he reached Tse-kia, the whole didtauce belog 700 ll, 01' li6 miles. A8 a. south -e&l!t direction 'Would have taken the pilgllm to the east of the lutl, we must look for Bome known POint iu his subsequent route 8S the best mcan. of ellecking thl8 erroneoull bearing This fixed point we find in She la,, to-lo. the well kno;vn Jalandhara, which t.he pll m places at 500 pills 50, pills 140 or 1'50 h, or e.ltogeltb.cr beh'eeo 600 and 700 h to the eaht of Tse-kla. ThIs pla.ce 11'1\8 therefore, aa nearly as poasible, equi-dlstant froul Rajauri and Jullandul'_ No".As&rur is exactly 112 miles distant from each of these places in a direct hne drawn on the map. and as it is nudoubtedly a very old place of llonsldeuble 8ize, I am satisfied that It!Ollst be the town of Tse-kl& de6cnbed by B weo Thaang.": See Gazette-er of J bang distrif!t. 't According to Hwen 'l'hsang, the eirclli~ of Tae-kia. was about 20 it, or upwards of three rohes, which agrees sufficiently well with Genenl Cunni;lgham'. measurement of the ruins of Asarli.r. He made tbe whole circuit 15,600 feet or just three miles. : From its position General Cunningham also infe1'8 tj:.at. it 11'&8 the Pimprama of Alexl\uder's histonall. See Gazetteer of J"haDg. Chapter II. History. Ancieqt history Asarur

30 18 CUAPTER 1I.-BISTOBY. [Punjab Gazetteer. Chapter II. Popular traditi'on is silent as to tlle history -of Asnrur. The. pe'ople IDt>rely state that. It was originally called Udamnagar ~ History. Uda-Nagali, and that it was oesertt;d for many cenhmes until.\uc'lt'nt,11i8tory. Akbar's tim ' when Ugah Shah a. DOf'l'llr built tho m08(lue AS'.rur t>. < which still exists on the top of the mound: Th.e.a.nttqwty claimed for thl-l place is c0!lfirmed by t.he large size of the bricklol, 18 x 10 x 3 -lnches, which I\re found all o-ver the ruins, nnd uy the great numbers of In<la.S<,,ythian coins that are dulcoyerej nnnually after heavy rain. Its Instory therefore certalllly rt'scheil back to the first century befbre' HIe.christian ~l'a. 1'ho ruins conslst of an extt>ns.ive mollud ) 5,6QO feet, or nearly Uree mile"', in cil CUlt. '1'110 LighE>st point 18 in tho Ilol'th-we~t qullrtcr, where the mount! rlses.to 59 feet above the fields. '1'1us part, which Gonf-ral ConniQgham takes to 118.\"0 been the ancl('ljt lin \.\('e, IS 600 feet long and 400 feet hroad. Rnd quite re'gular iu sll8 pe. It contams an old well, 21 Teet iu d.lametor, wljlc111ulij ll(lt been used for many ) ears, Rna is now dry. '1'110 palace is completely surronnded l,y a hne of large mounds about 25 feet in lleigljt, nnd 8,100 feet, or Ii nailes in circuit, :w}nch was e, 1l1elltly the stronghold or citadel of the place. Tlto mounds al e rounded nnd promincnt, like tile ruin~ of ]",rge towers or bashons. On the E'ast and south tlides of tbp citadel the mass of rlilns siuks to )0 and 15 feet in height, bot it is twice tlle ~lze of the cltadel,-rlld is no noobt tll6 remains of tbe old city.. 'l'here are no visible tr.ace's of nny ancient buildings, as all the su~'face blicks have he en long ago ca.rried off to the neighbouring' shrine of Ugah Shall at Khangah Masrur on -the road from Lahore to Fmdi Bhattut.n; but amongst tile old bricks forming the surrounding wall of the mosque. OpnerAI CUllningllam found three moulded in different patterns, \T)nch could only It ave beolonged to.buildings of some importance. lie -fouut! also a. wedge-tihaped brick 15 inches long and three inches thick,,,,ith a breadth of 10 inches at the narrow -end and nearly 10, incbes at the broad end. '1'his could only have bef'n made for a 8lupa. or a well, but most probably for t'he latter, 8S tha 1)xlI.ting well is 21 feet in diamet"r. The modern 'vil1age of Allarur contams 45 houses only. At the time of B.wfn 'J'hsang's visit tllel'e ''Vere ten monasteries, but very few BI1<ihists, and the mass of t1je people worsmp the Brahminical gods. '1'0 the northt'ast of the town at 10 li, or llearly two miles, th~re was a. dupa of ABoka, 200 feet in helgm, which marked the spot where Buddha. had halted, and which 'Wa'3 said to conta.ln a. 'large quantity of htl'! relics. This stupa, General Cunningbam identifies with the little mound of SaMr, ne8ol' Tbatta Sayyadan.. just two milea to the north ()f Asal'ur. On leaving T8A.kia, Hwen Tbsang traveued-eastwardto Na-lo Bel1g-ho, or Nara-Si.nha, beyond,vbicb placa be entered a foreat or Po-la.she or pilu trees (salvadora. persica).* This town of J alien's II wed Thong, i. D7.

31 Gujranwa.la District. ] Cff.\PTER 1I.-1USTORY. 19 'N,iro-Si,,'w, General Cltllningham supposes to. be Tf'flresentl'd )}y the large ruined monnd of Ha.nsi, which 1<; situated nine rdlle'i to the south ef Sheikhupura,. and 25 miles to the E. S.-E. or A~arurJ and about the same dlstj.nce to the west of Lahore.* Si, or 8th, is the nsual IndIan contraction for,inh, and "all. is sttlted to be a well-known inte-rcuange of pronunciation with "!Jr. In ltansi therefore, we liave- not only all exact corres }lonjeu('e of position but 81so the most precise agreement of nama 'Wlth the Ntlra.Si'lha of the Chinese plfgrlm. t The remains of It.Ul.i consist of a la.rge ruin d mound thickly covered with l'lrohn bricks of large size. Coins also are-occ:lslvnally found by th~ ~altpet/e manufacturel's. And it may be remarked that tji0 pl'espn<.:e of saltpetre derived from man's occl1patwn itself affords 3 cel tam proof that the mound of RanSl is not a natural elevatiqu, Imt an artificial accumlrl,ttlou or rubbish, the re-sult of m3.lny {'(>ntu nt's. Ransi ft Iso POSSt'SRf'S 1\ tomb of a Nao-gaj(t, or gl3nt of "Hme ynrus." which. is believ:tld by GeIlf'ral CunnHlgham to be trlo remains of a. recwnl~n Ii &tatue of Buddha,. aftel' his att~ld IUt..Lf.l1i of nirvanu, or death. PI'om the time of llwen Thsang not-hingturther is Rnown of *he Illstory of Tse-kia, of'1'akl, which had been superseded ih importanco by Lfthore ' before the advent of Muhammadan power. Under hi uhr.mmatlan fl11e, tll0 principal places in the.,.hstrict were Erninabad und Hafizabad. It IS stated by Mai~r Nlsbet, wh() effected a revised settlement of the land revenue in ] 866.&7, W have been dwidml during the ~l'uhamuladan penod itlto six pal'g'anah;, M N flll;"'wn in the marglo: neither G-ojlsnwula. nof "tazirabj.d, at prt'sent the targcllt Fm.llIlhad, &uihira. h.. lu.nu"lh.. ( I"'tlia. Hatn bad, Ii he'l..lhupura;. towns of the district, bemg mentioned as enjoy ing nny fiscal 0'1. politica importance. The Mts of Gujranwa.la. f.111s within the old parganah of Emu1abad, and the site of Wazlrabad wlthin that of Sohdl'a. '.rhe parganahs of HafizablLd, EoIinabad. and Sahoma.lli are clea.rly recognisa.ble in the li<;t of fnahch, given in the Ain.i-.Akbari of the Rechnabatl,irkar of the Labore,uba, and it 18 not impo"sible that Major NIsbet~s parganah of BUcha Chatha. is to be identified with the mahnl <s Ba.gh Roy Boochey" o[ Gladwin's translation, Chatha. belog merely the nam& of an important trlbe holding that portion of the distriet. '1'he parganahs of Sahara and Sheilrlmpnra JOllst have been established later, as it is impossil'>le to identify these names with any given in the Ain-i-Aibari. The Emmabad flarganah is believed' to have ineluded also 8 portion of the present Cha'pter ~T History. Ran.i or X,;,a Slnlja Muhamma,lnn Ve1"lod ~ ~ Those ruins are in the Lahore dl3trjct. oot are mentioned here on account of their connection wlth Asarur, t Th.s idenhfication IS the more Yalnable. as it fnmiehee the most. conclusive.. e'l'i<l()nc~ tha.t could be desired, of the accuracy of Hwen Tl:.sang'. emplacement. "of Sa#l"814 to the westward of the Bavi, instead of the eaalwlil'd as indicated by II the classiqal authoriuea."-general Cunningham.

32 ~,~)ia~rjlr History. ~luhl1mmadan period.. CIJAPTElt II.-UlSTORY [Punjab Gazetteer, ~l~ll;ot district. It is not improhahle also that SahomaU~ inclmloll It part of the present Lahoro district. The rpvenuo of the f\lllt" flj(thtils aljove identified is thus given in tllo Ain-i-,Akari :- EmIDhn<l IIi\f]'HbBd flahomalli nllgh Roy nucha. R 1,13,700 Len,l'ng tnbf'b Iond their,1,slllllutiod, The ngrlcu)tul'al tribes of the district, tllough many of them lay daim to!{ajput u(>scent., and still preserve certain fllijplit trauitioils, e. g_, their women never render any uirl'ct n,,"'lstance in agrieultur<" are undoubtedly of Jat OrlglO. '! ho Jats hl)ld 094 estates out of 1,223 ehtlltcfi, liz.:- Gujranwaillo Wazfrabad liafizaba.d 3!J3 out of 4!J3 228 du. 206 an do. ~02 In Gujranw6.1a. the most. important Jat trihos are: Virnldls 76 vlllagca i Vanl1Chs 34; Chlmns 20; GUI'f1ya~ 21; Dotbnrs and Sekhus 24. Tbo Vlrakh~ are mainly, the Var{uchs lnrg'ply, ~ikhs; the Dhotars and Sckhus fire nearly al1litndus; tilo oihn' tribes are, for the most part, Mus~11man. In 'Vaziraba<1 tho pastern or more fertile portlon of the tahsil 18 held by Uhima'l 93 villages; tho weste-rn and ]e<;r; fertile by Chathas 55 villages i thore are no other tribes holdmg ]0 village!'! or over. 'l'he Clllmas and ChathRR are almost exclusively, and tho ot.her Jat~ mamly, Muhammadan. In Hafizabad the proprietary uody is more mixed and property in iand is,of more recent growth. The llhattis, who are undonbtedly RajpUts, ath1 H1HI~QlOkesJ who, though they eland nffimty WIth the Bhatti!:"!, me llloun.hly the dc~ceudants of Btif nomads who settled down to agricultllre 1U the later days of Sikh rule, own betweon tlh>rh 81 el'ltatcs. while Chath4s, who spread into the tahsil from \Vazirabnd, and Virakhs, who extended their settlement fl'om Gl1jr6.nwa.la ann wrested the south-east of tlle\. tahsil from tile Bhattis, hold, respectively, 63 and 44 estates Tarars, w110 emlgrated. from l)eyond the river in Glljl'lH 20U years ago, hold 53 Cf)tatel!! along,the river, and Kharrals from Montgomery, about the midcile or tho last century, dispossessed many of the old Hindu owners an(1 now hold 4~ VIllages. 'I'he reile of the tahsil is occupied chiefly by miscellaneous Jats, Binjras ana Jags, 24 estates Gurayas, Dhotars, Gondals, &0. Excepting the Vlrakhs, who are mainly Slkhs, and the Hinjras, who are mainly Hmdus, the remainmg tribe~, excluding the Bhattls, hold 47 estates, tho most important being Sayads, Khatris and Brahmins., Orig'n!>f exj~ting, The settlements in Gujdnw6.1a and Wazirabad are nearly ;11~g::d wa~~~!~: tallho f old dkates. Th.e immigration of the leading tfribes ap,pe!lrs o aye t a en place In Mugha.l days when most 0 the exlstldg

33 Q-ujranwala. District.] CHAPTER H.-HISTORY. 21 villages were founc1ed. Even tradition is silent as to the races Chapter U. who preceded thf'm. War, famine and inter-tribal struggles in IDstory. the first ha.lf of the last century brought about the rum of all 0" [. t b I t " b t th 1 d I r1gm 0 ens mg nt t 10 stronges commumtles, 11 e peop e were too eep Y VIllugl'8 in Gujran. rqoted JU the soil to permanently desert their settlements, and walaand Wazlrabad. \Vh~n the conqolidatlon of Sikh rule in the latter half of the contury inaugnrated an era of comparative peace and security, the old ownelr, who bad temporal ily bo\ved t..> the storm aud taken l'f'fug-e in th ir trlba.l strongholds, at once resumed possession of their deserted homesteads, restored the wells, reclaim 'd the l.md, and iu many calies showed such tenacity in adhering' to their ancient InstItutIOns and traditions that tih>y maintall1ed the same proprietary shares as had existed prior to.their dispossf>ssion. 'rhus in thege two tahsils the pl'esent owners lire the descenda.nts of the mon who held the land onder ltlughal rule, and tlle tribal aufi village traditions have contlollpd m :m nnbroken chain from that era. I n llafizabad the st.a.te of tll iugs is differen t. That tract Origin of propne. appl':!rs to llllve been held In Mughal times by Hindu J ats of tary right In Ha{17.&- the HiDJf.a. a.nd Jag subdivislolls (g(ils), and most of the bad.. numerous ruins of what were once npparently flouflslnng ~pt.tlements are idpntiflt d With the clays of their ascendancy. 'Vhen the central authority became enfeehled at the bpgmmng of last century, these mdustfjous but unwarhke Hindu tribes [pll a prpy to the more vigorous Musalman mces, Kharral and Bhagsinko noroadj\ from the Bal', Chathas, 1'orars and Bhattis of semi-pastoral habits, who r;,peedlly ejected them from all but a fraction of their villa.ges, but havliig taken forcible possession of the land often failed to work it for Rgricnlture, and pl,pferred to follow tholl' old pastc!ral life. 1 D the general struggle for the soil, t11e VlrakLs of the Gujrunwala tahsil, a Sikh tribe with strong military traditions, got a. footliold in the tahsil nnd ejected the Bhnttfs from mrny villtlges which tre latter had wrested f,.om the Hinjr~s. One result of this difference in ~he history of Hifizabad is that agricultural progress has been much slower than in the other tahshs. In Gujranwala and 'Vazirabad the people are similar in ch.nacter and habits to the ol'dmary peasaut of the Central Punjab, while in liafizabad they stl:! retain many traces of their pastoral and nomadic character. The bond between them is rather that of the tribe than of the village commnnity. They are averse to manual labo.ur, and inclined on slight temptation to return to their old predatory habita. No doubt they wer.e bevlg gz:adnally weaned from these habits under ollr fllle, but the canal In a few years llrs done m.ore to civilise them and make them look to honest bl)our for their living than the previous 50 years of settled Government, and every year they will assimilate more and more in character to the ordinary Punjab peasant. Over the whole district tbe period between the decline of Decline?f the the Mughal empire-on the death of Allrangzeb and the rise of Mughal 6mpll'8. the SIkh confederacies (ronghly the first half of the 18th

34 ella.pte'll. If,-IDSTI)RY, f Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chaptpr II, century) was one of indescrlhnble confusion and anarchy. Th(1 HIstory, flm pu'e was gradually falling to pieces owing t()o mt 'htine DecJJlle of the quarrels and 8ucces~ive sh:>cks of invasion from th-e llorth-\ve~t. :\Ju~hl\l f'mpiro There was n~ str'ong central aat.hority to mnintain pt'ael;) ana order. It was devacjtated ag,.id and again by the- innu.lillg al'mles of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abd4li, and tho prosr,erlty w Ii ica haj been slowly built up" in 'he pr~viol's two cell t urit's gave place here, atj elsewhere, to desolation ana. IDisery. [n tho general insecurity of life and property triljo fou'gllt a~amst, tnll', vll1age against TIllage i all l>ut the fltrollgest positions wer9 abandoned, home<>keads wert) deserted, and tile face of tho ('ol1ntry became at lyildel'ne'ss. The trntlttlods of. neally f'very Village show that m this peliod of l'api-n(>, It wa~ sacked, UUI nt or desertea; the contiuulty of Tillage life WM broken, null the ohli OWllers. Bed for saft'ty to the j ung-ies or to fortified tiowns, \Il sorno' cases djl~appeal'ing for ever, m others retorn1n~ after the lapr6 of flo decade or a generation when t he ~prl'ad (If (ltqoroer WUJ RlsP of 1\,0 Sil.,h ehflcked hy tha 1 ismg power of lha Sikhs. The GUJranw8.la. power tlistllct was among the firrt iu wll1cll Sikh domiulon wall c-.tabliahej; it has many association~ WIth the Slkh f'eqime, ami an mtimate connection With the fortl1des o the Sikh royal family. Gujr.luwala city was the billth.place of Maha 8H1g!1 and. 1}1..~ more famous 1100 Hanjit SIDg-h, and a monument in marble. ('Joe-ted in 1891 b"\t the SIkh Sardal!!iJ. at the inc;tance of ~lr. IhbE'tson,. the then "Deputy marks the silo of the humble ablltle where the grett.t Malltha-jar \.\Ia, u9rn :lond sfwnt his youth, Charat SlIIgh, Sukal'chakia. (so named f,'om Ins hlrthplace in the Amritsar district), a Stiosi Jat of the Manjhn, wa~ olle of the most darin~ alld IHiccessfnJ. advflnrure1'8 whom that disturbed period brought to the front. His aid was invoked by his fellow tribesmen, the Sansi Jats of this district, It small trih~ around GujraU\vala with their head-q.uattcrs in the elty I in tlaei,,: st.ruggle against the Varald} tl"1 be Jed by tle- fa.mous lfobber. Clllef Bare Khan. The old fable of the horse and the man repeateu itsf'lf~ The Sansis of Gojranw8.la. repell~d the VarAicbs, but found they lmd overcome a 1"lval only to sag.dle themselves ",ith a. master. In 1,65 Charat Singh seized GujranwsJ.a city which wa.s thencefol'ward the bead-quarters of himself till his death in 17i3, of hi'j. son l\hha. Singh, and of l1is more celebrated grandson Maharaja. RaoJit Smgh till the capture of Labore by tbe latter in 1799 A,.. D. '1'0 this event may be traced the origin of the central power among the Sikhs.. Before, however, that power culminated in the establishment of the Sikh monarchy by Han]zt Singh, he ha.d successively to resist and ovtlrcome or assimilate the rival Sikh leaders and confederacies and the local Muhammadan chiefs. This work was begun by eharat Singh, continued by Maha Singh, :lond successfully accomplished by Ranji~ Singh in 1810 A, D.,

35

36 24 CHAPTER II.- llisl'ory. [ Punjab Gazett,eer, Chapter II. History, ConsolidatIOn the Slkh power to the ]'ising power of the Sikh confederacies in Gujrarnvilla. At this time they he1d sway over J 50 vluages or more than half of f tho Wazirabad tahsh, ana tlleir increll.'iing power soon brought Q them mto collusion wlth Charat Singh, tlle head of the Kukar.. chaloa confederacy, who was extending his possessiods in Gujrallwala. Charat Singh after the occupation of Gujl'anwula hail found hlmself strong enough to turn his arms against the Chatltas. 'l'he strug~ 1e was carried on with varying SUCCN8 for 10 j call'! between Charnt Singh and Allmad Khan. 00 the death of the: former in 1773 and of the latter in 1775, it wa~ continued by their sons Malla Smgh a.nd Ghulam Muhammfld, the brave.. t and ablest of the Cbatha. chiefe. Under llls leadership the Chuthli!4 guided several succe~ses over the Sikhs, in one of 'VhlCh they capturechhe famons Bhangi gud, and it at one time looked as if the progress of the Sikh arms had been fir! ested anu their dorni nton 111 tlle })oab Annihilated. Maha Singh at this crisis strengtheof'u lliml'lelf by an alliance with his ri"al Saillb SlOgh, the son of Gujar Singh, Bhangi, to whom he gave his sister HilJ Kaur in marriage', and the combined forces of the two Sikh chlefs ploved' too strong fo;r the raw levies of brave but un tramed peasants,,,hieh the Chathas opposed to them. Ghulam ~luha.mmdd was dj iven back into his fortress at Manchar to which siege was la.ld hy the SJkh!(, Rnd seeing that further resista.nce WU5 ineffectlla.l be,ffere'd to surrender lin promise of permission to retire in safety to Mecca. The promi:,e WM given but basely broken i most of the r,-arnson was put to the sword; Ghlllsm Mullammad himself was shot nt the instigatlon of Malia. Singh j the fortress was raised to the groun.d, and the poss('ssions of the Chatha chiefs were appropriated by Maha Singh, 01." distributed as rewards among his followers, TIZ, Dal Smgh, Kalianwiila, of Akalgarh, who had married the eister of Charat Smgh, Jon-alIir Singh, Bastani, Sollel Siogh, Bhangi, who had married the sister of Maha Singh and Jai 8angh Man who bad tnaflled his daughter to the Sllka.rchaki~ chief. To mark the overthrow (If tho Muhammadan c11iefs and the triumph of the Sikhs, the names of Rasulpur and Alipor were altered to Ramnagar and Aka,lgarh, but the old names are still religiously adhered to by every 1\1 uhammadan in this pa.rt of the Doah, and the heroic resistance of Gbnlam Mnhammad and his treacherons end are still celebrated in many a local ballad. Maha Singh pursued his succes<; in a manner characteristic of the age, by turning his arms against his ally and broth6r~in.law Sahib Singh, the Bhangi chief, but the latt~r made a soccessful resistance and maintained his independence till his death in A. D when his possessions were forcibly annexed by Ranjit Singh, who however gave the widow Raj Kanr, a. daughter of Charat Sing~~ a. ja9ir of Rs. 4,000 per annum f:>r her maintenance.' Maha Singh died at Sohdra in His death is said to have been hastened by mortification at the failure-of his attempt to onst

37 Gujranwala District.] CH..A.rTER II.-HISTORY. 25 SAhib Singh from Sohdra. which he was at the time ineffectually Chapter II. besieging. In an age when success depended solely on unscrupu- mst lous, daring, reckless courage and unrestrained cruelty he had C I da ~r h If f t "to b." h on so 1 won of won lmse a. oremos POSI Ion y a. pre-emmence 10 t ese the Sikh power. qualities which it was left for his son and saccessor Ranjit Singh to surpass. The same qualities which had raised the father from a IUccessful freebooter to the leader of a. powerful confederacy, raised the son to be the despotic ruler of a powerful kingdom. - In this, 'his native district, he found himself confronted Esta.blishment of with the same difficulty as his father and grandlather. The the SIkh monarchy. local Muhammadan tribf'!had still to be reduced, the rival Sikh chieftains had to be overcome or conciliated. 'I'he Chathas made another struggle for independence, Jan Muhammad, the. son of GhulAm Muhammad, had fled to Kabul after the fall of Mancha.!", and returning in 1799 with aid from Zaman Shah- Ranjit Singh being then uccupied with the Bhatti and Tarar tribes of Bafizabad-the country rose in his favour, the Sikh garrisons were expelled, and Jan Muhammad re-established himself in Ramnagar. His success was however short lived. Ranjit Singh took the field with a large amiy and laid siege to R.1mnagar. Jan Muhammad was killed in the siege, the garrisons sultendered, tbe power of the Chatha. tribe which had played so prominent' a p~rt in the politics of the 18th cen tury was broken, and their villages quietly submitted to the Maharaja's sway. Emboldened by this success and strengthened in resources and prestige by the possession of Lahore which he had captured in the same year, 1799, Ranjlt Singh determined to subdue once for all the turbulent Muhammadan tribes of Hafizabad wbich for years had been offering a 'guerilla resistance to his troops. He entered the tract with a large army and in a short time overcame the Kharrals, Lodikes, and even the Tarars. The Bhattis alone, true to their Rajptit traditions, offered a determined resistance, and though defeated in the field, they entrenched themselves in the fortified towns of Ja.laIpur and Pintli Bba.ttian. These were, however, taken by storm in A. D Most of the Bhatti leaders were killed, the survivors who fled for protection to the Siyals of Jhang were outlawed and their possessions confiscated. When the power of the Sikhs was broken in the 2nd Sikh war, and the Punjab annexed, they returned and were restored to most of their old possessions. The power of the local tribes having thus been broken, it remained to overcome the rival Sikh chiefs. Most of these were the descendants of the adventurers who had aided eharat Singh and Yaha Singh in establishing their power. Many of them were nearly connected with the. Mabaraja by blood or marriage, but neither the remembrance of past services, nor the ties of blood, could restrain R811jit Singh in his career of unscrupulous ambition. Dal Singh, of Akalgarh, the brother-ill-law of Charat Singh, had. been the most strenuous Illpponer &)1 ~. Sukarchakial m their various campaigns against

38 26 CHAPTER It-BISTORY. [ PUnja.b Gazetteer, Chapter II. matolj Establi8hme~t the Sikh monarchy. ~dviser. the Chathas. and on the overthrow of the latter had received a large portion of their possessions in Jag". For some years after of Ranjit Singh's accession, Dal Singh was his most trusted His increasing influence however excited the Ma.haraja'. Jea.lousy apd brought on a ruptnre. Ranjit SlOgh made an attack on AkaJgarh in 1800,.which was successfully resisted by Sabju the wife of Dal Singh. Dal Singh died in 1804, Ranjit Singh captured Akalgarh and Ahmadanagar, and annexed DalSingh's possessions, making however" according to his custom, a decent provision for the family by the grant of a jagir, and thos attaching them to his standard. Jodh Singh, Varaich, whose sister had married.. Cbarat Singh, and whose father Gurbakhsh Sipgh had attached himself to the rising fortunes of that chief and received Wazfrabad and 47 villages in the vicinity as a reward for his services, was the next victim. Jodh Singh had always aided Maha Singh against the Bhangi Chief Sahib Singh, but when the latter was besieged in Sohdra. in 1790, Jodh Singh is suspected of having secretly suppued him with ammunition, fearing that Maha Singh, If successful, would become too poweriul, and this action is said to have been the cause of Ranjit Singh's hostility to him. The ambition of the latter,.however, supplies a motive beyond which it is unnecessary to seek. Finding his enemy too powerful to be openly attacked, Ranjit Singh set a trap for him. He invited him to Lahore, received him in Darbar with great courtesy, and while professing friendship and esteem, suddenly gave the signal to have the Sardar seized. Jodh Singh drew his sword, and called on them to attack as he disdained to flee. The Maharaja. was so struck with his gallantry that he dismissed him with safety, confirmed him in his p08&essions, and added to his Jagirl. A few years later, however, when Jodh Singh died in 1809, the Maharaja. marched a force to Wazirabad and rllthlessly confiscated all the Jag it, allowing a small grant for the maintenance of Ganda Singh and Amrik Singh, the minor sons of Jodh Singh. The snbsequent history of the family is given in Volume 11, pages of Mauy'. Edition of the P~njab Chiefs. The fate of the Bhangi Sardars, whose estates in this district were finally confiscated in 1809, has already been related. The rise of Bh8~ Singh, the leadel' of the martial Virakh clan, who, in the tlme of ()harat Singh and Maba Singh, had. seized a large portion of the Gnjranwala a.nd Sheikhupura parganahs and extended his power up to the banks of the Ravi, has been referred to in an earlier page. Thongh a steady snpporter of the Sukarchakias while they were struggling against their rivals, he was too near tbe throne for the Maharaja to brook him as a. rival. He was compelled in 1805 to sacrifice his independence a.nd submit td the Mahar'ja who granted him 8~ villagea in ja.g'" and pu~ him in

39 Gujranwala District.] CHAPTER IL-lIISTORY. 2'1 command of the Virakh Horse. On his death in 1806 his son Chapter II. Jodh Singh succeeded to his position and emoluments. The Ristory subsequent history of the family is given in pages 219 and 220 E8tabhshme~t of of Puniab Chiefs (Volume II). Another branch of the Virakh the Sikh monarchy. tribe, under Sahib Singh, had established a strong position in and around Sheikhupura, whence they had expelled the Lobana trlbe. In 1808 the Maharaja turned his arms against them. For some time they made a successful resistance in the fort of Shelkhupura, but were at length iuduced to submit under promise of considerate treatment. They were granted considerable jag TI, entered the Maharaja's service, and for many years were among the most zealous and loyal of his followers. Thus by force and fraud, tempered with conciliation, Ranjit Singh had succeeded in overcoming all local opposition and cleared tho way for the ex.tension of his dominion over the whole Punjab. The whole of the district now acknowledged his sway, and Sikh administra. it only remains to describe his system of administration. About ti~d under Ranjili lulu of the conquered lauds were retained by the..maharaja. Smgh. nnder direct management as part of the Sikh royal domalo (kmzsa), or farmed out in groups to persons who contracted to pay in a fixed amount of cash or grain to the State, making what they could ont of the people. These were administered by kardars or governors who ex.ercised general jurisdiction on behalf of.the sovereign. The intima.te connection of ma.ny of the leading Sikh families with the Maharaja who selected many of his bravest ~enerals, such as Hart SlOgh Nalwa of Gnjranwala, Misr Dewan Chand of Gondlanwala, ablest governors, stlch as Dewan Sawan Mal of Akalgarh, Dewan Dhanpat Rai of Sohdrll, an\! successful conrtiers, such as Jowahir Singh, Bastani, of RamnagarJl Jai Singh, Ma.n, and Sham Singh, of Butala-from this district, and the fact that the descendants of the supplanted Slkh chiefs had been allowed to succeed to part of their possessions, led to the grant of nearly half the dlstrict in jagir to the favourites, relatlves and servants of the Maharaja, subject to military or other services and to the royal pleasure. It is 'not always possible to discriminate with accuracy the position of the jagirdar~ aud local governors as the leading jagirdars were often allowed to contract for the management of groups of estates outside their jag"8, and the Urdars or governors held part of their ihiqas in jagir as a reward for their services. The table below shows roughly how the di~er. ent talllqas or parganahs were held up to their absorption by Ranjit Singh, liow they were distrlbllted by him, and whether they were granted in jag" or managed through the royal depllties.

40 Cha.pter It. History. 28' CHAPTER IL-MSTOBY. ( Plmjab Guetteet,. By whom bold prior To whom granted ~ Sikh administra ~ Name of tajuqas. w foundation of when annelted conquered by'" or,.' Am Ur4&rt tion under Ranjffi., ~ Slkli kulgdom. B.nJU Smltb. Iz< "iii Singh. 'S.,.. 'S ~ rq ,--) LJa. Salub Singh J Do. Didar Smgh 3 Do. lr1an BIngh I) Gujranw61a. 8 AkAlgarh 7 Shelkhupura. 8 lhr8.llwala. 9 1habrlin.. 10 Sohdra 11 Eha.roke.. 12 Kate Bare Khan. 13 Emmabad U Nangal Dunna Smgh. IIi Wazirabad 16 Ahmadnagar 17 GhAkka.r 18 Ramnagar 19 Ralizabad 20 1aUJpur.. n Jangl. %2 Prom BhattlAn 23 Cha.k Bhatti 241 R4mpur.. 26 Kaulo Tarar 26 Vamke 8 Chara.t Singh and Sihib 81l1gla (Bedl) l&gfr. Mab. SllIgh. 33 D~. do. Rattan Blngh (Dhul1a,. p Do. do. B&rd&r MUJaJl Bingh Jigfr. 11 Do. do. Do. Sahaj Smgh Kirdir. 89 Do. do. Do. 1Ia.rl Singh, 16gfr. Nalwa ardar Da.l SIngh Dewan SiwaJl Mal Kat'dar. 1KabanWala). 206 S hlb Smgh and tin! NlkaYaJl Jag!t. Sabai Smgh (VI' rakbsj. Do. 98 BMg SIngh (Vi. Sardar Bh&g 8111gh rakh). 43 Vuakhtnbe RwNlkayan... Do. 48 Bardar Sahlb Smgh Dewan Dhanpat lurd',. (Ehan'1&: Ral. 15 Mt. RI\;! ar (WIfe MUBaU. lui Kaut' Jag!r. of SahIb Smgh). I 13 Sardar Sllhlb Smgh Sa.rdal' Fateh Singh Do. (Bbu.ngI). (Man). 21 Do. do. Rallo Dhl'n Singb Kardir. of Jammu. 9 Do. do. DewaDo Ganpat B&i.. Do. 4,', 10dh Singh (Va.. Do. ralch). 25 Gbulam Yuham. 1801&1 Khan (Bha~ 1&gIr. mad (Chatha). tl). 815 Do. do. HoUl 8mgb Na.Jwa r Do.; 60 Do. do. 10wabit 8mgh i Urdir. (BlIo8t8lll.). 68 Bhatti tribe l4lsr Ralla RAm I Do. 22 Do. do. - Dewan Siwan YAlI Do. Ii Do. do... Do. do. I I '" Do. 93 Do. do. Do. do. I Do. 21 DO'. do. RAja GuLib 8lDi'hj Do. 440 Tarartrlbe Do. do. I Do. 9 Do. do.. Rattan SLngh 1'g{r '23 Do. do... 1 RAJa. GuLib 81ngh JUrdar., Lea~ing jagfrdarlr. Sikh Of the jagfrdars the most fameus were Hari 8ingh Nalwa, a. Khatri of Gujnl.nwala city, where his descenda.nts still reside, whose personal valour earned him the title of the" Ney of the Punja.b," and whose exploits in extending the Sikh dollinions were hardly eclipsed by those of t.&l8 Maharaja. himself. lie was killed near Jamrud in l831 while bravely resistmg the attack of the army which the Amir Dost Muhammad had sent to capture the fort, and the invading army was repelled by the Maharaja. in person who arrived with reinforc~ment from Ram nagar, a distance of over ~OO miles, in 4 days. His death was an irreparable loss to the Sikhs. As a governor he was harsh but strong, Rani Nikayan, the senior, wife of the Maharaja, held nearly one-fourth of the district, including all

41 GujramraIa Diatrict. ] ClUPTmR II. mstoji,t. 29 the 8ou~hern portion bordering on Lahore, in jag ", and main- Chapter II. tained a semi-royal state in the fort at Sheikhupura, finding a sub- H. stantial compensation for her being supplanted in the Maharaja's L affections by younger and more pjeasing rivals in the incqme d': ng di 18~~ laglfwhich she derived from her wide possession. Thongh nqtoriously avaricious, she was wise and farseeing enough to encourage cultivation by making grant of waste lands to cultivators and settling tenants in the villages which had been deserted in the struggle between the Virakhs and Bhattis. Of the kardars, General Avitabile, whose head-quarters Leading Sikh Karwere at Wazirabad which he considerably enlarged and dara or Governors. beautified, is remembered as having been the first to introduce the system of fixed cash payments in substitution for the old rude systems of appraisement (kankut) or division of the crop (batai). The two greatest were Dewan Sawan Mal and Raja. Gulab Singh, who held most of the Hafiza.bad tahsil in farm. The name of the former is remembered here, or elsewhere, for the justice of his decisions, the moderation of his assessment, and the wisdom which led him to concillate and settle in the soil the turbolent a.nd predatory tribes of the Bar-Kharrals, Bhagsinkas, &c., by giving them grants of waste lands on -easy terms, a.nd remittldg pa.rt of the assessment in fa.vour of those who fouoded villages, sunk wells, or otherwise developed cultivation. The memory of _Golab Singh, on the other hand, and of his unscrupulous agent, the Wadr Rattano, is execrated by the people for their oppressive assessments which all bot crushed the tract in their charge.' The character of the kardars generally, with the single exception of Sawan Mal, cannot be better summed up than in the words of Mr. Bames- "The problem of his bfe was to maintain CluUintioIt at the highest pobbi. ble level, add at the 8ame time to keep the eultivatol' at the ZOIOB,t J'01,e of depreaaiod." Of the Sikh rule generally it may be said tha.t while it introduced an era of comparative order and security by setting,up a. barrier against invasion from outside and stamping out tribal feuds and private wars of rival chieftains, it did little else to improve the position of the great mass of the people. These were left to the mercy of the jagirdars or kardars whose discretion was practically unbounded as long as thf'y furnished their contingent of troops to the royal army, or their quota of revenue to the royal treasury. Individual jagirdars or kardars, such as Sliwan Mal taking a. broad and farseeing view of their posltion and responsi~ bihties, might now and aga.in endeavour to promote the welfare of the people in their charge, but these were the exceptions and the va.st majority, dressed io a little brief authorlty, has~ teded to make the most of their power by squeezing what they could qn' of the people.

42 Chapter II. Risto 30 CHAPTER U.-HISTORY. [ Punjab Gazetteer, In this respect the rapacity of the j~girdarb, and especially of the J at Sikh Sardars, exceeded even that of the kardars. Leadmg S'7h Kar. A common figure of speech among the people likens them to dan. ravenmg wolves who preyed at WIll on the helpless fold, or vampires who sucked the blood of human beings. In fact t1le hand of the Sikhs fell heavier on th:8 district on account of its proximity to the capital and close connection with the ruling family than almost on any otber. owing to tlhe number of rapacious followers who had to be provided for, tho quartering of troops on the people, and the obligation to furmsh Buppl1es free to the Sikh armies on their way to and from the frontier. Overthrow of the The overthrow of the Sikhs in the first Sikh wa.r, in which Sikh rule. many of the leading Sardars and jaglrdars of this district bore a prominent part, and the establishment of the Regency at Lnhore under Britlsh control in 1855, dealt a. severe blow to the authority of the jagirdars, wbose excesses since the death of the MaharaJa. in 1839 had kuown no, restraint. The introduction of the summary settlement in 1847, the object of "hich was to substitute a fixed cash assessment for the arlitrary exactions which had hitherto prevailed, caused even deeper alarm. The jaglrdar saw himself reduced from an irresponsible loca.l autocrat, exercising almost unlimited jurisdiction to a mere assignee of a. fixed cash assessment. The kard~r saw that there was no place for him in tbe new system. Both classos regarded the new order of thidgs with sullen discontent, and when ihe outbreak of the second Sikh war offercd a cha.nce of shaking off the British control, and restoring tho old order, it is not surprising that almost without exception tht'y threw in their Jot with the rebels. 'rhe result was fatal. The power or the Slkhs was finally broken at CbiIid.nwala. and Gnld.t. Of the rebel SArdars of this district many w~e killed in the above battles, the remainder joined In the general surrender, and were shorn of their honors andj(l,girr, receiving in some cases small life pensions for their mamtenance. Elrect oftheaecond Sikh war. Among the families that played a. prominent part in the rebellion on one side or the other, and were rewarded or punished accordingly at annexatlon, the following were the chief :- 'l'benalwa.farnily. 1. Gurdit Singh, Jowa.hir Singh and Arjan Singh were the ~ons of Hari Smgh Nalwa. Arjan Singh sllut himself up in the fortified house built by Hari :-5ingh outside GujranwfUa. with about luo men and openly defied the Governmflnt. A sma.ll detachment sent to bring him into Lahore was unsuccessful; but when a body of troops sent by Bngadier Campbell and a. squadron of Skinner's H.orse marched against bim, be fled. The defences of tbe house were destroyed and the property confiscated. The house, now known as the" bciradari," is one of the most perfect surviving specimens of Sikh architectare, and is

43 Gujranwa,1a Dtstrict. ) CHAPTER 1I.-HISTORY. 31 one of the most pleasing residence in the civil station. The garden was at one time famous in the Punjab for its variety of rare trees atl1i plants, and the first Malta oranges introduced in the Punjab were grown here. Chapter II. History. The Nalwa family. Jowahil' Singh, whose sympathies were with the rebels, had been brrested at the beginning of the outbreak and kept a prisoner in Lahore. He escaped to Gujranwa.la with the connivance of his guards. His own fame as a soldier, and the name of his father Hari Singh soon attracted followers to his standard. He crossed the Chenab and joining Raja Sher Singh fought with great gallantry at Chillianwala. He it was who led the famous charge of irregular cavalry at Chillianwala that drove th~ British Drag-oons off the field, and so nearly turned the fortunes of that eventful day. The jagi'8 of Gnrdit Singh, Jowahir Singh and Arjan Singh were resumed on annexation. Punjab SlDgh, the third son of Hari Singh, who was on bad terms with his brothers, refused to join the rebels, and his jagir8 were maintained to him. 2. Of the Man Sardars, who then occupied a prominent The Man family, position in the Sikh armies, Jagat Smgh, Budh Singh, Baghel Singh and Fateh Singh remained faithful to the British, and were rewarded by the continuance of their jag 1.'8 i Rattan Singh, Jodh Singh, Jamiat Singh snd Lehna Singh, who were serving under,sher Singh at Mooltan, went over with him to Mulraj and lost all their jagi" at annexation. The Man family imitated the prescience of many a Highland Laird of the 17th and 18th centuries who sent a. son to either camp, thereby securing immunity whichever side should win. 3. Sa,rdar Jhanda Singh of BnMla, whose services in The Butala. Sar Hazara Dp to 1847, under Captain Abbot, had gained for him dars. the title of Bahadur with the affix: It Ujal didar, Nirmal budh" (open countenance a.nd honest mind), hardly justified his reputation and was suspected of playing a double game. In Ma.y 1848 he was sent down the Sind-Sagar Doab to prevent the spread of Muld.j's rebellion, and aid in the operations against Mooltan. His conduct at first was admirable, bat as he neared Mooltan part of the force under him deserted to the rebels. The Sardsr himself was snspected of being in communication with Mlilraj, and was at once recalled to Lahore. There he seems to have re-assured the resident of his loyalty, and in Augllst was sent on a. mission to Sardar Chatar Singh, Governor of Hazara., whose loyalty was then wavering, to reca.ll him to a sense of duty. Jhauda Singh was unsuccessful, and was generally suspected of ha.ving done his utmost to widen, and not tc;» close, the breach. ~

44 Ch&pter II. History. Butala Sardars. 32 CHAPTER II.-HISTORY. [Punja,b Gazetteer, He was ordered back to Lahore and put under arrest, but he seems to have been again able to dispel SusplcIOn, was soon afterwards released; and during the la.st four or five months of the war he and his sowars were employed to keep open the communications between Lahore and Ramnagar. J handa Singh played bis part well in a. difficult crisis, a.nd when the Punjab was taken over all his personal jag;',. amount.. lug to Re. 15,560 were confirmed to him for life. His descend. ants Sardars Balwant Singh and Mul Singh, E. A. O.'s, Sardars Arjan Singh and Suchet Singh. now hold' grants amounting to Re. 5,486. Other rebel Sikh 4. The following Sardars Ganda Singh, Mattu, jage" Rs. 19,000; SahIb SlDgb, Virakh, grandson of Bhag Singh, already mentioned as having held independent power among his fellow tribesmen, jag;'r lts. 14,000, the Virakh Sardars of Bhikki already mentioned jagi, Rs. 8,000. Garmukh Singh and Atar Smgb, the Hasanwalia Sardars, of Ramnaga.r, iagir Rs. 20,000 and Jowahir Singh, Dastani, of Ramnagar, the royal chamberlain or master of the wardrobe, jagir, Rs. J 2,000, openly joined in the rebellion and lost au their jagirb. The descend. ants of all of these are still living in the district. jagirdars. The loyal Sardars. 5. Among the Sardars whose loyalty was undoubted, and whose services in that critical period were most valuable, besides those already mentioned, were Sardar Jodh Singh, Varaich, and his more famous brother Sardar Man Singh, C.I.E., of Ruriala, and General Harsukh Rai of Bafizabad. The events of the second Sikh war and its r~sult, the annexation of the Punjab, thu~ brought about the downfall of many of the leading Slkh families of the district. Conduct or. the The Muhammadan tribes, on the other hand, who had been Muhamma.dan tnbes. crushed by Ranj:t Singh early in the ce~tury, were eager to payoff old soores, and anxious\. to recover their own. The Bhattfs, Tarars, and Chatbas of W azirabad and Hafizabad rallied to the British standard, readily furnished supplies J brought in information of the movements of the enemy nnd fought 00 our side at Ramnagar, Chilianwala. and Gnjrat. A plot to stir up the Sikh popula.tion of the district by the agency of a religious pretender, Guru Maharaj Singh, who was foment. ing rebellion in the guise of a religious mendicant., wa.s frustra.ted by the Pathans of Jhandi8.la Sher Khan, who gave timely information to the authorities. A force of horse was promptly despatched from. Wazirabad, the offending villages, Karya! Jhabbar, Ohnharkana, in which troops were being secretly enlisted, were plundered and burned down; Ma.hAraj Singh ha.d to :8.ee to Jhani, where he was ca.ptured with the aid of the Bhatti chiefs. As a reward for these services the Bhattis aud T&rara were restored. to 'ijjjm1 of their eatatea from which

45 Gujran.a.la District.] CHAPTER!I.-HISTORY. 83 they lul.d been ejected by the Sikhs, and the nominees of the Cha.pter II. la.tter,vera expelled by force of arms where necessary. liistory. The annexation of the Punjab in 184P, while it involved the Effect of annexacompl~te downfall or temporary eclipse of many of the leadmg tion on the people families, WaH welcomed by the great mass of the people, and especially by the a~icu1tural population. At tlje first sub-division of the newly acquired province, the whole of the upper portion of the Rechna Dosb frdln Jamma'to the Jhang boundary and from the Chenah to the Hivi, inctudin~ this district aud that of SlIilkot, was formed into one distllct. The tpmporary he'ld.qcarters was at first Sbelkhupul a. and for a shol't time,r aziralad. In thl~ wide jurisdiction was bl'okt'll np, and two dlbl:ncts were formed havin~ their head-quarters at Sal.lkot and Gujranwala; the GujrtJ.JJwala. district 3'i theu arran~ed ('xtendlog from the Chenab to the Ravi, and ('omprisldg the four tahsils of Gnjran-,,,ala, Ramnariar, Hafizaball and Shelkhupura. At the close of the reglliar settlement 1U J 8~6, s<~vel n 1 villages of the Shelkhnpura tahsil were transferred tl) the L. hore distnct, and aftel." some trifilug' changes of estates WIth Suilkot, tbe district was reconstttnted mto the thlee t.thsils of Gujranw la, 'Vadra.bad and Ramnagar. Excludmg the tramjer of a. large a.rea, 13 rakhs With 87,480 a.cres from Jhang in J 884, the only changes which took place up to the rece'nt rc-vislon of settlement were transfers of vlllages to and from Gujr.lt and Shahpur owing to changes in the course of the Chenab, the deep-stream of which has Illtherto formed the boundary for purposes of jurisdlctlon as well as proprietary l'lght. The changes that took place 1ll 1892, owing to the e~tens1on of Clonal lrrigation and the open- 109 up of tbe Government waste in the Bar to cultivation, viz., the interchange of area with tho Lahore, Montgomery and Jhangdl!otncts, 1'.,."1 the sphtting up, of the unwieldy Hafizabad tahsll ldto t'" o-the new tahsil having its head-quarters at Khtingah DogrllD in the heart of the Bar, htlove been a.lluded to in Chapter I. The fonowing acconnt of the ",vents of 1857 is taken from the" Panjab Mutiny Report ".- Gujrtinwalll is a bttle cinl station on the bill'h road from LRhore to Peshawar. As in all other places, the Depoty CommiBSlODer waa burdened With a body of mutidous soldiers 8S his treasury guard. In this ease the men were of the 46tb NatlTe Infant'1.; they were qnickly got rid of by an order to them to rejoin theu' corps at Slalkot. This was obeyed. Its opel'lltion left CaptaIn Crlppa, offima.ting Deputy Cotllml8lJlOOer, whl! 7 horsemen and 35 foot pollce to defend three European ollie81's, 2,00,000 rupees of GOTernmell' treasure, and a l811 filii of convicts. ThIS sta~l'i of tlungs could not lnst, et!peclf~lly as the treasuy wna an tnsecnre buildmg, and could no& he held, as it pobbessed DO well. Tbe station Ilught be attacked either by tbe three nabve regiments from Sialko~ or by the four native rej/illnents from Lahore. It lay between the two placcl, anll Junctlon of the mntinoq8 bngadt.l9 migbt reasonably be expected. To avert dange. as far 1k8 poi91ble, an old tomb aud lui mrcollljacent gardea were fortlfied, pre'lfiiods were tarown 111, aa4 tae ~ was eent into Labore. Recrillta Were called for from the people, ",d they eagerly t.i!totige4 io. DurIng 8111: monthl"bout 700 men were 1'&lSed. From thui bodl wge drafts WHO mad. BrItish role. The mutiny.

46 Chapter II..- History. The mutiny. Attitude d Sikhs durin~ mutiny. CHAPTER I1.-mSTORT. [Punja.b Gazetteer, mto three Pnojab regiments; 250 remained on duty at the station; 100 ",pre seot down as pollcemen to the North. Western Pronnces; and even while under tra.imd~ the whole body was 'used as ferry guards, jall guards, and Nlcorts. Early In July, the Deputy COmnl1SSlOner hastened away to Uu]riit, 35 mllea off, on thp nevi's of the Jhf'\um mutmy There he mounted his 100 men on camels, und \Vent away another journey of 35 mlles, to the very bank of the Jhell1m. lie learnt there that the Jhelum mutiny had ended, and on his baaty mllrt h back he was mformed that a. formidable one had broken out at Sialkot, only 35 IDlles from hls own station He hurried back to GUJranwaJa, bllt found, to bib satisfaction, that It had not been threatened, the men having gone a. different way In the end of September, CaptaIn Cripps was called to traverse the southern part of his distrlct, wluch abuts on tbe /idr, as the KhArrals had fl8en, an_ rnlght be expected to attack some large towns under hlb lllrisdktlon. Agam a forced march brought a. body of the Slkh levies u'ldet hls persomu command to tho suspected dlstncts; and the people, If they had any evl1 intontion8, were overawed Order contmued to reign throughout that tt'rfltory. In October, Colonel Clarke took charge of the distrlct, and Captain Cripps was transferred to Fero7epore on the appointment of MaJor 'Marsden to Gngera. The poople of GIlJranwUa seemed to have been yery well affected thronghout, and the SIX pf'f c,ent. loan gained considerable accessions from the moneyed men of the eolld.try towns. the The events of the mutiny, though their dlrect effect on the the district was slight, hau however a considerable indirect effect in strengthening our rule and in reconciling anu bmding up with it the SIkh population whose attitude SlCce the annexation of the Punjab had been one of sullen acquiescence. The disbandment of -the Sikh armies aftel" the battle of Gujrat had thrown out of employment thousands of sturdy SIkh soldiers who were unwilling to turn their swords into ploughshares, and the complicity of the Sikh Sardars in the rebellion had led to ~he loss of their honours and emoluments. The presence of these two classes in the district might prove an element of serious danger if the mutiny were successful in Hindustan, and spread to the Punjab. The b01d and ma.sterly policy which associated the lately defeated and disbanded Sikh forces with the support of our cause, and employed them as a weapon of offence against the Hindustani rebels, thereby removing a local source of danger and providing them with congenial and remunerative employment, is a matter of history. The Sikhs of this district promptly responded to the call for levies, and their Sardars now found the opportunity of proving their loyalty to our rule, of winning back some of their lost dignities and emoluments, and of dealing a blow at the hated Purbia troops who had so lately helped to defea.t them. Am.ong those who were the first to take the field and whose services against the rebels were most distinguished were :- (1) Sardar Jowahir Singh, the son of Hari Singh Nalwa, who, as Resa.ldar of the 1st Sikh Cavalry, served with a gallantry and devotion worthy of his father's son, was 18 times engaged with the enemy, receiv.. ed the order of British India for his services in the field, and at t.he close of the war was rewarded with the grant of ajcig{, of Rs. 1,200, one-half for life and one-half ill perpetuity.

47 Gujra.nw&!a District.] CHAl'TER n.-history. 35 (2) Of the Man family, Jowala Singh, the eldest son of Chapter II. Fateh Singh, was killed at Lucknow. Antip Singh, Ristol'1' the eldest son of Jodh Singh, entered the 1st Sikh Attitude of the Cavalry, afterwards known as Probyn's Horse when Sikhs during the it was first raised in August 1857, was present at mutidy the Iall of Delhi aud the capture of Luclmow. In that gallani regiment, Anup Singh distinguished himself by his cool and determined courage, and dllring the campaign was four times wounded and ha.d three horses killed under him. Ganda Singh, the second son of Sher Singh, Man, who joined the sa.me regiment, was killed in the Hindustan campaign and Gurdit S1Ogh, his younger brother, was several times wounded in the field. (3) Bhag Singh, Hasanwalia, of Ramnagar, son of Atar Singb, also served with credit as a. Jamadar of Irregular Horse and was rewarded with the gra.nt of a. pension and smb.1ljagi1'. The fonowing families who llad stood faithful in 1849 again showed their loyalty by service in the field during the mutiny :- Sardar Jodh Singh, Varaich, of Ruriala, who was in an influential positron at Amritsar, assisted in the enrolment of Sikh levies" and took part With the Deputy Commissioner, ~Ir. Cooper, C.B., in the pursuit of the Meean Meet mutineers and their destruction at Ajnala. Sardar Man Singh, the youngest brother of Jodh Singh, was one of the first to jom Major Hodson at Delhi with a. troop of cavalry raised by himself. He assisted in the capture of the king of Delhi, and the capture and execution of the three princes. 'fhence he returned to Lahore, apd raising 500 recrults rejoined his regiment in time to take part JQ the capture of Lucknow. For these services and his condnct in the,mbsequent operations in Hindustan, where he was twice wounded, Man Singh was rewarded with the Order of Merit and the grant of j(igirs in Oudh and the Punjab. Harsa Singh, the son of Jodh Singh, served with credit through the same campaign as Resaldar of the 9th Bengal Lancers. General Harsukh Rai, of Hafizabad. and the Dewau!! of Emioabad, Karm Chand, Hari Cband and Nahal Chand also served m the field, nud Hari Chand who commanded a. contingent of Jammu troops before Delhi died of cholera. Of the Muhammadan tribes several members of the Bhatti At tit u d e and Chatlla c]an9, of whom Rahmat Khan of Pmdi Bhattian, the Khuda Bakhsb of Ahmadanagar, were the most distinguished, tribes. a.ttached themselves to General NIcholson's standard and served in the moveable column which crushed the scattered bodie:i of mutinous Hindustan18 iu the Punjab, and contributed 80 largely to the fau of Delhi. of YuhammadaD

48 Elect; mntijly CHAPTER n.-distory. [ Puitjab Gazetteer, Chapter II The efieet of the mutiny was therc!ore to hea.l om!sorell anu History. reconclle old feuds. As har been well remarked iu the ~utiny the ot Report of Gllrdaspur district:- History sidce ao nexatlon.. The general enlistment wall moat popular. as it wu among the most effective measures a.dopted by the Government, and contributed in a nit degree to link the popular teebng in this part of the count.ry with the BI itlsh caume. A mutual loterest and aympathy wal create.l to 8\lpport that c.adle wbil h had no\v become commoo. deep and earnest were the Q.HpiratifJns which vlurated in every homestead and evidced that the mlhtary spirit or the nation hlld beed grahfied, and afforded un assurance that its yshant.onl would no~ be bad. ward in VlUdlCatmg the trust bestowed." Smce annexatjon the history of the district has been one of steady progress. The imp"ovement of communications by the construction of the Grand Trunk Road in the early days of our rule, of the North-Westeru Hallway in , of the branch llde from Wazlrabad to Sialkot in 1885, has opened up new markets, brought it into touch with the grea' centres of tra.de, and thereby given a gteat stimulus to the growth of agricultural produce. ' he openinl{ np of the great tracts of Government and VIllage waste in the Hafizabad tahsil by the Chf'nkb Canal, which began to work in 1888, is likely to prove ev~n a more potent factor in promoting the prosperlty of the district, and bas even already brought some 150,000 acre! of wa.st~ land untlttr the plough. The fnil effects of this new influence have yet to Le seen, but when crowneu by the construction of the railway now under construction through the heart of the Doa.b fl'oul WazJrI:\ bad to Mooltau, it WIll revolutlouise the district and rai!o>e it frorn a position of comparative unimportance to one of the UlOl!t promperoue, and at least finadcially one of the most important, 10 the PrO'VlDce. The following omeera have sinc;) annexa.tion adminl'!teretl the district in. the capacity of Deputy CUUlmi~!'li()ner for tho period marked opposite their na.mes :- TUM 0' OFFICE. From To Captain Clarke '" May )84n f October 1849 J Morria.. November 184:l.. DeceQJlier H. M Loveday, W. Ford.. January 1850 No~ember E. Fruer.... December 18:m.. August W. Forbes.... September 18U Octobor 1851 Major J Clarke Xovember Ftlbruary ] 8;j.d J Morris -.. March les6 October ls.jtj. CAptain J. S Tighe November Do>Cf'mber 1!!5ti. Captain J. M. Cripps Jauuary September C'llonel J. Clarke September Fe~ruary 1~8. Ca.ptain J. 'V. It Elliot MlU.ch November Captain J. S. Tighe Deoember Ca.pta.in Elhot January lfarch 1800.,

49 GujranwAla District. ]. CHAPTER H.-HISTORY. TERll or orrlcs. X.UlIS.,,I_.-:=--_! To Mr lir}lullen I Apnl 18(;0. I Captain EllIOt. Illay l&t:o, February }lr A Brandreth.. ' March ISI}l. : llay 1&;2. Captrun Urmstom, June IbGJ.. ; December 1862 Mr. Powlett December lsgj.. October 18G3. llr. A. Brandreth "'1 November 181;3.' February CaptaIn J. W. Bnstow, February 18G4.. I llay Mr \. Brandreth 'liay UIO-J... I May Major 11. P Bla.bbege J.uno HlG;). f October 11\65 llr A. Bra.ndreth I!liovember 18b5 I December Major H P. Babbage I January October IbGS. Mr. A. Brandreth." II liioverober 1&>8'1 February ltrjor H. P. Babbag9 }[arcb 1&9 November 1870 :Mr. AI![acl.IllhB:e, October 1870 January' Mr. O. Wood January February ~Ir. G. R. EIsmJe., Febrnary 1871 I }larch Mr. D G. Barkley..: March th May 1871 CaptaIn B T M. Lang.. 8th Ala ,31st October 1871.MI'. 1. G. Cordery /lst NovemLer December Mr D G Barkley.. January ]872 28th February 1872 '!ohjor F. J..&hllar.. I 28th February l!i72 6th July 1872 Mr. F. C ChannIng. I 18th July Ibn 17th August 1872 Major F. J MIllar.., j 18th August 187J 20th ~ovember 1873 lir J G Cordery.. I 20tlt :Xovember '2nd October 1875 'Iajor F D llarmgtgil "I 22nd October th June 1876 llr..\ R Ealman. 5th Jona I 29th March IbiS. Mr. T W. n. Talbort.. ' 29th llarch IS7S. 7th April Mr. A R Bulman 7th April th AUguRt It-79 CaptalU A. S Roberta 5th Ang-u8t l!i79 4th Xovember 1879 Mr A R Bulman 5th Xovember th 11arch Mr J. W Gardmer Ukh March ISH 30th June MaJor A S ltobem 30th Jnna th August Col.mEll F. J. MIII.!r 8th..\Ilgu~t 1881 i 11th 8eptember lrs1 liajor.a S. Roberta 12th Spptember ]881.! 29th November li:r It W Steel 3l1th~{>Vt'lllber JSS1. '9th April 1882.' )1r. C. P. Bird 10th Apnl 1~82 1qth May 168l. Mr. A. R. EulmllD 20th llay lb')2 19th?llarch 11-&3- llr. M. Ma(,8ulilie.. I 20th MlLJch lb83 10th June Mr. R. W. 'IraB:ord 11th June 188'l.. 8th Jane 1884 'Ia;or W J. Park"r. 9th Jnne 18s.J.. 25.h October lso-1 MaJor H M.lI. WO'ld.. I 26tb Octob.. r l88-j... ) 8th Marl'h Mr. 1. G Slfcock 9th }farch Ib85 4rh September 'Mr. G. Hughes 5th Sept~t. bel' th October 1885 lir. J G Silcock 10th OetoL~r th November 1885 ~Ir. H. W. Steel 11th.xovember J885 6tb February Nr. G. Knox 7th February st April Major R. Bartholomew. I 22nd April th June 1~S. ~tr. E D Mal.'lagan J.!th lune Sth ~eptember Ib88. liajor R :&nholomew.. 2tlth SE'pteruber 1l)8.i 2'3th February ~{r G. f'mvth.. I Itot )hrcb 18b9 1Rth March 18S9. Mr. D. C j. Ibbetson. 19th )fareh ISS9 9th Dcct'mhpr 188.Q. Lltlutenant C S. lje Butts \ 10th De<.ember 1889 Martindale... 18th January ).Ir D. P. J. Ibbetson 19th JanllOrj 18.<10 SIb April lfr M. F. O'Dwyer,6th April Ib90.. \25th July 18QO. Lleutenaut F. P. Young.. 2&h Joly It!W.. :!1st ~oyember Mr D. C. J. IbbetsoD " 2lnd November ,17th Angullt 18(}}. LJelltenanli G. C.lleadon 18th Augu", IBn. \l!nd December '. H.8. SmIth. 3rd December 1891 _. 3rd February Chapte1'tt. History. List of District Officers.

50 Chapter II. History. List of District Officers. 38 Nuus. CHAPTER n.-history. I Punja.b Gazetteer, TERM OJ' OUICE. From To Mr. J. G. M. Rennie.. LIeutenant G. O. Beadon Mr. W. O. Renouf Lieutenant G. O. BeadoD LIeutenant F. P. Young Oaptain O. S. De But1.s Martindale. Oo)onel R. T. M. 'Lang Mr A. BrIdges Oolonel O. F. Massy Lieutenant O. P. Egerton Mr M F O'Dwyer LIeutenant F. P. Young Mr. M. F. O'Dwyer 4th February 23rd March l 24th May th June tb October th Novembel' th December th March rd November th December 18()3 20th M6rch nd July th October nd March rd May rd Jutte rd O<:tober th November H th December th Ma.rch la03. 22nd November th December th March 18!H 1st July rd October Up to date. Of these, the names which are still fresh in the minds of the people are those of :Major Clarke, who held charge for about five years from 1851 to 1856, who helped to compose tlle troubles that followed orrihe second Sikh war, and settle the people in the sod, and :Mr. A. Brandreth, whose name is cherish. ed by high and low for his benevolence and broad sympathies, as well as for the many material improvements he effected in sinking tanks and wells, establisbing school!!, opening out new roads, and generally contributing to the welfare of tbe district. Major Babbage and :Mr. A. R. Bulman, both of whom were attached to the district for a. considerabla period, are also remembered for their knowledge of the people and interest in their welfare. With tbe above;! exceptions no officers were left long enough in the district to leave their mark on it. Indeed the district has been particularly unfortunate, especially of late years in the frequent changes of "Officers-there have been no less than 20 cbanges dllring the last five years-which not only prevent the people knowing their officers and the officers kno". ing their people, but have retarded the progress of the many schemes of ut11ity which have been started by one Deputy Commissioner but lost sight of or pushed on in a lukewarm manner by his successor~. Few officers, who know that their tenure of a diqtrict is likely to be sbort, care to do more than keep pace with the current and routine work, and many import. ant schemes, such as the extension of irrigation from the De~ by means of dams and sluices, the improvement of commnnicatiods, the development of the taka/vi system, the repression of illicit distillation, the extepsion of arboricultnre, &c., &0., have in consequence been shirked or sbelved. Now that the creation of a fourth tahsil, and the colonisation' of the Bar tract, have made the district a more important one from an administrative point of view, a.nd tha.t the revenue administration has been

51 Gujran wala. District ] CHAPTER JI.-HISTOB.Y. 39 complicated by the purely fluctuating system imposed in the Ohapter II. newly colonised vll1ages, and the semi-fluctuating system sane- H' t tioned for the canal-irrigated villages of Hafizabad and Khan- L' 18 ory gah Dogran, it will be impossible to work it properly unless the Offi~:~s,of officers in charge are left there long enough to grasp all the details of the work, and understand and take an interest in the people. District Some conception of the development of the district since General developit came into our hands may be gathered from fj'able No. II, mant sibce annexa which gives some of the leading statistics as far as they are tion. available for the years , the year of the regular settlement, , the revised 8ettlement, , ]878-79, and As compared with it appears that within 40 years population has increased 45 pel' cent" the cultivated area by 75 and t11e irrig-ated area by 53 per cent., the land revenue by 40 per cent. The figures 1D Statement No. II may not always be strictly comparable, their basis not always being the same from one period to another, but they may be accepted as showing in general terms the nature and extent of the advance made.

52 I P1lnj&b Gazetteer, ClIAPTER III THE PEOPLE. SECTION A.-STATIStICAL. Chapter III. A. Statistical DistrIbution of pop nlatloli Table No. V givc'l separate statistics for encn tahsh and for tlle whole district of the distribution of population over towns and villages, over area, and among houses and famillcs j while the number of hollses in each town is &hown in Table No. XLIII. The statistics for the district as 1\ wbf')le gi\'"e the following figures. Further infol'mation will be found in Chapter II of the Census Report of 1831 :-, {pet8onl PercentAge of total population who bye In villages.. M"ll's Fem"les Average rural population pel'.. III age,, Average total population per village MId town Number of v1l1agel! per 100 square IJilies, Aurage dllltanoe from village to village. In mlles...., Total area. Density of population per square mile oc Cultivatod area { Oulturable ana N'l1l1lber of resident families per oooupted houle {:r~~ell Number of perllons per occupied houss {~!~:. Number ot perlonl per resident famllr { ~!~:.el 9\0 (Ill 90'R 611' tjo III '{ Total populatlo~' 2'l6 0.. Rurll.l population 21~O,'otal populatll)d { Rurn.l population 1r7()"1) Tot",l population IIRI'O.. { Rural POPUl&'IOD. S6(\O B3 1'3 fiiiff "S2.~ H2 The population figures are those of the census of 1891, the area figures are taken from the Revenue Hcport for The population has increased probably by about 25,000 In the interval since 1891, chiefly in the Hafizabad. and Khtingah Dogran tahsils, owing to the settlement of colonists in the Government waste, and the influ'x of tenants from other districts attracted by canal cultivation. The district cannot be considered densely populated, the average density of the total population being only 236 and of the rural population 215 to the square mile, against 238 and 211, respectively, at the census of Nor is population increasing more rapidly than the means of subsistence. The incidence of the total population is now only 516 and of the rural population 470 per square mile of cultivation against 645 and 570 in The rural incidence in the Wazirabad tahsil, 614 per square mlle, is rather high, and there is little available land to provide for the rapidly increasing mouths, but in Gujranwa}a, 4~5 per 'Square mile, and Ha6.zabad, 387 per squa.re mile, it is low, and in. the latter tahsil at least is likely to fau still lower, as cultivation is increasing more rapidl, thld. population.

53 Gujranwa.1a. District. 1 CHAPTER. III.-THE PEOPLt. 41 The following remarks in the increase of population between Chapter IU. A and 1891 are taken from the Census Report for the dis.. Statiatieal trict :-.. The increase of population stands as follows in ratio per mile.- Distribution of population Tllbllil. Persons. Males Gujranll ala Wozfrabad Hilizabad Total ,. The fluct.uat.ing population bas not heen shown separately in the tables. But a companson between tbe figures for persons and males showl at once where they have affected the totals. In Wazirabsd there are believed to have been some 10,000 working on the Chenab well' and caual, aoll the dednction of this number reduces the rate to 77 or about. the same as in GUJranwala In Hafizabad the utraordmary incre8lle il due to the opening of the Chenab Canal and the con lequent breaking up of a large 8l'f'8 of virgiu soil. Many of the immigrants have been drawn from lhese two tahsils and have reduced their rates (If increase. If it. b"d not been for the epldemio of fever which ravaged the distnct iu the autumn of the increase in population would have been very much larger." The number of deaths returned in that year was 53,03J, of' which 47,Hi9 were put. down to fever, while the average number of death for the five years was only 31,803. of which 25,36~ were due to fever. Table No. VI shows the principal district.s and States-with which the district has ex.changed population, the number of immigrants and emigrants with details of sex. Further details Will be found in Table No. Xl and the supplementary abstracts 64 and 65, and appended to the Census Report of The details by tahsils cannot. be obtained from the present census returns. The whole subject is discussed at length in Chapter X of the Ctnsus Report for 'he total gam and loss to the district by migration is Proportion per shown in the margin. The totall.~ of tho poplle b f 'd bo labon. Dum er 0 resl ents rn oot DetaIL GaiD. Loss. of the district is 70,362, of whom ,649 are males and 33,714 females; the number of people Parsons born in the district aod livmg Males Fem.le l in other parts of the Pnnjab is 77,662, of whom 39,045 are males and are females.

54 42 cna.pter Ill.-THE PEOPLE. t Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter Ill, A. l'he districts to whiclt migration is most common, are in StatiBtical. order of importance, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jbang, Lahor~t Shahpur, Proportion per all of which are conterminous with Gujranwala, while the dis- 1,000 of the popu- tflcts from willch most emigrants are received in like order are lation. Lahore, Sllilkot, Gujrat, Shahpnr, Jhang. The subject is thus referred to in the district Censns Report :- "Wives are chiefly brought from Sili.lkot and 8hahpur. the former skirts the whole eastern edge of the district; why the latter should have al) advantage In the matter over Gujrat I cannot conceive. The fact that the portion of the Jhang district wwch touches our border is chiefly unlnhablted Wl!.I4te, accounts for the paucity of immigrants from that district." Of the four types of migration defined in Chapter X of the Census Report as temporary, periodic, permanent, reciprocal, tho types most prevalent in this district are the latter two. The H permanent" migration, viz., where over-crowding or distress on the one hand, or physical or political advantages on the other, drive away from one district and attract to another people who settle down permanently on the land, accounts to a large extent for the excess of ImmIgration from over emigration to Sialkot, whjch, as compared with Glljranwala, is R. deusely populated and congested distrlct. 80mb of the excess is however due to the temporary migration of lar~e numbers of labourer! to the Chenab Canal and weir works. It is however since the census of 1891 that the permclnant immi~ration of colonists from SiaIkot J Aml'itsar, J ullundur, Hoshuirpur, Umballa, Ludhilinl\ has been established on a firm footing, and the full results of this movement within the decade as revealed in the next census will be a. most interesting study, " Reciprocal" migration at present accounts for most of the emigra~ion from, and immigration into, the district. '1'he nature of this movement is well explainerl in para. 24::J of. the Census Report. "There is of conrse reciprocal migra.tion of an ordinary kind always going on between any two adjoining tracts, but the term ha.s been especmlly applied to that migrl\tion of women winch is occasioned by the marriage cnst.oms obtain. ing in the east or more Hindaitled p.lrt of the Province. Accordmg to these customs the mao mast of course marry within his own caste, but he III forbidden to marry girls from any sllb divislon of the caste WIth whlch he i, already through his fath!!r or mother closely conneoted; and as he generally is living in the midst of villages inhablted by the clan or tribe to which his father belongs, he must go fnrther afield for his bride. CUl\tom too forbhis a. marriage WIthln a. village which is in actual or close proximity to his own, so the bride may not come from any of them. And t.he idea. has so far developed that the rebpectabllity of the marriage is gauged more or less by the distance from which the bride iii brought. The resnlt; of these regulatlods a.nd feelings is that the brides nre generally sought from II reasonable wstance. And speaklog very roughly, for the purely admtnistrative bonndaries of districts Ilave no apprectable effecli on the custom, the brides may be sald to be sought not wit.hin, but beyond tho borders of, the dibtnot iii which tho idtellding bridegroom Uves."

55 Gujranwal' District. ] CHAPTER IIJ.-THE PEOPLE. 43 The figures in the margin show the population of the district Chapter-ttl, A. as it stood at the Statistical. Per DenBity per eno~eratjods of Proportion per CeIUlUJl. 1I01lll: Males. Fe!I1Ales. I!~~~ 185<>, 1868, 1881,1,000 of the popula- I - _---11_ and Unfor- tion. rl I tunate]y the boun-.. )1;/'.>8 li'i(\9!% U!ol1' daries of the dis- ;; l~l 616,89J 33J:fJIlIj llfsj,2/,j7 2 J8 tioo,ltlll 3.9, ,IJa 22/,j 7 tricts have chang- _~I"" ~ ed so much since ~.; ( JAAS on lll/)!\ 141 the census of1855 t ~ i 1~1 on 1868 iii " '86 'iill 115 that It is impossit :t ( I'>'J1 on lsii1 I II 11:1 ~ b]e to compare -- --~ the fignres. The population returned for the district 8S it then stood was 553,383. Dut between 1855 and 1868 an area of Bome 303 square nules was transferred to the Lahore district, and no statistics of the population thns transferred are no,y available. The density (147) returned for 1855 was based upon an estimated ar~a of 3,752 square mlles. Apparently this was some 8(.0 square miles in excess of the truth, and the density should have been ] 87, which would make the increase between 1855 and 1868 only 11 per cent., or less than that between 1868 and But it is almost certain that the tract transferred to Lahore was more thickly populated than the remainder of the district i since it inclndes a larger proportion of riverain and a smaller of heir, so that 187 is probably higher than the actual density. It will be seen that the rate of increase between 1881'# and 1 ti91 is exactly the same as that between 1368 and 1881 J but that while in the former period the rate of increase in females considerably exceeded that of males, in the latter period the vrocess was reversed. As the total rate of increase in the 13 lears 1868 to 1881 was the same as the increase in the 10 yearij J~ it follows that the annual rate of increase in the latter period was greater than in the former. Between 1868 and 1881 the annnal increase per 10,000 of the population had been 65 for males, 114 for females and 87 for persons, at which rate the male population would have been doubled in ]06-3 years, the female in 61-1 yea.rs, and the total population in 79-7 years. It \Vas calculated that at the sa.me rate of incrf'ase, the population in 1891'would be 670,000 and the old Gazetteer went on to remark :-.. Nor is iii improbable that the rate of iocrease will be IlIstained. Part of tb. iocrease. is probably a pparenli only, and due to increased accul"llt'y of enumeration at each Bueceedlog census,.. goou teat of which lb afforded by the percentage of males to persons, In 1868 and in 1881 ; but as loon as the projected canal is completed, it ill almost certain that the los8 which the district has suffered by exce88 of emigration over immigration Will be more than restored to it by a large infiu:s: of immlgr&nta from the,crowded districts to the north (ilouth-east}," Should the same rate of increase be maintained for the decade , the population in the latter year will be a.bout 772,000. In all proba.bility the rate of increase will be

56 CHAPTER IlI.-TH'E PEOPLE. [Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter 111, A. much higher as emigration will be checked by the great increase Statistical. in tb~ means of subsistence, while immigration, which even Proportion per now IS proceeding rapidly, wi1l be encouraged by the same 1,000 of the popula. cause. tion. It must however be borne in mind that the tendency of canal irrigation, especially in years of heavy rainfall, is to make the climate more unhealthy, send up the death-rate and redoce the birth-rate. 'l'his fact is well bronght out in the birth and death statistics of the decade. qu<1ted further on, and it will no doubt operate as an influence counteracting the natural increase due to excess of births over deaths. It does not however seem over-sanguine to estimate that the population at next census will 'exceed 800,000, and 850,000,!ill probably be near~r the mark. The urban popnlation has decreased from 71,994 in JSS( to 62,109 in The fa.lling off is accounted for by the ex elusion of,talalpur, Pindi Dhattian J Btifizabad and Sohdra. which have ceased to be municipalities. The urban popnlation is DOW comprised within the six towns of GDj ranwala, Wazirabad, Ramnagar, Eminabad, Akatgarh, Kila. Dldar Singh, and tho population of these has increased from 59,196 to 62,109. The rate of increase per cent. for the urban population-4 9-is however very low as compared with that of the rural population, 12'0, All the towns except Gujranwala, which is becoming a. great trade centre, and where the increase 17'5 per cent. has been very large, and Kila. Didar Singh, where it is Domina.l, show a falling off in popolation. T:his is probably due to the depression of the local ~d the carrying trades and the concentration of the mer.. cantile classes and of capital in the great commercia" centres, which the development of railways and the consequent facilities for through trade are constantly t.ending to produce, The following remarks in para. 17 of the Census Report lor 1891 elucidate the point still turther. "The railway, though it prejudices the amaher towns from which it diverts trade, has no doub~ the result on the whole of increasing the urban population. It seems probable that the renson why the rural population has iocleued at.. faster rate thao the urban is to be found in the uatore of the trade which haa flourished most withio the las, decade. The export of the cel'ft&ls and pulse., and more especially of wheat, has increased very markedly of 1a.te yerrs, and form. by far the most stnkiog feature of the present trade of the country. But; the higher prices involved by this large export of the food staples of the country have na.turally tended to favour the increase of the roral population "ho both produce and CODsome the article, rather than that of the towns people who conaome it only, and haa thnslargely checked the immigration into the towo. wbich we should otherwise have expected." 'l'he population of individual towns at the respective enumerations are shown under their several headings in Chapter VI..

57 GujranwaJa District. ] CHAPTER IlI.-THE PEOPL11:. Inclusive of the towns, the variation in popula.tion by tabsils Chapter III. A. _, smce1881 is shown Statistical. Total pop.1ahl>,.. in the margin. The Propol'ti('ln per Pen-eutage of Td,ll. POpUlatlOU of fonowing remarks 1,000 of the populaon the migration to tion. It!91 on tba~ of L 18!!1. and from Gujrau. wtila. are taken G.u]rinwala.., 200,11'>6!5O, " W.zir.. bad 1 tl.i.& 16 JfI9.5t>8 JOS'3 from the Cerums Balilabad.' l!j7,3117 J69,tIM I IllO 7 Report: -"Though Total - D18trlCtO 600, ,893 1-"iii"9 the density of population Oil total area is exceedingly small, this district includes a. large area of arid pastures which have at present no irrigation, and the population per square mile of cnltivation is exceedingly high. Conseqnently it givt's to all districts, except Sialkot and Gujrat, in which the pressure of population is even greater than its own, and especially it sends population to the- newly irrigated lands in Lahore. 'l'he E'xchange with Sialkot and Gujrat seems to be largely reciprocal. In other cases it is permanent, except the emigration to Pindi, Jhelum, MooHan and Peshawar, wlich is naturally, to a great extent, temporary, beinsr due to the presence of cantonm~nts or the temporary demand for laboor. 'I'he immigration from Kashmir is said to be for the most part of old standing/' Ta.ble No. XI shows the total nnmber of births and deaths registered in 'the district for the five years, from 1888 to I', Average Males ' 47 Females SO 51 Persons.. BS 40 8' S As regards the accuracy of vital statistics generally, Yr. Maclagan says in para. 26 of the Census Report:- " The birth and death statements on the other hand, which if e~ct, would serve as the beat possible guide, are based on the reports made by the village watchmen to the pohce. and thoogh they are improving in accuracy there iii 8till grave cause for refosidg to rely on them. As between district and district. (except With regard to the frontier) they form a very fair baais of comptui80d, the standard of 'lccuracy beicg fairly ulllform in all districts east of the In dna." On this subj~ct lire Maolagan remarks generally:-.. The relation of births to deaths too is probably fairly oorrectjy recorded. for there is DO weu marked tendency to conceal births more than deaths, or ti\u ",,14..AI regards the absolute valoe of the figures however. 1 believe them to 1>0 utterly unreliable. On tho fronlier this is palpabl1 the case. fol' tho birth and

58 46 CHAPTER IlI.-TilE PEOPLE. [ Punjab Ga.zetteer, Chapter III, A. death.rates are and continue to be abnormally low. And in the resl; of th Province those who have devoted most attention to the subject are the most Statistical. convlllced of the utter Inadequacy of the vital returns." Proportion per!,~~o of the popula. llowever the figures may err as regards absolute accuracy, 1 they are adnllttedly a EaIe enough guide as regards variations from year to year. The figures tor the period quoted above bring mto prominence the mortahty towards the end of the cycle 1889, 1890 and In 1890 It reached the phenomenal figure of 87 per 1,000, or a death-rate five times as high Age sex: and civil colldltlod. us that of London. The abnormally 1)igh mortahty of unhealthy years IS due, almost entirely, to epidemics of cholera or fever. The ravages of cholera. when it appears are generally most disastrous ill the three hot months, April, May andjnne, preceding the rains; whlle malarial fever is the consequence of heavy monsoon ralus, as in 1890 and 1892, and is therefore nearly always at its worst in the autumn months, September, October and November, while if a cold and wet WInter superv~nes, as in 1890 and 1892, it is followed by pneudlonia which carries off great numbers in the winter months. 'l'he statistics in 'rabies Nos. XI A and XI B will lllustrate the above remarks. Such further details as to birth and death-rates in individual towns, as are available, WIll be found in 'fable No. XLIV and untler the heading of the several towns in Chapter VI. The figures for age, sex and civil condhion are given in great detail in Tables Nos. VII to VIII of the Census Heport of 1891, while the numbers of the sexes for each religion wlll be found in 'fable No. Vlf, 1l.ppended to the present work. '1'h8 age statisticl:i must be taken subject to limitations, which will be found fully discussed in Chapter V of the Census Heport 'fhclf value rapidly dimimshes as the numbers dealt with becoma smaller j and it is unnecessary here to give actual figures or any statistics for tahs11s. The following figures ehow the distribution by age of every, 10,000 of the population according to the census figures : [ I -' Persons ,492 1, ,10r Males 3\ J,438 1,483 1,031 1,112 Females , ~I":~ , OOOr _1_-. Persons Males Females

59 (iujranwal&.dlstrid.l CHAPTER tu.-the PEOPLE. 47 Table No. XII shows tho number of insane, blind, deaf, mutes and lepers in the district. The proportion per InfirmIties. 'Males. Females. 10,000 of either sex for each of these infirmities is shown in the margin. By comparison Insane BlInd Deaf and dumb Leprous 4 36 ~ l 2 with the figures of the census 37 of 1881 it would appear that 4. there is a considerable decrease not only in the proportion but in the number of persons aidicted with these infirmities. 'rhe improvement may be partly due to differences' of classification, but it is probable that the extension of medical relief by dispensaries, &0., is to be credlted with part of it. Tables Nos. XII-XV A of the Census Report for 1891 give further details of the age and caste of the itlfirm. The figures given below show the numbers and composition of the Christian population, and the respective numbers of those who returned their birth.place and their language lis European. They are taken from Tables Nos. X, XI A, Part II of the Census Report for 1891 :- Cha.pter 111, A. StatisticaL Infirmities. ~::~-'-.:rsons. DETAILS. Males ~ Europeans and Americans I 0,- EurasIans w!!.! Native ChristIans.. 1, ,246 0"", "'.::= c. &- - ~o &. '!otal Christians 1, , III.' '" bel.. EnglIsh ::s Other European Jangnages 1 1 1>0 c j Total Do British Islcs erai 1;!g Other European countries 1 1 ~~ Total Do The increase in the number of Native Christians since 1881, when the number was only 81, has been very large and is doe to the activity of the American Presbyterian Mission at Gojranwala. There is a considerable Native Christian population in Uujranwalll city, and many of the large villages in Gujranwli1a. and 'Vazirabad have small colonies of Christians. Thefle, as a rule, belong to the artisan or menial class. Among the great commercial and agricultural classes, Christianity has made little progress. The distrlbution of Christians by tahsils is shown in Table No. VII. They are nearly all in the two east. ern tahsils, Gujranwala and. 'Vazirabad.

60 8 CHAPTER Ilr.-THE PEOPLE. t Punjab Gazetteer, Cha'Pter nl, B. SECTION B.-SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. Socia.l a.nd!teli- Table No. VII shows the number in each tahsil and in the gioui Lifo. whole district who follow each religion, as ascertained in the GeDt'ral stat.istici census of 1891, and 'l'able No. XLIII gives similar figures for. and distribution (If towns. 'rabies Nos. VII and YIn of the Report of that census religions. \ give further details on the subject. The distribution of every 10,000 of the population by religions is shown in the margin. The limitations subject to which these figures Distribution Religion. per 10,000. must be taken, anj el4po" Clally the rule followed in the Ihndu 2':gg classification of Hindus are Slkb discussed in Part I, Chap- JaIn. C liusalmao 6,890 ter III of the ensus Report. CbrlStian 3.J, The proportion of the throe -================- principal Musalman sects in Sonots WaMbls Farazis Shiabs Sect. Distribution per 1, Q.7 '4. 32'53 every 1,000 of the Alusalman population is shown in the margin. The sects of the Christian population are given in 'rablo A, Part II of the Census Report, but the figures, for reasods explained in Part; I, Chapter III, para. 39 of ================-=- the Report, are very imperfect. The chief sects among Native Christians in the district are the United Presbyterians and the Presbyterian Church of' Scotland. 'rhe numbers of the former are returned as 1,567 and of the latter as 353. Table No. IX shows the religion of the major castes and tribes of the district, and therefore the distribution by caste of the great majority of the followers of each religion. A description of the great religions of the Punjab and. their principal sects will be found in Chapter IV of the (JeDSDa Report. The religious practice and belief of the district present no special peculiarities, and it would be out of place here to enter into any disquisition on the general question. The distribution of religions by tahsits can be gathered from the figures of Table No. Vll; and regarding the population, all a whole, no more detailed information as to locality is available. But it may be said ofoadly that, excluding the mercantile classes and their priests, who are of course scattered all over the district and most numerous in the towns, the Hindus and Sikhs are found in the south and emt in tahsil Glljranwala and the adjoining tract of Hafizabad and Khanga.h Dogran, a.nd the Musalmans in the north and west. Religious gather. 'Chere are shown in the margin the religious fairs of ings. Marl La.chhman. Badoki. some importa.nce at places in Emina.bad. Kotla Piran. the district, of these by far Khliogah Shah Ramnagar. 'the most important is the Rahman. Ja}8lpur. Wazu-abad. Kb80gah Do ad. religious fair at Dhaun~al Dhaunkal. Plndi Bhatti&. near 'Vazi rabad, at which it has been estimated that as many as 100,000 fcople assemble.

61 Gujra.nwa,la.l>istrict. ] CllAPTEll. IH.-TUE PEOPLE. 49 It lasts during tho month of Hal' and is frequented by Hindus Chapter III, '!. and Muhammadans alike. The nucleus of the gathering is the Social a.nd Rellshrine of Sakhi Sarwar, the famous Punjab saint, 10 the giou8 Life. vlllage which i<i associated with some of his most remarkable Religious gather. miracles, and attracts pllgrims not only from the adjoining iuga. Punjab districts but from Jammu and Kashmir. The offerings at tbe shrino aro believed to amount to Rs. 2,500 per annum, and tbese are divided rateably among the owners of one of the pattis of the village according to their revenue hablhty, quite irrespective of class or creed. The fair next in importance IS the Baisakhi Fair at Eminabad. 'fhis also had a rejiglous'origin having grown up ronnd the shrine, known as the " Hohri Sd.hib," associated with some of the austel'ltlcs of Guru N anak. 'rhe shrine is regarded with great veneration by the SIkhs and richly endowed by Government. 'I%e fall' has now, however, developed into a great business gathering. A large cattlo fan' has for years been held here under the management of the district authorlties, and within tho last few years a horse fair has also been started. Tho fair at Pindi Bhatban is of recent origin, but is rapidly growing into importance. Jt]8 the meeting place of the vario?b bodies of pjlgrims on their way to tho shrine.of Sakhi Sarwar in the Dera Ghazi Khan district. All the important fuirs have now been taken under the management of the District Board which levies fees and ls responsible for the sanitary and other arrangements. The Si6.1kot MisslOIl of the Church of Scotland established tvazirabad 'Mil. a branch at 'Yazirabad In 1863, and the usual methods opion. working have 'Leen more or less carrieu. out in the city and In tho adjoming locality. Until 1879 tho work was carried on chiefly by native agents, ahd from 1879 to 1882 Mr. WI,C. Bailey was 10 charge as So lay missionary. Since the latter date this station har had no European there. As the mission work began to dev~lopo a.nd no ordained mlssionary was available. to settle t bere, it wus thought advisable by the mission to locate a native millister in Wazirabad, and 10 December 1888 Mr. Hakim Singh was appointed, and smce that time has been in charge. There are 6 SCrIpture readers, 1 colporteu~ and 1 catechist working with him. On December 31st, 189S, the number of adherents of the Wazirabad Church was 496 adults and 376 children. In 1863 the Government School at Wazirabad was ha.nded Wazirabad Mil. over to the misslon. At the date of transfer there were 88 sion SohooL boys on the roll, and tho Government grant allowed was Rs. 50 a. month. In 1883 the Government grant was Re. 80 a month and Ra. 5 a month were contributed by the municipality. The fees amounted to above Rs. 55 a month, and the total monthly expenditure of the school WIth its two branches to about Bs. 21'1. So greatly has the school prospered since then that in the year

62 50 CHAPTER IlL-THE PEOPLE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter lil, B the grant$ earne,d from Provincial and ~IuniciplLl ~'Ulll]S S. 1 d R Ii amounted to Rs. ~,G7G and the tuitional fees realised dllrmg o~ro'\l~life~ the same year to Hs. 2,51~. The monthly expenditure is nqw Wazirabad ~hs. about fis sion School. In AprIl 1887, when the services of tho present liead Master Mr. L. Jeremy were engaged, the SC11001 was raibf:'d to the High Standard, but as the accommodation was mauequate it was not recogdlsed jby the Department as a lligh School till 1890 when the mission purchased a large and commodious oullding adjoming the mam school (which is sitnated in the chief street near the centre of the city) at a cost of about Rs. 2,000. Consequently there is now ample accommodation for over 600 pupils. 'rhe mam school buihlmg was transferrod by Government with the school free of rent on condition that the mission should keep it in good repair. A boardldg-house was opened III 1889 iu connection WIth the scbool and has been very favourably reported on by the Inspector of Schools. Durang' tho last SIX years 28 boys have passed the ~JDtrance ExammatlOD of the Punjab UUIverslt.v. Tho ManagoI' of the School1s tho Rov. Dr. Y oudgson of Suilkot. ' Hmdu Girls' Sch~ol A HjDdu Girls' 8c11001 was established in 1890 by MISS of Wazirabad. Plumb, one of the Zenana MIssion ladies of Suilkot. At tho close of the school year III February 1894, there wero (j~j girls on the roll with an averago attendanco of 53. The muuh:jpal grant for the year was Rs and the monthly expenditure about Rs. 30. Two girls have won scholarships by tho l~owcr Primary Standard. Wazlrabad Mis. Besides these scbools in the town there aro eight small sion Vlllelge Schools. schools attached to them in the VIllages, where 113 children receive elementary education. The total Dumber of bcholars at present on the roll is 583, viz., 48:; 110ys and 06 girl~, composed of 49 Native Christian boys and 29 girls, 19:; HIndu boys and 54 girls, 208 Musalman boys, 33 SIkh boys, ) 5 girls. 121 boys and 17 guls are children of agriculturists, ttud 3G4 boys aud 181 girls children of non;,agriculturists. Gujranwala. Amer. The 8uUkot Mission of the United Presbytprinn Church of can Mission. 1 North America opened work in Gujranwala City lu 1863 under the direction of the Hev. J. S. Darr, D.D. A school for llmdus and Mthammadans was opened, which DOW ranks among' the first schools of the Province. A GIrls' l:5chool was abo opened, whlch has won a notable place among Punjab schools. There are at present seven AmericanA, four ladies and three ministers, engaged in the mission work of the city and district. The whole time of ODe man is taken up with the city and school work, while the others devote their time to the Nlllages and outlying district. In the district the work is partly educational, embracing some 22 Primary 8chools, but largely pahtoral. There are some 2,500 in the Christian communities scattered over the district. TheRe cqmmunities are entirely from the sweeper class. In many places they are said to sho,v encouraging adva.nco from thelr fqnner yice alld degra.da.tion.

63 Gujra.nwa.la District. ] CHAPTER. I1I.-THE PEOPLE. 51 The Gujranwala. Mission 8chool* was started in 1867 by the Chapter tit 11: Rev. J. S. Barr and soon earned a fixed grant of Rs. 40 per... '. month, which in a couplo of years was doubled. It was a HIgh Socl~LCV!e1i. School from the beginning and prepared boys for the Entrance G ~, '1 )fia ExamlDatIOn of the Calcutta University, but Witt little snccess sion uj~h~:i~ for some years. In 1870 the school opened a Middle Department and began to send up boys for the Middle School ExamiuatLOn. The grant was soon ralsed to Rs. 140 per month, and after some vears it was again doubled. The grant earned by the school under the Punjab Education Code now averages Rs. 500 per month. The school consists of one main school and three branches. The number of scholars on the rolls of the maiu school at the close of the year was 523, of these 4, were Native Christians, 265 Hind6.s, 46 Sikhs aud 208 Muhammadans; 39 were childreu of agnculturistr. The number on the rolls of the branch schools at the close of the same period was 139, comprising 19 Native Christians, 48 Hmd6.s, 12 Sikhs, 39 Muhammadans and 21 others; 48 were children of agriculturists. In the year the grants received from Provincial aud Municipal Funds and from other sources by both the main school and its branches was about ils. 9,676, the income from fees was about Rs. 6,970 and the expenditnre Us. 16,645. The school has been very prosperous and successful and is of great vajue to the distrilt. It has now for two years running, 1893 and 1894, won the ChampIOn Cricket Belt of the Lahore Circle' l The Rev. Mr. Porter of the American MIssion ~t Gnjranwala is the Manager of the School., This Bchool was started in 1868 nnder the snperintenl}ence Mission School of the Rev. J. S. Barr and Miss Calhoun. - The progress was for Girls. at first slow, and for many years only primary instructioll was imparted. The numerical strength at the end of the sch66l year was :- HlDdus Muhammadans Sikhs.. Christians." 248 M 55 5 Total..i 3G2 The foljowin~ tlctount of the AmerJ{~an Reformed Presbyterian MISSIOn, Gl1jranwala., has been rec'eived from the MISSionary in charge while this work was in the Press Most of the members of this body seem to have separated oft from the Amerlcnn 1I1188lOn in 1894 Missionary In Charge-Rev. Charles G. ScoU, M. D. Native Mmillter-Rev. J. W. Sweet. Student of Theology and "Assista.nt-Mr. H L. Swift... BeSides the above-school teachers and worke-rs The American Reformed Presbyterilln Churell was orr;anized in GOJranwAIa. in liaroh At the time of organization Its membership numbered 200 persona Ba.ptisDls dnnog the past year 235. Adherents to the Church number 300. Total number of Reformed Presbyterian Chrishan CommunIty b!'ing about 800 Jlprsona. There are also 6 Schools in operation for ChrlBtian boya and girla havin, about 60 ltudents in them. t

64 52 CHAPTER III.-THE PBOPLE. [Punjab Gazetteer. Chapter In, B. Tho girls are generally daughtem of persons in Government Social and Rell- service or in pr?fcssional or commercial occupations. None gious Life. belong to the agricultural class. Mission School for Girls. Between 1885 and 1887 the school received much encouragement from Mrs. F. A. Steel, whose f'xperlcljce of math'ra relatmg to female education, aud intimate knowledge of zp,nana life were invaluable aids ld promotldg the utility and popularity of the school. Smce then It:! success hus been assured. In 1892 the sehool was raised to the :MIddle ~tandard, and since then 12 girls have passed that test. The total expendi. ture i'n was Rs. 3,357. 'l'he school comes under the grant-in-aid system and during the year received a total grant of R from MuniCIpal and ProvlDctal Fonds. The schoo118 now among tlle foremost institutions of its kind in the Province. BeSIdes the main school buildlllg there are several branch lochools scattered over the CIty at convenient, centres. From the abovo remarks it is clear that both as a Chrlstianising and as au educational ag~ncy, tho American Presbyterian MISSI011 has had a WIde-spread mfluenco in the district. The growth of that influence is largely due to the efforts of the Rev. J. P. McKee, D.D., who was connected with the missionary and educational work at Gujninwala for over 20 years, and though he left the district m 18~0 and has now returned to Am~rica, his Dame is still a household ward among the people. Rarely hfls an outsider, whetlwr official or nonofficial, succeeded to such an extent in obtai ':lin go an intimate acquaintance. with au classes, and in winnmg their confidence and esteem. Rich and poor, Hindus'and Muhammadans alike, regarded him as a counsellor and a friend, and hii mfiuence J always exercised quietly and unostentatiously, in allaymg disputes, settling faml1y quarrels, and generally in tnlchmg the people to smk their jealousies and rlvah'le'l and live sido by side iu peace and amity was cnormou~, and is the more appreci.. a.ted now that Its want is fel t.., Language. Education. Table No. VIII shows the numbers who speak each of the pnncipal langua~cs current =======""'7"=-=-=--=--==- m the district. More delctiled Proportion information wlll be found in Languages. per 10,000 of Table No. X of the Census population. Report for 1891, and the several languages are briefly discnsrcd in Chapter IX of the Hindustani Kashrnm... PUDJaibi... Pashtu All Indian languages N on-indian languages =-=: 40 3 O,!H5 6 9,998 2 same Heport. The fignres lu the margxn give the dlstrlbution of every 10,000 of t?8 population 1:,y language ooutting small figures.! Table No. XIII gives statistics of education as ascertained at the census of 1891 for eaeh religion.' The

65 Gujra,nwa,la District. ] Education CIIAPTER IlI.-THE reople. 53 i Proportion per 1O,eoo, figures in the mar~n show the number educated among every 10,000 of each sex accordldg unupr ldstrnc- 152 to the census returns. Statton. tistlcs regarding the attend- ~ Mall's Can reati and G73 ance at G overnmen t and AIded write. Schools will be found In und('r lfistruo 7'G I s ~ twn Table No. XXXVII. The Femo. e Call read and 123 distribution of scholars at write these: schools, exclusl ve of the ::.: }fission Schools, figures for whlch h(tve been already givon, by rebgion and the occupation of their fathers as It stood In P shown III the mar Details BOJs Girls gin. There are two verna 1 cular htbographlc presses at Europeans and Eura!uans Gujranwala, but literary NatIve Chmtialls 1 activity has not yet risen to Hmdus 2, h h f Mu~allllans 1,746 I 14" t e PItc a startmg a verna- Sikhs 566 II!) cular newspaper. The fol- Others lowing remarks of Captam CluldrE'n of agrloultuflrts ll,463 U- NIsbet descrlbmg the attitude Do. of non'rgrlcul- 3,131 j 480 of the people of the district generally towards education shll hold good fo1' the southern!':!ists_ and western half of the district, and especially for the tracts inhabited by the Tarars, Bhatt;.> and Vlrakhs :- "In an agricultural commudlty such 8'1 VIC have III this dlstnct, the cnltivstor looks 011 h18 children 89 Boon I1S they are strong enough to go afield, merely as so mnch Increase to the labour lit LIS 00111maud; he never learnt to rea.d and write himself, Jlnd uops not see why his Bon should want more than he ha.s, his practlcl~l view of the matter 19 that the boy is much better helpldg to plough, hoe or weed, than pt'llbaps Idhng away his time over books." Though the eastern half of the district, includmg ai1 of the '\Vazirabad and most of the Gnjranwala tahsil, has made considerable advances in the way of education SInce the above remarks were written, it is still the case that the great majority of those under ldstructlon are the chljdr.en of non-agricultuflsts, and that among t11e agricultural commudity as a body education has not yet taken firm root. One reason of this is that education ]s still regarded not so much as an advantage in itseif,.but as a means to an end, that end being employment under Government; and as such employment has hitherto been practically monopolised hy one class, which silently but effectually excluded all ont'ndtlr~, the agriculturist has had no incenhve' to euneate his Ron as service under Government was practically barred to him. Of late years somethmg has been done to llreak down the monopolv and glve the zamindars some share of the spolls of office. 'l'b~s has given a stimulus to 'education amongst them, but it is to be regretted that as yet there is no sign of education being appreciated for its own sake. In fact an educated agriculturist IS usually regarded with some suspicion by his own community, and rightly or wrongly is Chapter III. B. Social and Reli gioualife. Edoca.tion.

66 Chapter III, B. Social and Reli gious Life. Food of the people 54 CIIAPT R III TlIE PEOPLE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, credited with using his- superior-knowledge to gain an undue advantage ovrr 'his nt'ighhol1rs in matters relating to land revenue pa,ymcnts, litigation, &c. '1'he - following note regarding the food of the people WM furnished by the district authotities for tile Famine Iteport of 1879 and still applies:- " Whent, mung, nce and md.h form the staple food of the peoi,lfl of thia dllirlct ; but moth, Jowa.r, njliolze, IJurley, gfltm, mixed graluli, karlyln and rh(1ia are also consumed by the lowtlr classes '1'he talle In the Inllrgloll show. the estimated allljual coljsumptlod of food!rfams by all agricultnrl8t's famdy, con ' Plstmg of a man allll wife, two children, and an old per 1100, tukldg 111ulrs 81 the dally food of each man, 1 Bcr for the woman, and half a filer for each clilid. A faot, the vlllage Pfl!lSBllts consume more thun the above (Inantltic8. The nanal :Food Grams. Whca.t flour lh\lze GO)' of gram 11 trley, Mung, moth and rice Numl)er M d of months, ann II :1 6 6 " II 20 :10 ao Tota.1 20 allow an co of wheat is eight manndl'! a year; but for a. part. of the year th('y ~Ilt large quantities of turniplll, ell-rrots, and other veget abies. 1hey eat three meals a day, at 9 A.M. (chhdh. wela), at noon (bu/tewe/u) and In the e1'euldg (8ham) The traders and meniul. of the village. eat le88 that) Number M ds ngrlcultnrll!ts, and omit the of months. aud. noon day toeal. The auoual consnmption, allowing ooe Wheat ser anel one chltak for each Jl&lze» II mao, 12 ehltaks for the woman, and half a ser for each GO)' of gram 2 fi Barley, 2 /I Moth, m.ng and nco cbild, would be as shown In the margin. The, town. Total so people agam eat le88 than _ the 1'lllagert! Allowing 12 chltaks for ellch mad, 10 for the woman, nnd 8 for erch child, the aunnal ('on SllmptlOn of wheat, rice, and pulses would be 28 maunda and a half, excluf!lve of sweetmeats and vegetables They too eat only in the morning and evening." To thege remarks it may be added that in tho IHlizabad and Khangah Dogran tahshs the outt,urn of maize is limited, and dunng some of the winter months the people eat coarse rice, jowar and Mjra in its place. Rice and mu.ng are consumed in large quantities in the villages 'irrigated 15y the Chenab Cana1. The increase in the area under wheat which has been so pronounced in the last 10 years, and the general rise in the standard of living, bave made wheat the staple food to a much greater extent than formerly. Poverty or wealth It is impossible to form any satisfactory estimate.f the of the people. wealth of the commercial and industrial classes. 'fable No. XXXIV gives statistics of the amount collected as Income tax in recent years, and the totals for Number- Total 1886, the first year of its 1m Yea.r. asse~!ees. of tax. posltioniuitspresent form, and " the last three year!' are shown Re. 8{)2 16,557 1,154 23,753 1,226 26,948 l,2g3 27, , in tbemargin, but the numbers afiected by the tax are small. In 1893 among the persons taxed were 16 legal practi. tioners, 15,prokers, 22 con..

67 Gnjranwa.la District. ] CIIAPTER ur.-the PEOPLE. tractors, 888 money.lenders, 120 merchants, 145 traders, 17 Chapter lit C. artisans and 14 house proprietors. It may be said generally that Tribes. Castes a very,large proportion of the artisans In the towns al e extremely and Leading poor, while their f~llows m the villages are scarcely less depend- Families. ent upon the nature of the harvest than are the agriculturists Poverty or wealth themselves j their fees usually taking the form of a fixed sharo of the people. of the produce, whilo even where this IS not the case the demand for their pro(lucts necessarily varies WIth the prosperity of their customers. P.erhap's the leather workel's should be excepted, as they derive considerable gain from the hides of the cattle which die JU a year of drought, and which they divide with the village sweeper. It is probable, however, that of late years, owing to the demand for labour on the canal, railway, and other public works, the standard of prosperlty among labororq and artisans has risen considerably; and this seems to be borne out by the statistics of the price of labour given ID TabJe No. XXVII, from which it appears that JU' 1?88-89 the IDllllmum daily wages of skilled and unskilled labour which III preceding y~ars had been three and two annas respectively rose to SIX annas and two annas six: pies, and have continued at this pomt ever since. The retail prices of food gram as shown in 'l'ab1e No. XXVI have, It is true, heen on the average rather higher of late years, but this is not of Itself sufficient to explain so conslqerable a rise in the price of labonr. Tt may appear a paradox, bnt the experience of the last few years shows It to be a fact, that the wages of unskilled labour, at least when ctnployed in large bodies on public works, is lower 1ll a year of scarcity and high prices than in a year of cheapness and plenty. In the bad yea.rs and , thousands of laborers were found willing to work on the Chenah Canal for three aonas a day, which at the rate of prices then prevailing was barely enough for subsistence. But when the tide,of prospenty returned III 1893 and 1894 and food became cheaper than at any time within the Jast 20 years, it was found that labour could only be attracted by increasing the rate of wages to fonr aod five annm per diem. The ObVIOUS conclusion is that the village menials who forms the bulk of the canal laborers is driven to work ontside not by tbe desire of gain but by the pressure of want. As lon~ as his share of the harvest is sufficient to keep him and his family going for the year, high wages will not tempt him to leave his easy vll1agt) hfe for ontside work, however remunerative. The circumstances of the agricultural classes are discussed below at the end of Section D of this Chapter. SECTION C.-TRIBES, CASTES AND LEADING FAMILIES. 'rable No. IX gives the figures for the principal castes Statiati:s. and nnd tribes of the dlstrict with detalis of sex and reho'iod while lo:a l dlstnbuhon of '1' bi N IX A h h' b f hi b' a e o. sows t e nnm er ate ess Important castes. tribe. and castes. 1 t would be out ~f "place til attempt a description of each.

68 56 ClIAPTEll IlI.-TllE PEOPLE. [ Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter III, C Many of them are found all over the Punjab, and 'most or TribeB, Ca.stes. them lu many oth~r districts, and their representatives in and Lea.ding Gnjrallwul:t aro ch"tingui!lhed hy no local peculiantics. Some FamIlies. of tho lead mg tribes, and especially thol:!o \V ho are important Sta.tistics sud as landowners or by pmntlon and ioflaence, 0.1'0 bri~l1y notlcod )ooa) distribution of in tho followldg sections i and each cakto will be found destribe sand caates. cribed in Chapter XI of the Census Hcpol't for Iti!) 1. 'l'ho census statistics of casto ""ore not compiled for ta.hsils, at loast in their final form. It was fonnd tha.t an enormons number of mere clans or sub divisions had been returned as castes in the schedules, and tho classlfication of these fignres under tho main heaua shown in the caste tables was made for dl~tricts only. 'l'hus no statu,tics showing tho loca.! distribution of the tribes are avfl.1lablc. But tho general distribution of the moro important land-owning tribes may bo broadly.de~crlbed as fohows :-'rho Virakhs hold a broad strip along the south-eastern burdor of the district j the country round Pindi Dhattian in the Mouth-west IS occupied by nbatti najputs; above them como tho LodikeE.!, Tarars, and Chatthha (tho last two al~ng the fiver) in that order; the northern corn 'f is held by the Chiwas, while tho t;lentr~ of the district is in tho hauds of Sansis, Varaicll, Ilaojra, Dhotar, and other Jats. Tho locality of tho several holdings is more precisely defined in the description of each trlbo. Tho following figures show the number of villagcf" held, the revenuo paid and the cultivutod area oecupiod by tho principal tnbes of the district and the number of proprietors in each tflbe, '1'hey are prepared from statistics givon in Mr. O'Dwyer's Aflscssmcnt Iteports of the tahsils at the recent settlement. Agricultural capality oj tribes. NAME Dhotnr.. 2 Sekhu,.. 3 Chlma Chatha... 5 Ouray. 6 Banal.... '1 Tarar.. 8 Malhi '".. {) Varalch 10 Chahil 11 lla.t1jf8.s and Jags 12 Man.. 13 Buttar 14 Kha.rrAl 15 ChA.ndhar.., 16 Viro.kh i l07~ ~ '1 6 42i 11«no. li5a mn li,7.l3 3,71n 1, ,aV ,320 37U 1, :44' 1,264' 447 1],611 Acra 1l,';f:;Sl 11,171 78,1'>00 C2,:!3J 1 18,()SSj 5,180 28,!l I 7V 4,8RO 34,87() 6,022 21,488 5, :;:4H8 3,80:.! 104,665 J\rrc~ Ii,om" l,jj2'1 43,S::i1 m,n 17 1:!,7i'M 2,:341 40,:3h~ 7,5t5 11,2:!8 1,204 22,O!J!J 2,811 1,270 37,726 G,70~ 143,414 ACTt>1'! " HI,S;;G! 12,79:>'1 12J,141' 18~,14'1 :31,74 1 ;" 7,5:n;1 (io,a lal 12,40:> 52,107' G, ')0)(.1 'I 4a,687 8,020' I) 939 C3:HJ '1 248,079, R" 17,O~~ 9,1 W.!l7,1I5 G8,562 16,308 :;,ugo 251 a,491 ~R,:lOJ 4 U17 13:364 5,140 5,948 11,360 2,1' it) 62,067 i : ;; a

69 Gujra.nwala District, 1 CIIAJ;'TER III.-THE PEOPL:t;. Agricultu.ral capacity of tribes-concluded. - - c. '" ~.. I Q. I-< b(, <= Auu..s..c: 0...;;: 0 NUllc.....:, ~c 0 0.0<1>..:. od os OJ.,.. CDS <I>., <I> os ~~ ::s:l.0.t:j.t:j'ts ~ :;. = <I> a E eo "Z ~ <I> III C,J't1 l:> :- '" ::l 01. 'a I:l <I> 0 <1>'" Z ~ :.-. 0 ~ E-< ~ Acre:! Acres Acres Rs 17 Bhatti 811 3, ,5:;;', 112, ),130 29, Awan ' 3,46l 4,2J4 7,6')7 1, Bam'a, 9 27]\ 4,177, 7,3f17 11,574-2, Lubana. 7 3~2, 3,9UI.) 8,231 U 137 3, Hhun.. n S,4;)9, 1>,399 10, , Kokara.. 6i 30 4,&57, 1,3U2 5,ti5f1 4, Kaler.. 4& 254,' 3,1308 1,970 5,fj(jH 4, BhlUdRr ,388 6,112 24,500 8, Ghuman " SA 3-')\ ()~I 3,015' 1,311 4,3Z6 :i, Surai, "'1 7,010, 8,109 15,119 4, Dhllla ' 4,43b 10,9.35, 4, Arain a 3! 450 2, ,028 3,466, 3,b ' SRyuds 28 1l,1U7 1 19,517 30,684 8,282 30' KHzis w ~I~ &5 1 floa 31\ Kha.tri 40~ 801\ 28, ,664 52, ,850 32\ Khatri Nanda (Enlln. 22 3;;0 11,081 8,424\ 10, ,432 abad Diwans). 331 Arora ,!>24 11,466 IG,3tlO 4,'i56 34 Brahmin., ,.~22 S,8.n 13,143 3, Bajput, ~ Gfl 1,407 2,840 4,217 1,(".00 :36 Bhairnpia 'il 451 i 1,933 2,U88 4,021 1, l1iscellan60\ lo 17,08;;i 16;),97J 221,0::17 388,008 la88i7 Total 1,22st& 55,628! 706,73;) S77,690,~llil 613,131 'l'he Jats, numbering in all 176,490 souls, constitutf> 25'5 per cent. of the total popnlation of the district and bold ~95 out of 1,223 e&.t~tes. Formerly thpy were by no means exclusively devoted to agriculture, the main occupation of many of them being that of pasturing' cattle in the wildel' portions of the district; they had no fixod habitation and led l\ nomad life. These remarks apply chiefly to the ~111ha.mmadan tribes of the Bal', the Bhattis, Bhagsaikes, Lodlke and part of the Viraks. Their hereditary chl\ra.ctelisti~s and the great change which has come over them within the last few years are thus described in the Final Settlement Deport :- II The bond between them is rather that of the tnbe tban of the village community; they ara averse to manua.l labollr, Ilnd inclined on sllghll temptation to return to their old predatory hit bits. No doubt they were belng gradually weaned from those habits under our I ul!!, but the canal 10 a few years has done more to civllisa them and mllke them look to honest labor for t1l61.1' livldg thlln tue 40 previolls years of Bettled govfl'rnment, and every yea.r tbey WIll assimilate more an~ more in character to the ordinary Punjab peasant." The distribution of tho leading Jat sub-divisions throughout tllo distriot has been already described, and their claim to l{~jput origin has aj~o been referred to. 'i'he following figures 57 Chapter Ill. c. Tribes, Castes. andleadlng Families. Statistics and looal distribution of tribes and castes.

70 1>8 ClIAPTE.lt lii.-the PEOI'LE. t Punjab Ga.zetteer, Chapter III. r. show the number of principal Jat and Rajput tribes returne$1 Tribes. Castes, at the census of J 891 :- a~~~rt~~~g Each of the most importa.nt tribes of, the district a II:! lea an local distribution of tribes and castes. St t t' d described below 1- is briefly Sub divieion. of Jail. Name. Number. Name. Number. Name. Number I---II---~.. -. Aw,;n Aulak O(h BaJwa lfnttar TalKr Chahal Vbhina Ohandbar Vlrllkh Vlllluch HanJra. Sansl , ,2: ,690 1,275 1, ,028 Changar Chima Dhotar.,. Dhanwal Deo.., Dhillon Smdhu Sidhu Saro.e Sapro. "' Sah! Vhatthe SUlIlra,u 4,115 20,158 2,1H W ;122 J'j8 1, ",480 1,047 Punnlln Mahll. fioraya... fill Khokhar Kharra.l '" Kashmlrl.. Ghuman Man,.. Kllhlon Mansco.t. Lo(ltke Arain I".., 750 ~f.j l U lll,j21j 2,'iIl:J 1118 IlUII fllll 1,077 U.OOll 'Virakbs. --- Name. Number. I Name. Number. Name.,, Bhattl. 15,338 Rathor 618 TllDwar.. -GondaI Naru (JhauMn loll!. Sub.aJ,visions Of R&jp{J,t,. 190 Kbarral.. 5,4440 1,'M3 Sial... 69\ ManMs.. lui R. lhe.,.... Number. \ -- 8,1I./.{I 871 1I10 Some remarks about each of the leading tribes of the district are given below. The Virakhs hold 120 villages; viz., '76 villages scattered over the Gujranwala. tahsil and 44 on the sout,h-east side of the old Hafizabad tahsil, which bave'llow been included in KMngah Dogran. Politically they are by far the most important tribe in the district. They are mainly Sikhs, in the Bar nearly always SOJ and physically are a. fine athletic manly race for surpassing in energy and industry any of their Muha.mmadan neighbours. The original home of the tribe is located by tradition in the Jammu Hills, hence they are probably of Rfijput descent. They were among the first to emb11lce the militant Sikhism propagated by Guru Govind Singh, l\ud to take advan.. tage of the decay of Mughal power to estabii,sh themselves in the centre of the Doab. The native army and the Military Police of Burma, Hongkong and the Straits Settlements receive many recruits from this tribe, and even now some of them are to be found in the service of the British Companies in East and South Africa. They are first-rata cultivators, though in the Bar they ha.ve taken to agricnlture only under our raie, their hereditary profession being arms or theft. Their ~illages arc

71 Gujranwala. District. ] CHAPTER IIt.-THE PEOPLE. 59 prosperous, well developed and usually free {rom debt. Like u\ost Jat Sikhs, they combine the love of adventure with the love of gain, and are generally to the fore where money is to be mr.je, or wbere liard knocks are going. In the Sikh villages the spirit of the Khalsa is still strong, their tone is decidedly democratic, and the exercise of authority by the lambardar or zaildaf is strongly resented. In this as in other respects, they are tile exact opposite of the Bhattis with whom they have a beredltn.ry feud. Strangely enough they are an eminently peaceable people. Rioting and crimes of violence are almost uuknown amongst them. They probably perceive that there is nothing to gain and much to lose by violence, for they are most expert in theft of cattle, burglaries, &c., in which there is some profh to be made; and sevel'8.1 of their villages, Gaji.ina, Isharke, Chuharkana, are notoriously centres of illicit distillation. These crimes are the more difficult of detection amongst them as their headmen have little influenco. / 'rhe most prominent men amongst them are Sardli.r Asa Singh of Chuhal'kli.na, Fanjdar Singh of Bhikki, Gurdit Singh of Mirza, \V asbwa SingIl of Killa. Ral Singh, L6.1 Khan of Khan l.iusalman, all of whom are zaildars. 1'he Chimas hold 112 villages in the eastern half of the Wazlrabad and the north-eastern portion of the Gujranwala tahsils, and are agriculturally the most important tribe in the district. 1'hey are nearly au Muhammadans now, but Jay claim to Rajput origin, though they intermarry freely with other Jats, and intermarriage within the tribe is now becoming common. 1'hey appear to have migrated bithel' from the Amritsar district through Sialkot. As agriculturists they are superior to any other tribe in the district, industrious and careful though wanting in energy, enterprise and thrift. Thoy are not, however, given to liti ation or extravagance, and would seem therefore to have all the elements of prosperity as they inhabit a fertile and highly' cultivated tract.. All the same they cannot as a tribe be said to be prosperous, for ma.ny of their villages, especially in the neighbourhood of \Vazirabad, are very heavily involved in debt. The many facilities for borrowing where land is profitable and valuable, and the want of pasture lands on which to raise the cattle required for a~ricu1turp, aggravated in mauy villages by congestion and sub.division of holdmgs are the main causer of their depression. The leading men in the tribe are Cbaudhri Hayat.lluhammad, Honorary Magistrate and Za.ildar of 1Vaziraba.d, his namesake Hayli.t Muha.mmad of Ghakka.r, Hatim Khan of Mansurwali and Prem Chand of 'VanianwAla, all of these are zaildars. The Chathas own 108 estates equal1y distributed over the western part of 1V 8zfrabad and eastern part of Hafizabad. Like the Cbimas they are mainly l.iuhammadans and lay claim to Rajput origin. DurinO' the last century they were independ. ent rulers of A l~rge portion of the district. 1'heir bravt Chapter IU, c. Tribes, Castes and L"Q~~"'''' Fa~ Virakhs. Chimas. Cba~bu.

72 Ohapter JIl, C. Tribes, Castes and Leading Families. ChatMs. Varaichs Bbattis. 'l'arars. 60 CHAPTER lit.-the PEOPLE. [Punja.b Gazetteer. struggle against the Sikhs has been described in a previous chapter, and they are now 'Prone rather to reca.ll their former ~lorles than to endeavour to improve their present condition. They are not a. succeels as flgriculturists, and many of their villages are sunk in debt. Except for occasional outbursts of violf>nce and lawlessness, they seem to have lost, au the 8pirit which their ancestors possessed. The man of most influenco among them is Chaudhli Karm Ilahi, Zaildar of Ahmadnagar, a descendant of the celebrated Nur Muhammad. The Varaichs hold 43 villages to the north and north. west of Gujra.nwala city. 'fhey are mainly Slkhs q,ud many of them are in the army. They are good cultivators but not prosperous as a tribe, having suffered from tho vicinity of the Munslff's Court and proximity to the city, with tile idle habits, love of litigation and extravagance which it induces. The Sardars of Ruriala, J owlihir Singh, Honorary Magistrate and Zaildar, son of the late Sardar Bahadur Man ~ingh, C.I.E, and Subadar Major Honorary Captain Hira Singh, and Jawand Singh, the Zalldar of Ladhewala, are the most prominent members of the tribe.. The Bhattls, who are of pure Rajput origin, hold 82 estates in the west and north-west portions ot Ha6zn.bnd and Khangah Dogran, including the:! two towns of Pindi Bhattian nnd Jalti1pur. The history of their stout resistance to Ranjit Singh has been told in a. previous chapter. 'The branch known as Bhagsinke who }lold many of the 1arge Bar villages are probably descendants of Da.r nomads who settled down in Sawan Mal's time, and being not yet weaned from their thievish and predatory ha.bits they are indifferent cultivators. The rest of the tribe occupies mainly the villages towards the Chenab. 'I'hey are fair (ultivators, wanting in energy and backbone, but simple, honest, loyal and tractable. Marriage with the Bhattis ]9 coveted by the other tribes. 'I'hey give their daughters either to one another or only to Sayads and Kureshis in marriage. It might 1-8 expected that a. Rajput tribe, like the Bhattis, with historical tradition and proved loyalty, would havo readtly taken to military service, yet I believe they do not contribute n. sing1e soldier to our native army. The reason lies in their apathy and wa.nt of initiative. 'l'he tribal bond a.mong them is very strong, and Hasan Khan of Pindi Bhattian and Kadir Bakhsh of' Jalalpur, whose services have been lately recognised by Government })y the grant to both of the title "Khan Sahib," are looked up to as their tribal chief!!. Sarang Khan of Sukheki has very wide influence among the Bhagsinkes, but the affinity which the latter claims with the Bhattis _proper is repudiated. by the BhatMs proper. ' '1'he Tarars, who are immigrants from Gujrat, hold 53 estates in the north and.north-east of the Bafizabad ta11811 in die vicinity of the Chenab. For Muhammadans they are fairly industrious, and in several cases one family with only a few

73 Gujra.nwal& District. ] CHA.PTER m.-the PEOPLE. 61 members owns several estates; but with the exception of a few leadldg men of great wealth and extensive means, the others are a qnarrelsome and criminal lot. Mauy of them have ruined fine properties by foolish and ~xtra\'agant habits. They are strid Mnhammadans and carry the traditional Mn~almau virtue, 11ospita1ity, to an absurd limit. The tribal bond amongst them is shll strong, and Pir Muhammad, Zaildar of Kanlo TaraI', Karm Dad, Zaildar of,v snike, and his son, Fazal Ilabi, have much influence amongst them. The Lodikes, a branch of the Kharrals, own 42 villages in the' centre and north side of the Bar in the Hafizabad tahsij, and are proba.bly of R:ijput origin. They appear to have migrated to tbi~ district from Montgomery two centuries ago. They are all Muhammadans, aud hitherto have been notorious as first rate cattle thieves. lazy and bad cultivators; but they are now developmg industrious habits and may in time mako good zamindars. As a tl ibe they are rather nnrnly and democratic, and there are no men of much influence amongst tllem. The Gurayas own 21 villages to the Bouth-west of Gujranwala city and 9 near Pmdi Bhatti:i.n in the Hafizabad tahsil. 'l'heyare ma.mly Muha.mmadJ.ns and Sikhs, H Kukas" being numerous among them. Few of them nre iu the army, and though they are 1evotf'd entirely to ngrlculture and are highly praised as culti. vators by Captaiu NIsbet, they are not ou the whole prosperous, and alienations by sa.le or mortgage have spread in most of their villages to an alarming extent. Ghulam Haidar, Zaildar 0' Mor.lhwala, is the most representative man amongst them. The Hanjr8s and Jngs, thou~h they originally held nearly the whole of the Bafizabad and Khangah Dogran tahshs, are now ('onfined to 34 scattered villages in that portion of the district. They are generally industrious, but stupid and nnenterprising, and on the whole by no means prosperous. The Hanjras also own eight villages in the Onjranwala tahsli. They are the oldest tribe in the district. Many of the ruins of what must once have been populous and prosperous towns are by tradition identified with the era of their ascendaucy. Their present scattered and forlorn condition is attributed, as in the case of the Jews, to the curse of Providence brought do\vn npon them by an angry saint whose temporal wants they refused to minister-to. The Mans own six villages in the Gujranwala. tahsil and the fertile and extensive estate of Mana.wala with an area. of 23,000 acres in Khangah Dograu. 'fht>y are one of the three oldest Jat tribes in the Punjab and claim to have been Rajput3 inhabiting the country about Delhi. 1'he village of Mau JU this district was founded by Lad", who left Delhi in a year of drought, and his descendants added other villages. Though numerically small, some families of this tribe played a very Jarge part in the history of the Punjab under Sikh rule, when the saying tha~ the lian Sa.rdars were (I handsome.. gallant and trlle" passed into a Chapter nit c. Tribes. Ca.stel. and Leading Families. Tarars. Lodikes. Gurayia. Hanjras and la~ Mana.

74 [ Punja.b Gazetteer, 62 CHAPTER IIt.-THE PEOPLE. Chapter - III. C. bye-word. Unrortunately, the present members of the family Tribes, Castes, bave done little to maintain this high reputation; and with-a and Leadmg few exceptions have ruined or are rapidly ruining themselves Families. by dissipation and extravagance. 'l'hey have also extensive Mans. properties and jagirs in Sialkot and Amritsar. The men of note amongst them are Sardar Kirpal Singh, Zaildar of Manawilla, who 18 the biggest landowner in the district, Do man of great wealth and enterprise; his udcle, Sardar Basant Siogh: Zaildar of Man. Sardar Mangal Singh of this fami1y is a. minor under the control of the Court of 'Yards. A full account of them will be found in Massy's Punjab Chiefs, Volame II, pages Dhotars and SekhUs. The Dhotars and Sekhus between them occupy 24 villages iu the Gujranwala tahsil, and the Dhotars own four in Ha6zabad, chiefly in the vicinity of Baddoke and Nokhar. They are, for the most part, Hindu and Muhammadan Jats, Sikhs being rare. Few of them are in military service. '1'hey hold some or t~e most fertile villages In the tahsil, 'l;iz, JhalIan, Nokhar and U dhowali, famous for the excellence of the sugarcane, and are careful plodding cultivators, though wanting in energy and intelligence. Hence many of their' villages are very heavily encumbered. They are rather looked down upon by the other Jat tribes, who are,averse to giving t11eil" daughters to them in marriage. Hence a Dhotal' has to look for a. wife among the Sekhus and vice. versa. Marriage within the tribe, even among Muhammadans, is very uncommon, showing the strength of their Hindu traditions. Probably, owing to the difficulty they have in getting wives, some of them do not marry at all, and many die childless. The ouly men of any inflnence among them are 1Vadhawa, Lambardar of Nokllar, a Sekhu village, and Raws. Sharm Das of Ders. Dandu R1m, who is a Dhotar... SarDis. The Sansls are notable as being the tribe from which the family of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the well.known SandhanwaJa house sprang. They held originally 14 villages around the city and the city itself; but things h80 va gone bad1y with them on all sides, and only eight vlllages, and these very heavily encumbered, are now left, the rest having been bought up by the Eminabad Dewana or capitalists of the city. 'Vhatever their merits as a fighting race may once have been, they seem to have entirely lost 'them, and at present they contribute hardly a single man to our native army. As agriculturists they are a. hopeless failure. Chaudhri M a lraj, the Ala Lambardar of Gujranwala, is the only man of any prominence in the tribe. Non-jaf; tn"bes: Brahmins hord -seven villages in the 'G ujranwaja and 81.1: in Brahmins. the HMizabad tahsils. 'l'hese have been derived by gift from their a.ncient Jat owners, or grant from the Government of the day. Khatrls. The Khatris in this district are an important class even as landowners, holding 40 villages in Gujranwala, 6 in Wazirabad a.nd 16 in Hafizabad. 11\ the Uujranwala. tahsil the Dewan. of

75 Gujranwaia llistrict. ) CHAPTER III.-THE PEOPLE. 63 Emfnabad, so closely identified with the administration of Jammll and Kasllmir) hold 22 estates. The ownership of this class in nearly au cases dates from our rule, and very few.of the vii.' lages they now hold were founded by them. Most of the Khatri estates in tlle HMizabad tahsil were gifts from Sawan Mal who was nearly allied by marriage to the Kapurs of Hafiz. abad, and lost uo opportunity of advancing their interests. In other cases acciuent, purchase and their willingness to engage for the revenue when the Jat owners deserted or refused to accept revenue responsibility are the origin of their rights. It has to be borne in mind that the Khatris of this district are not) as elsewhere solely devoted to commercial pursuit" or to service under Government in Civil Departm~nt. Many of them are Sikhs, and under Sikh rule they played a large part in public affajrs, both civil and military. 'fhe most successful Sikh administrator, Dewan Sawan Mal of Akalgarh, and the most famous Sikh Genera], Sardar Hari Singh, Nalwa, were Khatris of this dis~rict, and number of others might be mentioned who won renown bo~h as soldiers and as governors. Hence many of the Khatri families, e.g., the Sardars of Butala, the Dewans of Emlnabad J the Kapurs of Hafizabad, the Dewans of Wazirabad and Sohura, the Chachi Sardars, have strong military tradition and a bereditary capacity for administration. The wonderfnl facility which the Khatri has of adapting himself to bis environluent has brought them to the front rather in the civil than the military line nnder our rule. They are not bad zamfndal's; they cultivate little themselves, and with some exceptions are not harsh to their tenants. _ Dewan Gobind Sahai of Eminabad.. who is the largest Khatri landowner, holding six: or seven estates, is an excellent Iandlol'd t.a.nd his property is a. model of good management. With the Aroras the Khatris constitute the bulk of the commercial classes. In the census of 1891 the Khatrls numbered 23,000, the Al'oras 33,892. Only 197 person", were returned as belonging to the Bania. tribe. Chapter m, Co Tribe Ca.stes and Leading Fa.milies. - Khatri.s. Th(1 Sa.yads hold in all 28 villa~es. Most of these are Sayads. in tho Bd.1' where they received gifts of waste land from the Bhatti or Jat tribes i like all Sayads they are bad zamindars, generally at strife with one another, very prodigal, and always deeply in debt By far the largest jaglrdar in the district is Raja Harbans Jagirdars and lead Singh, Honorary Magistrate of Sheikhupura. the adopted son of ing families. Raja. Teja Singh, whose jagir was transferred from Hatala in Gurdaspur to this district in Raja. Harbans Singh holds 160 of the best estates around Sheikhupura in_the GujranwaJa. and new Khangab Dogran tahsils. 'rhe value of his jagir, which is held in perpetuity, has been ra.ised by re-assessment from Rs. 55,263 to &S. 79,012. The Raja. also holds a. jagir of Rs. 4,460 in the La.hore district~ and has large and valuable estates both here and in Lahore. In spite of this. princely income his circumstances are rather embarrassed. The Raja.

76 64 CHAPTER IlT.-THE PEtJl'LE. t Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter Ill, C. generally resides in the old Mugha.l Fort at Sheikhupura a.nd Tribes. Castes )18.S i ndici.ll powers as a 2nd class Magistrate anj ard cla~s and L~a.ding Munsd! witilln the hmits of his jagir. Ho 1'eahsos direct from FamilIes. his jliyi.r villages, and at the sarno timo realises the cesses due. Jaglrd~~8 aod lead- to Government. A full account of tho family will be founa on log famliles. pages 14-18, Punjab Chiefs. Among the othel' large jaglrdars are tho following!- (1) Sardar llahlidul' Nurindar Singh, lionornry E. A. C, younger son of Uaja Teja. Singh, has a separatejligir of Rs. 5,006 per annum in tho Gujranwala ta11811, which was ol'lgin~lly allotted to him a8 a subordinate grant from the jagir of Uli.ja Hurbans Singh, but is now held by him indepeudently find in perpetuity with rev-anion, nowevei', to thft elder branch in deh.uit of male heirs. The Sardnr rosides in IJahor~, is at present Vice-President of the Lahoro MuniCIpality, and exercises t110 powers of a 1st class ~Ia~nstrate alld 2nd class MUllsiff in that district. The di'putqs between the Sardar and the Raja as to proprietary and jagi, rigms aro a fruitful source of trouble to tlle uistrict aut1loritlcs, but most doubtful pomts have now been sottled. (2) The heirs of Sardar Jha.nda Singh of Datala, riz., SardSl'S Balwant Singh, E. A.. C., M61 Smgh, E. A. C., Arjall Singh, Zaild6.r of Hatala, Sllchet Singh, hold 10 joint or separate grants Rs. ::;,486, partly for life, partly in perpetuity. 'fhe history of t.his well-known family )s given in Puujab Chi~Is; Volume II, pages 't, The head of it at present is Sardar Balwant Singh. Do is a. man of public spirit.. and contributes Us. 30 per mensem towards the maintenauce of a dispensary in his nativ-e VIllage. 'Ihe other branch of this' family, Saraar Dial SiI}gb, Honorary Magistrate of \Vadala 10 Sialkot, Sardar Partah Singh, late K A. C. of Butala, and E'ardar Jowala Singh of \Yazlrabad, 110Ids a. jligr.r oc Rs. 1,604 in this district, and large grants in Sialkot, of which one-fourth )S In perpetuity. '1'here is a long standing feud between the two branches of Butala Sal'dars, and the advent of a new Depl~ty Commissioner is always an (lcca"ion for each side to press its claims for the r.-ival oe the office of Honorary Magistrate in 13utala in its own favour. (3) Lala Ram Das, the son of Rai Mal Singh, holds a gran t of Rs. 7,930 under tho old, and Rs. 10,972 under t,he new, assessment. rart of this, which was given to his fa.ther by Raja Teja Singh, has

77 Gujranwala. l>istrict.] CHAPTER III.-THE PEOPLE. 65 since been confirmed by Government to the de- Chapter III, C. scendants of Uai Mul Singh in perpetuity with Tribes, Castes reversion to the heil's of Raja Teja Singh in case and Leading of failur~ of heirs. The re"t is a. grant in per- Families. petuity from Government subject to one-fourth Jagirdars and lead. 1Jazarana. The gt'ant is subject to an aqowance ing families. of Rs. 1,000 per annum to Lala Bhagwan Das, the grandson of Rai Mul Singh. The estate has recently been released fl'om the control of the Court of WardR, and the division of the family property and jauir accumulations has been amicably settled. l4) S~rdar 1chhra Singh, the grandsoq. of the famous Hari Singh, Nalwa, has a. jagit of Rs. 2,133, partly for life, partly in perpetuity iu tho vicinity of Gujran.. wtua where he owns Bome property and is zaildar. '1'he history of this family is glven- at pages '3 of Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, and has been )'eferred to In a previous Chapter. Family disputes and extravagant Jiving have reduced the present head of the family into very narrow circumstances, and m(\st of the houses and lands have now' passed into the hands of outsiders. (5) Dewans Lachhman Das and Amar Nath, Qf Eminabad, t.he son n.nd grandson of Dewan Jowala Sahai, of Kashmit, llold a perpetual jagir of Rs. 2,396, and Dewan Sanb Ham, another member of the same f&omily, holds a life grant of Us. 1,354. The l1istory of the family is to be found in pages and 187-Hl9, Punjab Chiefs, Volume II. In this case too private quarrels and litigation have done much to undermine the prosperity of the family, and the splendid inheritance left by Dewan J6\vala Sahai, though still intact as regards the estate, has suffered much from mismanagement. Dewan Lachhman Dns lives generally in Lahore, while Dewan Amar N ath is at present Governor of Jammu. 'rhe property in this distl'ict is, therefore, rather negiected, and even the Government revenue is realised with delay and difficulty. (6) '1'11e sons of Sardar Ajit Singh of Atari enjoy a perpetual grant amounting to Rs. 1,301. They are minors nnder the Court of 'Vards and reside in the AmritsBr District. '1'1Ie following is a. list of the Provincial Darbarls of the district iu order of precedence:- (1) Raja Lieutenant-Colonel Mirza Ata-ulla Khan, Sardar Bauadur, 10th (The Duke of Cambridge's Own) Bengal Lancers, late Bribish Ageut at Kabul, and son of Mirza Fakir-ulla Khan of Wazirabad. The

78 Chapter III, C. Tribes, Castes, and Leadmg FamilIes. Jagfrdars and lead idg fa.wlbes. 66 CHAPTER lh.-the PEOPLE. ( Punja.b Gazetteer, title of Raja was conferred on the Mirza as a personal distinction by the Government in He is. descended from the najas of Hajauri m the Kangra district and lives at \Vazirabad in the Saman Barj, a large and picturesque building overlooking the river and the Pulku N ala, erected durin~ Ranjit Singh's tizve. lie is an Honorary Magistrate at Wazirabad and enjoys service and special pensions amounting to Rs. 38U per mensem. 'l'he RAja holds hereditary Jagirs amounting to about RI!!. 1,200 'Per annum, a military pension of Rs. 180, and a political pension of Us. ~oo per month. (2) Sardar Balwant Singh, E. A. C., of Butala, eon of Sardar Nihal Singh, and grandson of the well-known Sardar Jhanda Singh (~assy's Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, pnge 137.) (3) Sardar Partah Singh, also of Butala, son of Sardar Ganda Singh, who was first cousin to Sardar Jhanda Singh (Punjab Chiefs, ibid). He is a retired Extra ASSIstant Commissioner. (4) Sardar Basant Singh, Man, of Mughal Chak, son of Sard(ir Fatteh Smgh, and the chief representative of the famous Man tamily above alluded to (Punjab -Chiefs, Volume II, page 170). He is zmldaf of Mughal Chak, lambardar of Man, and a member of the Gujranwala District Board. He served in the Police ior some years. (5) Dewan Hari Singh, of Akalga.rh, son of Dewan Mul Raj and grandson of Dewan Sawan Mal, the best of all the SIkh Governors. (Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, page 154). He is in receipt of a life allowance of Rs. 1,500 per annum and is an Extra Assistant CommissIoner. (6) Lala Ram Das, son of Rai Mol Singh. His family is reckonod as the highest ajdong the Kbatris in this district. His father was the Confidential Agent of Raja'l'eja. Singh a.nd did excellent service for the British Government. He resides at Gujra nwala. (7) Sardar Jowlibir Singh, Man, of Ruriala, is son of the late Sardar Bahadur Man Singh, C.I.E., who llelped to raise Hodson's Horse ann was one of the most distinguished native officers m the Province. JQwlihlr SiJlgh is Zaildar and Honorary Magistrate. (8) Sardar Sant Singh, of Gharjakb, son of Sardar Fattah Singh, who was an Honorary Magistrate of Gujranwl&la. (Punjab Chiefs, Volume-II, page 197).

79 Gujranwala District.] CHAPTER lii.-the PEOPLE. 67 The following are he Divisional Darbarls of the district:- Chapter IlL O. (1) and (2) Sardars Arjan Singh and Jowala Singh, Tribes. C~a of Butala, the former a. first cousin of Sardar "~~Dg Balw~nt SiDg~, the head of the family and is lagirdirs a: lead. Zalldar of Butala, the latter a. brother of Sardar iug families. Partab Singh, E. A. C., was formerly Honorary Magistrate at Wazirabad, but los~ the office. He stllll'esides there and is a member of the Municipal Committee. (3) Prohit Bishen Da.q, son of Probit Balram, is the head of a famous family of Prohits in Gojranwala. city, which formerly enjoyed much influence as being the family priests of Ranjit Singh. They held considerable jtjgl,t8 which have gra.dually lapsed. Bishen Das owns Bome landed property and enjoys a. life pension of Rs. 300 per annum from Government. ae is a very Te~ectable and deserving gentleman. (4) Lala Uaryai Mal, of Akalgarh, is son of Dewan Ram Chand, a descendant of N anak Chand, the eldest brother of Dewan Sawan Mal, of whose family Dewan H ari Singh bbove mentioned is the representative. He is a. member of the Gnjranwala DIstrict Board and of the Municipal Committee of Akalgarb, nnd has been for many years most zealous and successful in fl4rthering the cause of _education, and especially of female education, in his na1tve town. (5) Another member of this family is Manohar Lal, also of Akalgal'h, son of Kahan Uhand and great-grandson of Gurmukh Rai, llrother of Nanak Chand and Sawan Mal (Punjab Chiefs, ibid). Be is President of the M.unicipal Committee of his Dative town. (6) Lala. Ganda. Mal, of Sohdra., son of Dewan Ganpat Rai (Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, pl:l.ga 194). He is now employed in the Bikanil' State. (7) Sardar Ichhra. Singh, Nalwa., son of Sardar Arjan Singh and ~randson of the great Bal'i Singh (Pnnjllb Chiefs, Volume II, page 145). His jagif' and position in the district have been allodt!d to above and the history of the more prominent members of his fa.mily has been given in the Chapter on the History of the District. Though not a Provincial Darbari, be is regarded as the leading Rais in the district. (8) Karam Ilahi, son of Khuda Bakhsh. Chatha (Pnnjab Chiefs, VolumalI, page 200). He is a member of the District Board and Zaildar ot Ahmadnagar and the head of the Chatha tribe. -

80 Cha.pter IIII C. tribes, Castes and Leading Families..Taglrdar~ and lead. iug amdles. 68 CRAPTER lii.-the PEOPLE. [ Punja.b Ga.zetteer, (9) Dewan Kirpa Ram, son of the late Genera.l Harsukh Rai, of Hafizabad (Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, pago 205}. His fathel' did good service for the British Government in the days before and also during tho mutiny, and he enjoys a j(lgir grant of Re. 800, which has now been released to the family ill perpetuity. The present value of the grant is Rs Kirpa Ram is one of the len.ding Khatris in Bafizabad. He and llis nephew jointly own two valunble estates in the vicinity of the town. (10) The chief repl'esentat.ive of tho family to wllich Kirpa Ram belongs, however, is Lala Ram Dyat, Bon of Hushnak Rai, and first cousin of General Harsnkh Rai (Punjnb Chiefs, ibid). He is a Lambardar and Zalldar of HMizabad and a member of the District Board. He is the fatber of Sain DaB, late Sadr Kanungo l and of Mathra Das, acting Zaildar. This venerable old gentleman is now close on 90 years of age, Rnd though he has lived to see his grandson's grand children, he is still hale and hearty. (11) Manohar Lal, son of Dewan Rattan Chand, of Wazlrabad, is a Nl1ib TahsHdar. The family was of some note under the Sikhs and many members of it I attained high place in the Jammu State. (12) Sardar Mehr Singh, son of Sa.rda:r Gurdit Singh, Ch1l8,chi, of 'Wazirabad (Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, page 133), Bis brother Sardar D,al Singh holds tbe post of Sub-Registrar at Wazirabad. 'rhe family really belongs to the Jhelum district, where it holds considerable property and }agi' 8. It is one of the best knowu in tho North Punjab. (13) Malik Muliammad Niwaz Khan, son of Kban Baba I dul' Malik Rabmat Khan, Awan, is the hejl.d of an Awan family settled for many generations in the vicinit.y of Hafizabad, where it has acquired five or six whole estates. '1'he sons of Rabmat Khan have recently purchased the proprietary right in 1,000 acres of Government Jand leased to their father in 1885 on favourable terms. - (14) Rim Chand.. son of th~ late Colonel Mutsadi Mal, Sardar Bahadur of "Vazirabad. 'fhe father was a. man of some eminence, the son was formerly Honorary Magistra.te at Wazlrabad, but hia powers were taken away fl'om him at the same tildo as from Jowlila SiDgh. (15) Dewan Bant Ram (Punjab Chiefs, Volume II, page 187), sqn of J?ewfin Karam Chand, of Eminabad, who has been above mentioned as one of the leading jaglrdars of the district. Karam Chand was in

81 Gujra.nwa.1a District.] CHAPTER III.-TllE PEOPLE. 69 the service of ~he Maharaja. of J,ammu, and his son Chapur III. C. has followed his example. Tribes Caste. (16) Mirza. Zaffar-ulla. Khan, son of :Mirza. Yallya. Khan' and Leading of Rajauri. He is a. relative of Raja. Ata-ulla Khan. Families 1aglrdars and lead. (17) Sardar Kirpal Singh, Man, is the bead of the eldest ing families. branch of the Alan family. He is Zaih18.rof Mananwala. and a man of extensive property and considerable capacity. He formerly served in the Public Works Depadment.,(tR) Sa.1"dar Asa Singh, of Chuharkana, is the man of most note among the important Virakh tribe. Be is also zaildar. The following list shows all the Darbarls in order of precedence with their position in the Provincial and Divisional Darbar Lists :- I Number I'll tluj Provincial <> '3 - ~ u '" g or 'OJ g~.:2.oj.~ III III III Divisional. ;..-.E~ 1: e~ CI> U/ jl.o A N!IIB AND BUIDBliCIr. - - JI Divisional Sardar Mehr Singh, Chhllchi, of Wazlrabad. 2 8 ProvUlcial Balw8nt Singh, of BaUila, Extra As " 3 1 aistanf; Commissioner. 14 Divisional,. Ichhra SlOgh, Nalwa, of Gujranwila Provinc181.. Lieutenant-Colonel Raja Atta.-ulla Khan, 0 Wazirabad. f" :1 5j Ula Ram Das, of Gnjranwala Dewan Hari Singh, of AU!garh, Extra. Assist anf; CommIssioner. IS 29 Sa.rdar Partab Singh, of Butala, retired Ex " 8 1 ABSIstant Commissioner. 30 DIvisional w81a SlDgb, of Bot'la..' 91 3,1.. Arjan Singh, PrOVinCIal " Baeant Singh, 1II'n, of Mngbal Chak DiVlsional Dewan Daryai Mal, of Akalgarh Mano'bar Lal " " ProvlDcial Sardar Jowahll' Singh, Varalch, of RnriaUa Divisional Misr Rim Chand, of Wairoke Dewan Sant Ram, of Erninabad. 16 7S\ Sardar Kirp81 Singh, Mao, of Manan",ala , " llewan Ganda Mal, of Sohdra Prohlt Blshan Das, of Gnjranwala. Dewan Manohar LaI, of Wazirabad, N&ib - Taheildar... Mirza Zlltfall-ulla Khan, of Wazmbad Provincial Sardlir Sant 8mgh, of Gharjakh. 19 I 78 II.. 20 ';9 I I 82A DivisIonal Dewan Klrpa Bam, of Haifizabad U 1 Malik Mohammad Nawu Khan, Awan, 0 " Garhi Awan. 84 JI SardU Asa 8lDgh. Virnkh, of Chuharkana " Chaudbri Karam Ilabi, Chatha, of Ahmad nagar " Lala Ram Dyal, of Hafizabad Note.-Tbe place of Sardar Babadar LehnaSingh, Chimni. who died in 1892, is at.i1l vacant. II \it was No. 33 in th~ Provincial and No. 75 in the DivlSional List. f

82 70 CHAPTER III_TIlE I'EOPLE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, SECTlON D.-VILLAGE COMMUNITIES, RIGHTS AND TENURES. -Ohapter III, D. In the Chapter on the History of the District it bas already been stated tbat, whereas in the western portion of the district coj~!~1:iesl the settlement of the present inhabitants on the land began Rights and in the last century, and is proceeding up to date, in the Guj- Tenures. l'a-nwala and Wazlrabad the villages are, 8S a. rule, of much State of tenures greater antiqaity. In these tahshs the present owners are the at annexation. descendants of the men who held the land under Magbal rule, and tho tribal and village traditions bav~ continued in an unbroken chain from that era. communities. But the revenue bistory of the district in so far 8S it bears upon present conditions begins under the Sikhs, the rise of whose power in this part of the Punjab dates from Dy 1810 A. D. Ranjit Singh had brought the whole district under his sway. JI'is fiscal policy was two-fold. In the first place, groups of villages were let out to kardars or farmers of the revenue, who contracted to make certain fixed payments to the royal treasury, while they were allowed to make what the'y could out of the cultivators; and, secondly, the grl:later part of the district was assigned in jag!r to the local chiefs, subject to the obligation of mihtary service or to the royal courtiers for their maintenance. 'l'he jagirdars realised direct in cash or in kind hke the kardars. Both systems pressed equally hard on the people who were regarded as a. sponge to be squeezed to the utmost limit compatible with their continuing to cultivate, and when they refused or were unable to pay, the land was made over to outsiders. The result was that under SIkh rule proprietary rights had no value, the distinction between owner and tenant being unknown, as the State demand absorbed nu the profits of cultivation and left no margin of rent for the Don-cultivating proprietors. 'rhough 50 years of settled rule has done much to obliterate all traces of the cheqaered history of the village communities in the last and the first half of the present CE:ntury, and our uniform revenue system has tended to make them all assimilate to a common standard, it is still possible to observe the distinction in their constitution due to the. stage of development being more or les8 advanced, or to various Origin of vilillge p(llitical infllleilces. The origin of the village community and the explanation of the diffel'ent forms it assumes have been the subject of a great deal of theoretic speculation on which it is unnecessary to enter. Bllt leaving theory aside, and viewing the question from the standpoint of practical experience, we call trace the follndation of the existing communities as distinguished from the ideal societies whicrehilo~opbic imagiuation has evolved, to two main influences: {I) the expansion of the joint family i (2) the disintegration of tbe tribe. \Ve may even go further und say that the fil'st of these influences has beeu most acti~e in _the Hindu social system, the keystone of which

83 (lujranwala District,j CHAPTER 1I1.-THE PEOPLE. 71 is the joint family, while the second influence has been at work Chapter III, D. amol1g Muhammadans with whom the family bond is weak, Vi1l~e \,hile the tribal bond is comparatively strong. l.'his applies Commumties, specially to the semi-nomad or pastoral tribes who, in their R ~~r:d. nomad state, are held together chiefly by the tribal bond, but as Ori",ia of village each group settles down on the la.nd, and disassociates itself cop1m~dities. from the main body, the tribal tie gradua.lly becomes weaker and looser, while the bond of common village interests increases in strength. 'fhis district presents the village community in every form from its earliest development to its decay. The following description by Mr. Morris of the condition of tenures and rights in land when he began the regular settlement in 1853 offers an instructive parallel to the' present state of things:- "Here, in conseqnence of the unsettled state of the conntry for the last balf century, the former prevalence 'of the '-an system (the evil elfect of which bas been almost to do away with the distldctlon of proprietor and cultivator), tlte ill-defined nature of the proprletary rtghts, add the pastoral habits and nomad character of the people, we do Dot meet with those thnving village commudities, bonod together by ties of olanship and brotherhood, every member of which "Ill take care that his own rights are recorded, and the liabihtles of the others not omitted. On the contrary, the people here almost invariably ignore tl\1! principle of joint reeponribllity. Under tbe Sikhs each was consl<lered hable only for his own well or plot of cnllivatjon, and if one Jl1ember fallell to pay bui qoota. of the revenne, It was not exacted from the others. The consequenc4, therefore, bas been lihat the people generally have heeu very tardy in affording a.id in preparatloll of the Settlement record, it being beyond theu' comprehension that a. system of Joint privileges must also necessatlly be one of Joint responsibility. Another ddliculty that meets one IS the general apathy of the people jfor so long have they been accustomed to have no voice in tbe management of the affairs of the Village, that they are now very slow at oomprehendldg that their wishes are consnlted with any view to their real beneht. Again, the secret opposition of the lambardars haa proved an obstacle. ThiS, however, is not more than was to be expected, when weremomber that these lambardars were the men.who under the Sikhs enjoyed all the profits. Any attempt, therefore, now made to define and seonre the rights of the commnmty at large cannot be very acceptable to them, tending, as it must, to circumscribe their profits, and diminish their influence and consequence. ' 'I am, however, dearly of opinion that the too sudden introduction of our revenue system has not been attended With favourable results. It has taken the power out of the hands of the lambardars who alone have been hitherto accustomed to exercise it,and made It. over to-lhose who neither appreciate the gift, nor nnderstand the benefits scernmg therefrom. The consequence has been that Government haa been a in a financial polnt of View, If in no other_ Another chlli (lulty hl!.8 been the low value of land. Where land is rich and valuable, much liought after and appreciated, the rights I\nd liabilities a.ttaching to property in it are well kuowd, easily attested, ~ud acourately recorded; bllt hers, where land is a mere drug In the market, where property in the same is mora dreaded for the liabdlties attendant thereon than sought after for the profits accruing therefrom, It will not be a matter of wonder that; the attestation of a. record showing accurately ita rights and liabilities should have been attended With so much labour and trouble. The ma.jority of the proprietors bold their land by right of possession.rather than by any ancestral title. In the KhIldir especiallr, each ib proprletor of the plot of land he haa recla.imed from the waste (buta mar). In the well tracts we sometimes meet. With villa.ges where the land is divided according to ancestral.. shares, but soch instances are rare." The first effect of settled rule following on & period of Elfect ot British anarohy and confusion was to revive a.nd consolidate the viljage rule. communities which Mr. Morris found in a state of such disintegration and deca,r. Hence it is no surprise to find that" when

84 CHAPTER III.-THE PEOPLE. (Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter III, D. Captain Nisbeh revised the settlement ten years later, the prin- Village ciple of joint responsibility had come to be generally recognised, CommunIties, &hares, ancestral or customary, which had been Jos; BIght of Rights and when every man was fighting for his own lland and could n(j& Tenures. " afford to ~ndertake re~ponslbllity for his neighbour, again came Elfecli of British into prommence. and IUstead of a set of commudities grouped together fortuitously, and the members of each recogdlsing no bond of common ownership, we find the village community fully and firmly developed. Hence Captam NIsbet describes tho prevailing tenure which ten years before had been usually based on possession (bhayachara) as pattidari in which the basis of proprietary rights and revenue liability are shares, either auccstra), or fixed by.custom with reference to some certain standard. Vaptain Nisbet considered the old classification erroneous, and remarked that- rnle. Ie The people themselves a8 a fac~ always distributed and paid the revenue Rl'llong tbemselves accordin~ to certain shares. either ancestral or cubtomary, either OD ploughs, shares in wells, or dl~tinctlon of good and brd SOIl, whlcb WIUI the ancient and acknowledged strndard of every propnetor'. right and rebpoolli. bthty in the vtllage." Out of ],199 estates he c1o.ssified 138 as zamindti.ra, owned by a single owner or ~everal owners bolding jointly, 211 as p:lre paltida,i held by ancestral shares, ';65 as mixed pattidari or held with re.ference to customary ~r arbitrary shares, and only 85 as bhayachara or held sole)1 accordldg to possession. 'I'he different classifications adopted by Mr. Mor11s and Captain Nisbet are capable of being reconciled and explained by the consideration that :Mr. Morris recorded what he saw in an earher, Captain Nisbet what he sa.w in a. later, stage of the developmen; (If village institutions. 'Vitb au its apparent fixity, the constitution of the village community changes thiemly but steadily iu harmony with every change in the outer world, and the influences of tho present age with Its tendencies in eastern countries to break down old barriers alld to substitute individllal effort for co-operation have graduauy undermined what was regarded aathe most perma.nent institution in the slowly changing East. Cause of disruption 'rhe beginning o[ this process may be traced to the pracof the village com tical removal of all restricbons on alienation. The door having muntty. once b" een opene d to outsl d ers, to t h e capita. l' 1st an d t h e moneylender, the homogeneous character of the commudlty disappears; contlicting interests begin to clash with one another i disintegration of Joint rights' follows; each shareholder hastens to clamour for the sefaration of his individualsbare, the common land is divided, til finally perhaps the only relic of common ownership left is a. patch of grazing ground which was not worth partitioning or a. common burial ground to marl! the common goal to which all alike are tending. 'fhe process of disintegration, though it complicates the problem of administratiod, is not a.ltogether an unmixed c'fil, as it promotes more rapid devolopment.. Hence it has been partioularly active in those parts of the district where the extension of canal i~rjgation to vast

85 Gujranwala. District. J CHA.PTER Hr.-THE P'EOPLE. 73 area.s of virgin soil has given most Fcope to indi,idaal effort. One refoult of the changes is, that possession as the basis of individual right and liability haa again come.prominently to tile front. and Villages "here the owners have hitherto held 1)y ancestral or customary shares have n()w generally abandoned them in favour of possession. T(l.b~e No. XV shows the number of villages Leld ill various. fofms of tenure as determined at. tile recont settlement. 'Vhen the- Dew assessments we-re annonnced, the shar.~holders of nd estate \Vpre inf01med of the former method of distribution and asked whether tbey would adhere to it unaltered or wit,h CEI tain modifications or would substitute a new fonn. 'When they llad decided wlmt COUI se to take,. the Sett!ement Officf.'r himself fixed t he form of tenure under which the estdte should be cl:tssifit'd. It is in TIIany cases, llowever, Impossible to c1ass a vill~}ge satisfactorily uuder anyone of the ordinary recognised tenures, the pl'imary uivision of rights between the main subdivisions of the VIllage following one form, wilile the interior di~trlbution among the several proprietors of each of these Hubdivisions follows another form, \vhich itself often varies from o-lle sub-division to another. The prevalent tenure of tile district would appear to be of tile kmd described as bhayachtitu, tho rights and liabilities o-f the members of the Tillage proprietd.i Y bodies bemg determined by actual possession and not by shares either derived from ancesb al right or eustom&.l Y as in pnttidati estates. That in the great majority of cases tile rule of the distribution of the land revenue is possession, does no-l; mean bowever that the area of the holdings alone is taken as the ~taudard of liability for the revenue, and an all round rate IS fixed on all cultivation alike. Though common in olher uistricts, this all round rate system only finds favour in } l' estates. The popular system is a distribution by dlfl'erential rates; sometimes differential water and dry rates; sometimes differential 'c'hahi or irrigation ra.tes on well areas, classified according to the condition of the)' well buildmg, the number of yokes, the depth of water, 01'" the nature of the soil and produce. In fact, among the people each well is regarded as a separa.te estate and the \vell assessments are determined by them WIth reference to the same considerations as those by which the village ~ssessments wera fixed at the settlement. Chapter (II, D Vi1la~e CommunitIes, Rlgb.ts and Tenures. Vllla~e tennres The figures in the margin show tbe Total number of estates 1, Owned by.. 81Ogleowner 3) li. Owned jomtly by more than one OWDW Revenue wstnbnted by Bbares- Final (a) AnoestN llhares.. (b) Customary :.Repor~. 8bares.. 4. Revenue d18tl'lbllted by possessloo-! ") All round raws N. 111 b) All round rate after dednctmg well abufm. 216 e) IhfferentlahOlI rates Wlt.hcmt well ci6.alllj 331 d) DIfferent 8011 and ratea 316.) Lump lium on wells JO v e r y These figures Bhow hqw grem ~he chadgq has been amee las' Be,uement.. distribution of. the C\nssifica.tion revenue as given tenures in Mr. O'Dwyer's Settlement In the recent settlement t h a record of rights was carefully revised j it was of

86 Chapter III, D. Village OommunIties, Rights and Tenures. Chief headmen and za.lldars CllAPTER lii.-the PEOPLE. [ Punjab Gazetteer, compared wit.h that of the last settlement, and all varia.tions between recorded ownership and possession, between sharrs Its recorded and as claimed, &0., wlire ascertained, and in mobt C'lses were adjusted by an amicable arrangement between the contending parties, or, if no compromise could be arrivod at, were settled by a civil suit. The number of headmen in the several tahsils 0' the district is shown in the margin. 'J'lIO Chief TahsIl. Izaildars headldtod. introduced into this Headmen. zaildari system was district shortly before the late Ft'tt If' ment 0 1 ~ G 5, police zaildal's to the number of r ] 6 being appointed over H6fizabad nnd Total part of Gnjranwala ,010 Their position wns G\1Jrcnwa!a Wazlrabad Hafizabad KMngah Dogran.. ~~ originally that of honorary police officers, a!1d they were paid direct from the Treasury, the allowances ranging from Rs. 100 to Rs. 150 j these allowances are still paid in two enses, 'Viz., those of Kudir Bakhsh, 2'.aildar of Jalalpur, and Sajjan, zaildar of Kasise, wllo receive Rs. 100 each per annum, but will lapse on the lit-nth of the present incumbents. At last f:ettlement, to quote from Captain Nisbet's report- At commencement of the field survey, the men of known influt'nca ami good eel Vice, who wele looked up to as chiefs over a. consiuerable CIrcle of Villages, were appomted zatldars or settlement chaudhris. 'l'he office was an eagerly coveted one, and the rlghl; men I believl:t got the positlon. Each saildar }U\(l five or six patwa/ls' tapplia, which formed his circle of j\1risuiction. III consideration of duties for which the v are made responsible affecting the general welfare 8S well RS the revenue admini::!tration of fbe district, the zaildb receives an ~ndm varying from Rs. 100 to Rs 200 per annum, a percentage on the jama. of bls za~l, and a small grant of cnlturabje-land, nsually about 50 acres. In adqition ea~h zrilaar was provided with a. chaprasi paid from the malba of the villages in the zail. Thti police zai!dars in all cases received appointments, tllus facilitating the union of the zaildars' police and rmenue duties. Under the' new Land nevenus Act a nniform deduction of one per cent. on the land revenue has been subs~ituted for the former fluctuatjug cess. The old arrangements \Vere extremely unequal as re'gards size of the zails, emoluments, &0.; the number of zails, 57, was too large to allow of the remuneration being substantial. Consequentlyat the new settlement the number was reduced to 44, and the boundaries were revised, tribal limits, patwaris' circles and other udministrative considerations being taken as the basis of the revised arrangements. The following ta.ble

87 Guj~a.nwa.la. District] CHAPTER IlL-THE PEOPLE. 75 gives the leading statistics for the zails as at present consti Chapter IU, D. tuted :- Vi1la~e CommUllltieB,.. ~. Rights and i> -'os Tenures. cl ~ Il. "'~. N e 0." = CD 0 Zail. 0 ~. G)R CD CD..c!1.. e.. "0 a o ~ c:i ct"" O'IIS ci ~~ coo..:i. Prevailing tribe I ~ Rs. Ril 1. Arup 6 22,9;)2 230 Chima. 2. Flrollwall1o 4. 17, Butar. 3. GUJranwala. 7 24, ansi, Yaraich 4. :Ahraliwala 6 18,7;)0 1R7 Guraya. o. Man 5 17, llan. Varaicb 6. Mandia.la 5 22, Varaich..a '1. Ladhewah. 5 16, ~ 8. BuUla Jha.nda " Singh I) 16,645 f ~ 9. ChahH 6 19, Chahil, Sekhn. II: 10. Chabba Sandhwan '1 22, DhotRr. 12. Karial Kalao 6 18, It I.) 13. ljangoke 6 18, III ll. Nauilhahra. 7 19, Virakh. 0 tj 14. MaJju Chak 6 17, It 15. Kamoke.. 6 IG, Eminabad 6 20, Khatri. " 17. Ghuniur 'T 18,450 18i Rajput and Lubana Total ,28,3';2 3, SOhdr~~ I~ --:.: -:: Chima. 2. Jaura. 4 15, " 3. Gakhar 4 19, Dhaunkal 4. 16, It 6. Wazirabalt 6 23, ,I 6. Badoke fi 20, I " 7. Ahmadanagar Chima and C~atna. 8. Saroke 6 24, Chima. 9. Sabloke 4. 13, Chatha. 10. 'Manobar 6 18, ,I 11. Noiwala 5 19, » U. Ramuagar 5 1R,l Total 60 2,32,638 2, Wanike 10 31, Tarar. 2. ltamke Chatha '1 21, Chatha Q 3. Kaulo Tarar 8 22, TArar. ~ 4. Jal8lpnr , Bhatti. IQ o. Pindi Bha.tdb 12 30,' '1. KaSSIS 6 16,140 ]62 Lodlke. ~ II 6. Sukheke.. '1 20, Bhagsinke Bhatti. 8. Thatta Ma.na.k &) 16, and Bbagainke. ~ n -- 1:1 9. Hafizabad 8 24,640 2~ Hijra a.nd Khatri. 10. Kassob '1 22, Bhatti and Virakh Total 80 2,33,546 2,336 \ tj Chief. headmen and zaildlirs.

88 Ohapter III, D. Village Commumties, RIghts and Tenures. 76 CHAPTER IIT.-TilE PEOPLE. r Punja.b Gazetteer, ~- f o C1 = Q;) 0 ~ ZalL "'~ Prevailing tribe. 4l~ 4l t! '.1:1". 'ti a c.: ~ '" S'OS 0 ~ ~ = t.>'1:1 I: Chief headmen Eo! Z ~ '" ~. ~11,) ell Q) Gi and zalldllrs ChIef headmen. '" 1 I Gajul.na 8 21,690 21'1 Bhatti. 2. Chuhnrkana.. S Virakh. r:rl. 8. Mir71.\ 6 19,'; "'lz 4. Bhikhi C!)~.. " ZIII 5. Mananwala 2 9, II and Man. ~~ 1:1: III Ra. ~Cl Total , :i. Orand Total 270 8,82,986 8,830 The zaildars now receive their remuneration, which average's Rs. 201 per zaildar, from a selected village in each zail, instead of having to realise it in dl iblets- village by village. They have, however, to pay the cbaprasi, if they mair.tail1 one, out of their own pockets. At the revised settrement of chief headmen (ala-iambardars or sarpanchs) were appointed in almost every village in the district, 1,208 ou~ of I,~25, irrespective of the fact whether the village contained one or more headmen and they recei ved in addition to their ordinary remuneration as headmen {) per cent., on the land revenue realised by them, an additional cess of 1 per cent. on the land revenne of the 1vhole estate and grants of land, varying from 2 to 75 acres according to the size of the estate and the area of available land, revenue free. The allotment was generally made from the VIllAge waste, but in some cases from indlvidnal holdings, and the disputes and litigation which this arrangement gave rise to in this and other districts in the Central Punjab are familiar to every Revenue Officer. The history of the subject is fully summarisid in "Financial Commissioner's Selections, New Series, No. 20," and the upshot of the diwnssion which took place when the settlements of the Central Punjab came nnder revision in !}4, was that abolition of the office of chief headman was sanctioned as vacancies occur in all estates with Jess than three headmen, while in villages with three or more headmen it will be retained till next settlement. At the same time it has been directed that the revenne free holdings should now be assessed to land re,enue, and this assessment, provided it did not exceed one per cent. on the total assessment of the estate, should go to the chief headman in the form of a ca.sh inam in cases where the office is maintained; and where the office has been or will be abolished should be utilised for the creation of zamlndari inama., These orders are now being given effect to.. --

89 Gujra.nwala District.] CHAPTER lii.-the PEOPLE. I 77 Statistics showing tllo Dl1mber of e,states and the amount Chapter III, D. of. the inam. that will lapse and that will be maintained are Villag:e given in the annexed tablel..:. Commumties, Rights and "" :g ] i s Tenures..,; -S j ::.1! -a 1: ;:: '" Chief hea<i~'.m. 0,,'.!!.e.e 8 ~ ~ "'" 0."." "" :s.. 1'1.d.d.e.::> ] "'" Q Q -s a 6': -.. :a :5 :a.,; IIlCl>.",, ~ TAHSIt.. os S ~,!l -." ~ S...!!O.j ~ ~....,.<:1 0 S ;:: III CD.! 0 CI>.".d 10- CI>I.<:1 j lf~ Q.<:I 9 1'1 co _CI> 1~ 6.co;.<:I t ~ ~ a ~: "j:= ~ a '" "" s " ~CI> a III.t:> 6.!." '" 10- a. oe I<l";. ::g. <II.. 0.", = ~'" z ta t~ "6.... a = ~= 1'1.r>-.r>;:: "'''' is g l~ = 8.r:: 6'" 0 '" g,g.!!:l 0 S S a Cl ",,g 6 a ~ s.!! 6 E-t ~ ~ z ~ ~ ~ oil ~ Z = J 2 3, «I Ra. Rs. Rs. Ra. Rs. - Gujninwlil& 'U ,5" ,529 1, '"azfr&bad , f, Haflzabad , ,326 1, Kbangah Dogran Tot&l ,0871 4, ,237'-::':, 1~ ~ - From this it will be seen that the office will eventually be" retained in only 164 estates, that i,.ama amounting to Rs. 6,267 will lapse in 791, estates, and from the sums thus rendered available it has been arranged to create 86 zamindari illama averaging TIs. 49 each, one or more in each 2ail according to circumstances. The recipients of these inam8 will be Bel~cted from time to tlme by the Deputy Commissioner. The chief headman as such has now no longer any right in the muofi land beyond receiving the assessment thereof. The number of village headmen though large is not ex.. cessive, averaging less than two per est:l.te. The amount of revenue collected by each a.verages Re. 439, and the remuneration per head at 5 per cent. on the collections comes to Rs. 22. At the recent settlement some attempts were made to reduce the number where excessive as vacancies arose, but such reduction requires the sanction of the Finanoial Commiesioner, the procedure is lengthy and cumbrous, the f(\eling against reduction among the persons concerned who cling jealously to every such vestige of authority even where the material advantages attached to it are merely nominal, and it was therefore found difficult to effect reduction on any considerable scale. In many villages of the HIHizabad and Khangah Dogran tahs115, where the extension of canal irrigation had brought Yillago headmen.

90 78 CUAPTER lit-the PEOPLE. [ PUlljab Ga.zetteer, Chapter III, D. a bout a great deve}opmf nt of resonrccs, it was found necessary!vi1la~e to ldcrense the number of lambardat's. TaLle No. XV shows the number of proprietors or share- CO~lt~fnlti~s, :ij,~nu~:: holder,ilj and the gross al'ea held in property under each of t11!) main forms of tenure, and also gives detalls for large estates Pro p r let a.r Y and for GovArnment ~rants Rnd similar tonures. 'Ihey are tenures, taken from the statistica in the last Revenue Report. The average total and cultivated area held and the assessmpnt paid pe!' owner, deducting land held by occupancy tenants and usufructuary mortgeiges, are shown in the following figures which are taken from Mr. O'Dwyer's Final St'ttIement Report :_. SETTLEMENT. Total Cultit'afea RevMlu, tn mea per area per.r1.ipeu per o I(,n er. owner, o'ivner. r.e 'f5.. eli ~ III (j:..c 1 "" It J ~ ~..c =,~ 1:1 III 'III Oil 'III,:= =.~ CI!.. to '01 Oil Oil. CCI.. c::i.. N CI:I.. tcl C:I 'co r:: -os co 'os '" ~ 'f5..! c od ~ ~.8 ~ " ~' 1:1:1 0 I:Q (!) ~ 1:1 Regular Revised Present T enf"d "t an d ren. t 'rable No. XVI shows the number f' of tenancy f f holdldgrs and the gross area hela und~r each 0 the roam.orms a tenancy as they stood in , while Table No. XX] gives the current reut rates for the same period. The following fignres as reg-ards occupancy tenants have been taken from Mr. 0' Dwyer's Final Report:- - I Number Cultivated Per cent of Ta.hsil. of total culh. holdings. area. vatiod GujraDwala...,.tt Wazfrabad It. 2,888 10, ,,, 8,069 12,976 4'4 Hafizabad.. 2,458 14, ~9;1-.~ - Total '0' 408 -

91 Gujranwala District.] CHA.PTER lii.-the PEOPI.E. Considerll.ble alterations in the record of f,lie relations ootwecn landlord and tfln.lnt have heen effected since the regular settlemenb 18:;4 56, at which nearly all tenants who claimed a right of occupancy seem to have been fl'eely allo\vcd it by the ownors. :Mr. Morris sa.ys in his report ~- Ie 'l'hl're llave been very few, if any, dispute. rellardinll' cultivators with light or 1)08se88ion. Ths fact is, tb"lt In codsequeuce of the populatlod and the scarcity of cultivators, the propriel.ors have been ouly too glad to give np to 1111 their cultivators the right of possession, With the object of inducing them to remau! on the estate We find, moreover, that Dot; ollly have thl! majority <If cultivators bean entered BI hereditary, but that many al:io hold tilt ir land at the!'oarne ra.tes 0.'1 proprletol'll. litihkana l'1 the e'tcep~iont Dl't the rnl", add It rartlly, If ever, exceeds 6~ per ceut. or ODe "Dna in the ruptle." Accordingly \ve find that of the 35 per cent. of the cultivation in the hands of tenaot~ 17 pe-r cent. or about. 75,000 acres was held by hereditary tenallts, and 18 per cent. by tenants-atwill. The settlement of 1868 effected a ~l'eat change in the status of these tenants. The theory of ~Ir. Prinsep was that occupn.ncy rights should only be recognized if created by decree of COUI t or oonsent of the landlord. In all other cases the tenant, even though recorded as "maul u",i JJ or herc<htary, was held to be only entitled to protectiou (pu'lj.h) from ejectment and enhancement of rent for A. period hmited RccQl'ding to the circumstances of the cas". Such tenants were recorded as panahi. 'rhe re mlt was that thousands of tenants were dept ived of their IC hprejitary Jt status and reduced to the position of lease or copy-holders. Under the 'l'enancy Act of 1868 power was given to revise" these proceedings and to restore to all occupancy tenants entered as such at the regular segtlement a p. esnmptive right of occupancy. Consequently a great nnmber of the olll?nauuisi tenants were so r :storej, and the propl'ietor was left to take the necess:lry measurt's for rebutting the presumption of occup&ncy rig11ts should he think fit to do so, while the tenant was left to take the necessary mcasui'es for obtainiug an authoritative declaration of his precise status as tenant nuder the Act. 'rhe action taken, howevej', was not very thorough and searching, and the result was th,.at at the beginning ofthe new settlement the area held by occupancy tenants which at the regular settlement a:1lountdd to about 75,000 acres was then only 37,000. At the new settlement the question was again taken up and it was ultimately decided that tenants hitherto sllown as dawami, panahi dawami, or mautusi should now be sho~n as occupa.ncy tenants, and that in au other cases of panaha tenants the entries of the old record shonld be repeated in the new one, at. tention being dra.wn to the history of the subject as contained in If Financial Commissioner's printed Selections" New Series, No. 40/' by a special note on the record. There are in an 1,450 of these protected panahi holdings, covering an area of 3".560 acres a.nd paying i'ts. 4,029 rent. For sta.tistical' purposes they are Ohapter III, D. Village a ImmunIties..Bights and Tenures. Tenant right

92 Chapter III, D. Village Commulllties, Rights a.nd Tenures. Tenant nght. Tenanis nt-will. EO CUAPTER Ill.-TIIE PEOPLE. [ Punjab Gazetteer, treated as occupl'ncy tenants. Occnpancy tenants in this drstrict generally pay in cash at reve'lue rn.tes with a ~light n.adt tion as mrillj..(ina which in. Gujrsnwa.la. awl Uafizn.hn.d avf>r,tges only two allnas per rupe& jn Wazirabad three and a half anlln.8. The relations between them and their landlords are usllally harmonious, and during the rgcent settlt.'went ouly 120 SUits for enhancement were lodg~d. As regards tedants a.t.wil1~ they are favourably circum~ stanced in this district, for owing to the larg-e size of the hold ingr, tlu'l grent area of available land and the demand f(i\' ('ul. tlvators In the newly opened up canal tract, the competition is Dot among tell ants for land to cultivat~, hilt KUlong landlords for tenants. The htter are therefol e ahle to sec1'll'e good trrms and rack-rentillg is vpry rare. If the landlords endeavour fo nnduly forco up rents in the old villages, the tenants can throw up their holdings and migrate to \he new colonies. In Cad the supply of tenants within the district is not equal ta tho demand, and for the last thrpe l ears tllere JUtS been a. stendy influx of culti,ators to the callal-irrigated tract from 8iaJkot, Amritsar, (] uj. rat and parts of Lahore. Renia of tena.nts Tenants-at-will either-pay in kind (balai) or n~ fixed rents al will which are either pu.. ", cash (nakdi) or mixed cash and gl am rents (chakota), riz., a fixed sum of callh iu the antumn nuj l. fixed amount of.grain, geuerally wheat, in the spring harn'st.. Kind reuts are not very popular in the district as tho following figures show:- Tabsll. Per ('en II of Phi, h I.' t' cu.iva Ion er i cont.. eld I errent old beld by ten- n brta,l at f1xpd ants-at-will rents. rent" Olljranwala Wazirabad Bafizabad -, So that 47 per cent. of the total cultivation is in the hanils of tenants-at. will, but kind rents prevail on only 12 pet CODt' l while fixed rents are tl}e rule on 35 per cent. Kind rents are roost common on the inundated (sailaba) lands on the ChenAb, where the tenant pays one-third or two-fiftbs of the produce, and are almost universal on <tanal-htigated lands where the tenant usn ally pays one-fourth of the produce, including straw, to the landlord, and is also responsible for the water-rates, while th(' landlord pays the, revenue.,on wells to which 110 less than 60 per cent. of the total cultivation is atta.ched, kind rents ara

93 Gnjranwala District.] CHAPTER IlI.-THE PEOPLE. 81 never found. In the highly cultivated Charkhari circles of Chapter Ill, D. Gujranwala and Wazirabad the fixed mixed cash and grain rent V~e is the mie, the standard per acre being one rnpee in the kharif Co~m1lllities, and two mans of wheat in the rabi harvest. The tenants on well B~hts and lands, the cultivation of which requires a. good deal of capital, are enures. generally J ats, often proprietors themselves or akin to t.lie pro- Renta of tenants. prietary_ body. 'rhe cultivators Oil canal, luuodated and dryat.will. (baranij lands are very mixed, and include 11, large proporti~tl of village menials-cbuhras, Kumhars, 'l'urkllllns, Mochis, &~. The tenanoies oc all lands 0.1 e usnally from year to year. '1'hfl eugagemeut is entered into in Maroh or April; tite ten~nf; reoeives possession when the rabi crop is reaped in May, or earlier if be wants to sow cotton,.and the tenancy terminates, in theory at least when 11e has reaped the rabi crop of the following year. '1'he rents are paid half-yearly in arrear, and are realised more puljctually and fl1l1y than migbt be expected. Suits for arrears Rre fe"\v; if there hes been a. balance ih the case of fixed cash or mixed rents owing to a bad ha.rvest, it is usually carried on to the next year's account, 01' if the landlord is a mon~y-)ender he debits the cultivator wif,h the value of the grain duo. Tbe deep-stream is the boundary between est.'ltes on opposite banks of the Chenab, except in the two cases of Kadirpnr and Farkpur where the custom of fixed boundarios obtain", probably bl'cause the estntes on the other side of the stream are held by the same body of O\vners. 1'0 ensure that the same land has not been measured twioe over by the officials of both districts, and that no land had escaped measurement., as well as to afford an accurate basis for the decision of boundary disputes, it was arranged at the recent. settlement in conjunction with the Settlement Officers of Shallpur and G ojt'at to carl'1 the measurements on each bank across the river to t11e opposite bank simultaneously so that both series of maps shouhl show, not only the river but some permanent marks on the other bank. 'I'hE' mops of opposite villages having been thus brougl1t into correspondence, a comparison between them phowt'li what land was in dispute, and all such dispntes were decided by the Settlement Officers jointly. As between 0.,1. joiuing vilia.ges the ownership in new land formed on their boundary is governed by the rule of mahliz, wbich JS applied by prolongation of the existing boundary between the 1 ivai estates. As regards internal (ii alluvion l.hnnges the almost invariable cdstom is tbat tbe condition or things at st.'ttlement is taken as a starting point. If land is washe'd away after settlement the loss i~ the owner's and he cannot claim to IIRva the 10s9 made good from the villsige common. His righh however are not de-ad but sleeping, and jf Df'W land again forms on that sitp. the property ve~ts in the old owner to the extent of Lis loss, any excess beiug included in the, Village common land. River Diages.

94 Cha'J)ter III. D. " --- Village Commumties. Rights and Tenures. Agricultural bourors. 82 CHAPTER III.-TUE PEOPLE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, It is not customary for the agriculturists of this district to omploy hired field labourers, as the majority of landownerh cultivate holdings of their own anll llave no means to pay for hired labour. Field labourers aro employed only by men with more land than they can themselves cultivate, anti by l'!ley aro cdgagf'u for tho ]a. female landowners and wards. whole year and may be divided into two main cla.c;ses. 'l'ho superior class of labourers are called lachhainb; they get Rs. 21 in cash per annum and one quarter of the produce of the land ploughed by a yoke of oxen which tiley supply. The owner of the la.nd is responsible for all othor expensol:l such as purchase of seed or bullocks, payment of Government domand, &c. These larhhainb are usually Jats. Secondly, theru is a labour cluss called lea m a 118, who are also Jatq. Thclr wages are Us. 2 per month with daily food and clothldg. '1'l10 COf.\t of the latter, which consists of a sheet (rhadar), n. woistcloth and n. turban, amounts to Hs. 4 per annum. 4 an[lll~ WOI th of tobacco per mensem is also supplied to each mau. Besides these two classes thero are 8epla and nih1 {IJ village menials, who are not r('gular workors, and aro clth0r remunerated by a share of tho crop when reaped, or when employed temporarily get fixed l\ daily wage of from 2 to 3 annas per diem. '1'h(>y ('omo clliefly from tho swcepl'r (Chuhra) and shoemakcr (Mochi) cast.es. '1'110 wages of the regular agricultural labourers llavo greatly lncre-ased of lato years, owing to the great demand for unskilled labour on canal, railway, and other public works Within the di~trict. IIarvebt labourers nre usually remunerated by being allowed to take away each evening a. bundle (l)harri) of sheaves,,vhich ordmarily yields 6 to 10 seers of grain. They also receive ono meal \v hlle at work. 'Women employed in cotton picking receive ono.sixth to one-eighth of the cotton, and tho great increaqe in the cultivation of tllls crop on tho Chcn6h Ca.nal lms created such a. demand for thil!! kind of 10.hour that in soma recent years the cotton picl(el's wbose ranks aro swelled 110\'1 by Chnngar women from SUl.1kO, IJahore and Amrltsar, have been known to receive as much as one-fourth of tho fibro. Petty villngo '],ho figures in the margin show the number of persons grantees. holding sorvice grants from tho -----,,- -:: --=-='i----d:. ~ --"-=-- vil1nge and the area. 80 bold. Tahsil... ~ t! '1'h eso grants wore origin all y ~ ~ 'S i! i ~ made by the viljage commonity, ~ Z too ~ ~ generally from tho village com moo. and their tennre was Glljranw'lu. ' G9 subjoct to tho porformance of WII.z{rll.b~ village service, so that the pro- Hafizu.bad 'oo 8 8 ~8 19 prietors liad full control over Kh&ngahDOgr4nI.2~ :~~_~ them. This was fit and proper To~u.l as the grantees were in most = cases village menials Miraslp, Cha.ukidlirs, Prohits or artisans,

95 Gnjra.nwala District.] CHA.PTER lir.-the PEOPLE. 83 performing personal service, or persons in charge of village C"4apter 111, D. instltutiom:, 8. g. the fakir of the taklya or khaugah, the imam Villa.ge or ulma of the ml)sque, al!d th~ village comqlunity was the CommulUties, natural authority to decide whether the service Was rendered. Rights a.nd As the result howev~r of the regular aud first revised settle- Tenures. mcnt all ~ Iese grants were maintained under tbe authority of Petty village Government, an,l the village community's power of mterference grantees. or disposal was pra.ctically abolished. Under the new settlement all personal grants have Leen resumeu, the zamiudars being g-iven the optiml of excludillt! the land from assessment in the 'J(ichh, or dlstrlbutlou of the revenue, while grants in favour of village in'ihtlltions, such as mosques, dhatf1u(illi8~ &c, are maintained as before for the term of settlement subjed to good condnct and I'ervice o! the institution, if it has beeu found tbat the ~)Wners desire the contiuuance of the grant. ']'he dharal and tlui71apali are village dues which are Village dues. worthy of notice as pecuhar to this part of the. country. 1'be dharal h! in theory a voluntary payment to the proprietary body.or its representative for the services of the vlllage weighman (dhancai) nominated by the owners. In pmcbce it is occasionally an octroi or impost on trade, and more usually is a compulsory due levied from the purcha~er, generally at the rate of a pice in the rupee on all :!gricultural produce sold within the village, for Village custom requires that all such transactious should be carried out tljrough tho medium of the village weighman. The proprietary body usually leases out the proceeds of this due to the vll1age weighmau in consideration of a fixed anuual payment Va.rylDg from n. few rupees to sevel al huudred in some of the large estates in Hafizabad and Khangah Dogrliu. The income is either like mall)(& spent on Village objects or llospitality through the tho lambardat, or where considerablo is distributed among owners accorrlmg to shares or revenue liability. The ng1at to levy this due is jealously gual ded by the old proprietors, but is often resisted by the money-len.dmg and trading element in the village. 'fhe Courts have sometimes refused to enforce it through failure to comprel,end its origiu and n:eaning. The thimapati is Do seignorial due levied by the owners of a village on the marriage of daughters of Don-owners. The proceeds of the due varying from Re. 1 to Rs. 5 per marriage ara generally considered the perquisites of the village Brahmin or Mirasi. Table No. XXXII glves statistics of sales and mortgages of land. Tables Nos. XXXIII and XXXIII A. show' the or the proprietors. operations of the n~.:il..dtion Department, aud Table No. XXXIX the extent of civil and reveune litiga.tion. Since the revised settlement of 1868 the transfers of land by sale or mortgago have increased to an a.larming extent. At that time less than 1 per cent; had been sold and about 1 per cent. wa.s under mortgage. At the recent revision of settlement Poverty or wealth

96 84 CHAPTER In.-THE PEOPLE. ( Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter III, D by Mr" O'Dwyer, it was found that the proportion of area Village sold Il,nd mortgaged bad risen re!lpectivt'ly to 95 and 7 pcr cent. Co~mnnities. Put in another form it appears that no less than J 6'5 p~r cent. R ehts.a.nd of t\18 total area and 21 pel' cent. of the cultivated area, endies, paying 27 per cent. of the assessment lias within 25 yeers Poverty 01' "oo,lth challged hauds by sale or usufroctoary mortgage. Flfty-thrro per cent. of the area sold and 69 per cent. of the area mol tgaged have passed into the 11and9 of m/)ney.lendt>rs who ljolv lwjd 60 pm' cent. of the total area Alienated including 13'5 per cent. of the total cultivation of the District. of the ploijnet{lrs. In tho two llighly developed tah8\1s of Gujranwala nnll Wazll'a.bad Illont>y.lellders are DOW in possession of 18 per rcnt. of the cultivation, and ill the more backward IIMizabad tahsil they hold 9 per cent. On this subject Mr.O'D\vyer remarks as follows :- ' The 'WOlSt featlll,'e of this tenuency of the lnnll to pus oot of the hands of the nld OWIlPIS IS that the process io4 becoming more rr\jid every year The hlld 1 LI'\'ests of gave It the firrt impetus, but the area transfurred In that pl'th,d was ollly 2 per cont of the whole. It continued to incredse I!loWlly but btt'liully up to 1884 when the ero.of bad years that then Bet III gllve it 110 enormow. ~t JnIOJUB, Slid In the eight years no lees than 14: per cent of tho '(,ultlvated.. rea was altellflted, VIZ, 'i per cent. Bold, 7 per cent. mortgaged, the,.. tle and mortgage money amounting to over 2-' lakhs. There js at present fin in(lllllltion of any check or re-llction, and unless something is done to restrict l\ho expalldldg r.redil of the proprietary body or to save them from Ole Dilurer l,y a "J ",tern of State loans, flccompamed by a more liberal and elatltic revenue po hey than bas prevailed m the past, the process of (lxproprmtlod nluft continue to incrcase, as tho vlllue of laud nses and the profits dejrlvcd from and tho consideration attached to Its possesslod increase. Causes of aliena 'rhe enquiry into the influences which within the h,st 25 tion. yea,ra have broughu about thir enormolls alienation of landed property, is too wide and debateable a subject for discussion in this report. 'l'he matter has been treated at some length in the assessment reports, and the causes as tb~re given roay be here summarised. A part from such 8pecial causes 01' bail harvests or agricultural calamities the ljlnin causes are two:- 1. (a) Morc people are seeking to acquire land, owing tothe incl Nl.aed profits 'to be derived from it on account of the moderate standard of as"9ssment introduced at last settlement and the high prices of produce since prevailing; (b) the increased consideration attached to its possession; (t') the great accumulation of money, {ormel'}y lloard ed up but now made available for investment, and the decrease of those local forms of invest.. ment, e.g., the carrying trade which forme.rly absorbed surplus capital, so that all local capltal SlOW seeks the land which is regarded as the

97 Gujra.nwala. District.] CHAP. III.-THE PEOPLE. 85 sarest and most permanent security. A capit,alist Chapter III, D. who will look for 12 per cent. en advances on the Villag-e best personal security will gladly invest in land Commuruties. even if the profits on his capital be only 4 per cent. Rights and Tenures. n. The old owners have more frequent.occasions and Caoses of alienll' greater facilities for parting with their land, be- tion. caose- (a) the great ('xpansion of credit,~ich bas taken place since la'lt settlemei\t owing to the moderation of the State demand, the higher prices of prodnce, and the consequent enllanced value of land, lias discouraged thrift and encouraged them to extravagance j (b) (e) their expenditure and standard of living are based on the iucome of good years, and are not contracted to meet the exigencies of bad. Formerly in bad years a self-acting law compelled them to live on what was actually produced, as they had no ('redit to supplement it. Now they find it easier to borrow than to alter their scale of hving j our inelastic fe-venue system does not assist them in meeting unforeseen Josses, the collapse of a well, the loss of a pair of bullocks, and in soch necessities they have to borrow at heavy interest: (d) for want of grazing grounds the zamindars o~ Gujranwala and'vazirabad do not breed their own cathe, and bave therefore no reserve to draw upon when they losu their cattle in the frequent t-pidemics of cattle disease'. This is thq, explanation of the greater embarrassment of the z14mindars in these two tahsn~ and of the comparative solvency of the Hafizabad zamindars who bava ample pasture and ani in a position to breed their own cattle; (6) rents being as a rule fixed in cash or grain (chikota) and not varying according to the produce of each harvest (balalj, the owners of mortgaged 1and who are also generally the cultivators often fall into arrears and these arrears go on accumulating against them at heavy compound interest from harvest to harvest, making it almost impossible for them to extricate themselves; U) motual jealousies prevent them from resorting to one another for loans, and from transferring the land to relations even when the latter are able and willing to take it;

98 86 CHAP. II1.-THE PEOPLE. [ Punjab Gazetteer, Ohapter III, D. Village Communities, Bights and Tenures. Causes of aliena tiod. (g) they have DO income of importance from any -source but the land OD which every borden is fi nally thrown i (11) once they get into debt to the money-lenders, heavy interest, a short period d limitation combined wltll ignorance on the part of the debtor, unscrupulous cunning OD the part C'f the creditor, mike it difficult for them to extricate themselvefl, while a rigid and complex system of civ.l law, unsuited to the circumstances, unintelhgible to the minds of the people, and administered in 80 far as it affects the great mass of the peoplo In a narrow and technical spirit by a class chiefly drawn from the money-lending or capitalist c1abs who have little sympa.thy with the agriculturists, hastens the operation of tho natural causes which tend towards alienation.

99 Gujranwala District.] CHAPTER IV. PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBU1'ION. SECTION A.-AGRICULTU~E. ARBORICULTURE AND LIVE-STOCK.. Table No. XIV gives the general figures for cultiva.tion and Chapter IV. A. irrigation in the district; the rainfall at different places in the A 'cutt;re ArdIstrict, and its distribution over the year, are shown in Tables brriculture'and II I, III A and III B. -Of the total area of the district, amounting Live stock. to 2;928 sq ua~e miles, only 46 per cent. orhless than half iii now General character under coltl"vation. Of the balance, five-slxt s are cu l turable, one- of the cultivation. sixth is oufit for cultivation, consisting of roads, canals, railways, sites of towns and villages, beds of rivers or nalas, or land which is quite unproductive. 'I'hough the proportion of uucultivated laud is still very large, the development since annexation has been enormous. Since , when the first regular settlement was made, cultivation has increased by nearly 400,000 acres OJ" over 80 per cent., while population within the same period has increased only 25 per cent. '1'he increase has been greatest in the western part of the district where it bas received a powerful stimulus within the last few years by the construction of the Chenah Canal. '1'he breaking up of waste land all over the district is still st~adily proccedhlg. In Wazirabad it is slow, and the land recorded as culturable in that tahsil is mostly unprofitable kallar not likely to repay the cost of cultivation, though the rainfall in that tract is adequate and fuirly certain. In Gujranwala. the expansion of cultivation is fairly rapid, especially on unirrigate'd soil in the Bangar and Adjoining Bar circles; In Hafizabad the increase is very rapid in canal irrigated estates, slow in the others, while in the new tahsil Khangah Dogrnn, where the cuunrable land is of f>xcellent quality though the ramfall is small, and where there is the greatest field for the extension of canal irrigation, cultivation is increasing by leaps and bounds. 'fhe following remarks of Mr. Morris as to the cultivation of the district still apply, though of late years industry has been considerably stim\1lated by the high prices and canal il'rigation. I, The cultivation of this district is by DO means superior. and will DOt. bear oompariaon WIth that of Sililkot or Gujrat. This may be nttnbuted partly to the general inferloclty of the soli, and partly to the idle habits and nomad oharacter of the peopl~ I do not mean to say that first rate cultiva.tion is not to be met with; on the contrary. in Bome of the lha<hr and ciiarkhari mahal Yillages, the soil highly manured, and the land as well cultivated I1s in I>ny estates 1n the PunJab; but thlb is the exeepbon. Such instances are rare, and generally spealong th'3 cultivatora are lazy and Idle, and bear m:lch more the character of grazlers than agriculturists. Nor is this to be wondered at when we consider t.hat the majority of the vdlages were founded during the reign of RanJlt. 810gb, or leas tban 50.rears ago Prior to thill, the present cultivators or theu ancestors were graziers, leading a. nomad life, and tending their herds ia the wide and extended tractli of tho lidr.u

100 88 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTlOY. ( Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter IV, A. The seasons for sowing and harvesting the principal food Agrfc-.;u;re, Ar. graij?-s are s~own below. Further information is given in the boriculture and detailed nobce of the several staples:- Live Stock. Agricultural 8ca. Bon. Grain. Seed time. BarTes~ ----r, , Moth and Jotrar Maize, rice, mung and mash. 28th.Tuly to 15th Aug. K angni and china 27th lune to 27th luly. lat No\". to 15th No\". Do. 15th July to 28th July. 20th Sept. to 14th Oct. Kungni and ohina " 10th Feb. to 10th liarcb. 20th April to 10th May. Gram, nnd wheat and gram 15th Sept. to 15th Oct.. Wheat, a.nd wheat aud ba.rley 15th Oct. to 1st. Dec. 10th April to 10th )fay. 'The success of the kllarif crop depends on the continuance of the rains well into September; bot the September rains in this district are very precarioos, and of late years have shown a tendency to fail altogether even wben tile monsoon rains have been heavy. The result is that the kharlf crop which i. maioly uoirrigated, if it does not fail largely, is much redoced in ootturn and this is one explanation of the movement 80 marked in recent years to sllbstitnte spring for automn crops. The rabi crop benefits most by favoorable rains for plooghing and Bowing in September and October, and if it once.proota a timely fall in January or February' will bring it to maturity. The distribution of the rainfall is shown in 'fables Nos. HI, III A, and III B. The reporting stations are howevpr more favoorably situated than the rest of the tahsil, Rnd Mr. O'Dwyer judges that the avera.ge fau in G~jraowala is 19 inches, 'Vazlrabad 22 and Hsfizabad 15, the mean for the who1e district may, be takeq RS 19 inches. It is however Hable to enormous fluctua. tions in diiierent years j thus in J the fall was 3 1, incht's, whereas in it was onl;r9. There is a corresponding variation in the amount of onirngated crops sown, for when the rains are short or ill distributed the bdt(;ni soils are left nnsown altogether, or those.,soils only ate sown which are cool and retentive of moisture. Soils. The land of this no~b may be divided ioto two grand classes-the low and high lands, generally known by the following terms. hl'tar and uiar-tlle former signifying the land iu the vicinity of the river,01'' in o.ny way subject to its inflnence; and the latter, the tract within this. and towards the centre of the Dosh. The hf;mr is again sub divided into bet and dh&ya, sigut. faing respectively that subject to inundation and tbali free from Do.

101 Gujra.nwa.la. District.] CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 89 it; whilst the uttlr is distinguished by a variety of terms accord. 'ing to ltr locality. Thus in the north and well cultivated tracts it IS kuown as II/:ingar, mall"a, deb, &c.; whilst in the south it is called bare;", nalla and bar. 'rhe different varietiea of soil chiefly known and recognized are described below!- (iota, an artificial soil highly manured and growing only tile best crops, commonly found round villages and wells. Rohi., the finest natura18cnl, a stili clay, dark ()r reddish dark m colour. It breaks up lu clods and is difficult to work but most productive when well cultivated; It does not require manure and 13 best suited for wheat and rice. It is chlchy found in Jowlying lands along dramage channels and around ;"hizi and charnbhll where water lies. It is therefore Ir'ost common ld the Charkharl circles adjoining Sialkot where a. great roany natural chanuels, the Aik, Nandanwah, Khot, &c., bring down the draluage in the rains." It requires much Irrigation. Dosahi or mirsi, a fine clayey SOIl with an admixture of sand, which makes it easy to work. It is not nsually top dressed, but is manured by cattle being folded on It. When so mauured it grows the best crops; WJthout manure ordinary crops. It is a capital working SOIl, wonderfully retentive of moisture and therefore well suited fol'" unirrigated crop~. It is most common jilt the AdjoinlDg Bar and Bar circles and in the 'Vazlrabad Charkhari. Maira, is a loose loam with less clay than sand and varying much in quahty. It is easily worked but wantiug in strength and is most suitable for the lighter kharif crops, moth, mu.~ and til. Some varieties grow gram and cotton very well where the sub-soil is a. clayey stratum. It is commou in all the highlying Bangar circles, the soil of which is much inferior to that of the rest of the district. TiMa 18 the name given to the worst kinds of m~ira, in which sand largely preponderates. It is a. very light poor soil on which irrigation has little effect, but with favonrable rains grows good crop! of moth, mung and barley. It is rarely sown with rabi crop a or jf Bown, produce's only very inferior barley. 1(allar, a. tour and barren clay, difficult to cnltiva.te and not; ordinanly productive; with canal irrigation, however it produces excellent crops of rice. K allar is common throughont the district, but especially in the 'Vazirabad tahsil, the Charkhari circle in Guj!'anwala. and the Bangar circle o'f Hafizabad, where its influence on. the cultivation, which when affected by it, is known as kalrati, can be tracec! everywhere. It bas been found that when steadily sown with rice for a few years and irrigated with caual water, the kallar improves in quality aud becomes ca.pable of growing barley and even wheat; but where the subsoil drainage is defective, or the water level near the surfac~, evaporation under a bot sun brings to th.e surfa.ce the la.ten~, Chapter - IV, A, AgI:iculture, ArbOriculture and Live-stock. SoIls.

102 90 ClIAl'. IV.-l'RODUCTIOIf AND DISTRIBUTION. t PUDJab Ga.z,tteer,,Chapter IV. A, magnesia. salts held in solution or in deposa in the form of ren.a~iculture,ar. efhorescence which is fatal to cultivation.. boriculture Live'Stock. a.nd B 6 l a, or t hi' e tract yldg next to the flver,. not mach above its level, is generally new land, sometimes with fine allavial Soils. soil, but often much injured by sand. It produces naturally fine grass, and affords fine pasturage to the villages in the vicinity. The jungl~ known as jhau abounds in this. The river villages of the BRfizabad have very fine bela, attached to them j they often extend for miles and form very valuablo pasturage grounds. In years of drought all the upland villages send their cattle to these ielas to graze. Well irrigation. The above distinctions of soil represent local varieties distinguished according to the composition of the Boil. In the assessment and distribution of the land revenue however, no effect was given to the local varietie, which are used rather to describe the general nature of the land than ita relative value for assessment purposes. The classification adop.. ted for the latter purpose at the recelut and previous settlements is based on the absence or presence of, and the source of, irrigation, 'Viz.:- Chcihi, irrigated from a well. Nahri, irrigated from a canal. Chtihi nahr;', irrigated or irrigable from a well and a canal. Abi, irrigated from a pond or lank. Sailaba, inundated by river flood. Barani, unirrigated. According to the most recent statistics the proportion of each class of soil to the total cultivation was as follows:- Chahi Chabi nahri,.. 2 Nahri.,.. 13 Sailaba Barani."... e.t 25 The abi area, 1,063 acres, is so small as not to require separate record. It has usually been grouped with ehahi. Wells are, therefore, the mainstay o~ the a~ricult~re of the district, The wells al'e nearly always lined WIth brick-work, in which case they are known as 'Fakka and are permanent and durable structures costing {l'om Rs. 150 to,rs. 750 according to the depth of the water, &0., a.nd la.tltldg from 30 to 100 years. 'Vithout the brick-work they are known as kacha, being lined only' with graf:\s or reed::!. Eacha wells are 'Very rare in this district, being fouud only in the.1o,,!ia.nd~ near the river, whare the action of the floods makes It Ina.dvlSAble to sink much money in masonry wells. They cost from Rs. 20 to Rs: 50, irr.igate only a few acres and last for only 2 or 3 years,

103 Gujra,uwala District.] ClllP. IV.-P1l0DUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 91 :rhere are no less than 12,248 masonry wells at work" with an average area. of 39 acres of chani land attached to each, and taking the average cost as Rs. 350, these represent a capital of 37 Jakhs sunk in the masonry and wood-work alone. For extracting the water the Persian-wheel is in universal use. The number of oxen required to work a well efficiently varies of course with the depth of the water Bnd the area. to be irrigated, but it may be roughly laid down that an average well with 40 acres of Ja.nd attached will require six yokes of oxen in the Charkhari and SaDgar circles. In the Bar oxen give place to buffaloes which have more draught power but are shorter lived and unable to work in the hot weather, except at night. Eight yokes are required, two yokes working at a. time on the deeper wells, w bere the spring level is over 50 feet. Taking the average value of the cattle on a well as Rs. 400, they represent a capital of 49 lakhs. The well tract paj' etlcellence is comprised in the two assessment circles known as the Charkhari (from charkhar, a Persian-wheel) mahal, which occupy the eastern portion of the Gujranwala. and Wazirabad tahsils adjoining Sili.lkot. Here the wq.ter level ranges from 20 to 32 feet below the surface; and about 90 per cent. of the cultivation is attached to wells. Along the river in the Chenab circles of Wazirabad and Hafizabad the spring level varies from 12 to 20 feet. WellR therefore cost little and are easily and cheaply worked. Water is everywhere, throughout the district, except in a. few Bar villages, sweet and plentiful. As the distance from the Sialkot border and the river increases towards the west Rnd Bouth, water becomes less accessible and the cost of sinking and working the wells becomes greater till the Bar is reached wherer it becomes almost prohibitive. Examining the figures by tahslls, it is fonnd that well irrigation is most highly developed in Wazlrabad where 80 per cent. of the cultivation is attached to weus, the spring level varying from 12 feet in the valley of the Chenab to 30 feet in the uplands, and the average area per well is 34 acres which is not more than can be efficiently worked witbin the year. The Gujranwala tahsil comes next with 71 per cent. of the cultivation irrigated from wells, the water level varying from 25 feet on the east side adjoining the Sialkot district to 55 feet in the Bar uplands on ~he south-west adjoining the Rafizabad tahsil, and the average area per well is 40 acres. 1'he BAfizabad tahsil has less facilities for well irrigation than the 'other two, a.s the water level over most,of the area is so deep that the expense of sinkldg wells and maintaining sufficient cattle to work them is very heavyj and in some cases prohibitive. The proportion of' the area so irrigated is 40 per cent" tbe water jevel varies from 15 feet in the Chenab lowlands to 80 fee~ in the Bar, aod the average area per well is 43 acres which is far in excess of wha.t a well can irrigate in a yea.r. From the above remarks. it will be u~derstood that th(71lgh 60 per cent. of the cultiva.tion is prbwcted by welu, the succesi Chapter IV, A. A~iculture, Arboriculture and Live-stoct. Wen irrigation.

104 92 CHAp. IV.-PRODt'CTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [ Punja.b Ga.zetteer. Chap.ter IV, A. of agriculture, at least in Gujranwala. and Hafizaba.d where the Agriculture. Ar. spring level is deep and the weu areas large, to a great extent boriculture and depends on the rainfall. If rains are timely and favourab 11:', they Live stock. assist, and supplement the well irrigation and enable thtt whole Well ~rrigation. well area. to be put under irrigated or unirrigated crops. II rains are poor and badly distributed, the sowings contract or an attempt is made to spread the well water over a larger area than it can command with advantage, and unirrigated crops which in favourable -years are Jargely grown on'part of the well areas IJ.re not sawn at all. Moreover tha crops I\re laid under heavy contributions for fodder for the weh cattlt", and not only the outturn but the area. of crops is n1uch reduced. The arrangements for watering are dependent on the number of shares, each share having a. stated period allotted to it, called vari. If there are only two or three shares in a well, then the var" will extend to eight watches -24 hours; if four shares and upwards, the period allotted to the tari is four watches or 12 hours, The vdri of ]2 hours is by far the most common, especially in the charkhari, mahjl, adjoining the btl, auu bc:ir estates. In these there are generally 4 t'aris: in the bcingar often six j whilst in the kmdit we find 8 and 10 vart,. In the khtidir Oile yoke of bullocks will work for two watches, consequently two yokes will work a vtiri ; whilst in the In/,r one yoke cannot work more than one watch, so that four yokes are required to work a vd,i of four watches. The amount of land irrigated by a well depends on the nature of the soil, depth of water from the suriace, and condition-of the well, but most of all on the' number of yokes it is worked by. A kamil well with 8 yokes, worked day and night, will irrigate 40 acres of land. This, however, cannot be reckoned on with certainty, and 30 acres i3 the average in ordmary years j whilst in years of scarcity or drought not more than 20 or 25 acres can be calculated on. In bar land, one yoke is equal to irrigating five acres in the year; whilst in the hangar and khadir it reaches seven -Dr eight acres. The soils of the khadir and hangar tracts, however, absorb more water than that of the Mr. Bufialoes are mostly used in the bur and nakka. They are also coming into use in the biingar, but in the khddi, inferior bullocks can do the 'Work. Buffaloes are superior in strength to bullocks, but cannot work in the sun so well. The expenses of irrigation are least in the khcidi" and greatest in the bal' ; in the latter, the water is often so far from the surface that it is 'by no means uncommon to see two yokes of buffaloes working together at one well. In rom land the rabi crops preponderate, whilst in the maira the kharif have slightly the advantage. - Takin~ ~O acres as the normal area or crops raised per well in a year the' classification will be something as follows : Rabi 20 acres-wheat 15" barley 2, oilseeds 2, miscellaneous 1.

105 Gujranwala District.] CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION.L"\D DISTRIBUTION. 93 Kharif 10 acres-2 sagarca.ne, 2 cotton, 2 ma.ize; 1 rice, 3 Chapter IV, A.. fodder and miscellaneous. In the Charkhari circles nearly Agricu};re Ar every crop, down to fodder for cattle, reqnires artificial irriga- boriculture ~ndtion. The only crops not so irrigated are gram, moth, fj&ung, goji Live-stock. (wheat and gram) and part of the jou,ar. ~he crops regularly Well irrigatiod. watered and always taquiring artificial irrigation are as follows :-Rabi: garden stuffs from 6 to 20 waterings j \yheat, barley, goji 5 or 6 times. wheat generally getting one more watering than the others; Kharif: sugarcane 16 to 25 waterings; cotton 5 or 6 i maize 6 or 7; mustard, turnips and carrotr always irrigated more or less. Jhallar8 are Dsed like wells, they are built on the bank of a stream or pond, the water being brought 'under by a cut. A ihallar will irrigate from 25 to 30 acres on an average. For rice cultivation a. dhingli is sometimes used. This consists of Dr long pole swinging on a fulcrum and with a bucket attached at the end. The process of constructing Dr well and the details of the cost have been fully described in pa:e 143 of the Lahore Gazetteer, and the description applie3 equally in this district. Canal-irrigation whicb was unknown eigm years ago has Canal.irtigalioD. now become a prominent and increasing feature in the agriculture of this district. For the following note as to the history and progress of the Chena.b Canal the editor is indebted to Mr. Sidney Preston, Superintending Engineer, Chenah Canal Circle:-. The physica.l fea.tures, &0, of the river have alread ybeen described. The maximum dlsoha.rge or the river in high flood had, prior to the completiod of the weir at Kbaokl, been estimated to approxima.te to -250,'JOO cubic fect per secoud. but It haa now become poslubla to gauge this more accurately, and this was done in the big 80nd of the 21st July 1893 and has been variously ellt, mated at from. 6;)0,000 to 750,000 oubic feet per second. It is obviou81y im possible to gauge such a river as the Chenab while in 800d with mathematical accuracy, but there ca.n be no doubt tbat the discharge at the head 9 the Chenab Canal in maximum flood is nol le88 thad 700,000 cubio feet per second. The minimum di8(lbarge is of course easily obtainable, and W1IS observed on the 19th January 1888 when 3884 cubic feet per second only were flowing in the channel opposite the Garhi Goll~ Head of.. the Inundation Canal This small discharge obt.ained for a. few days only, and the following is probably the average volume showidg the SIX cold weather months :-. October 7,000 cubla fee$ per HOond. November.,. 6, December &,000.. January 8,000.. It February It lfart"h 8,000 I'.. The necessity for irrigating the Rechna Doab was first reoognized in 1862 when some leveis were taken throngh the Sialkot district Cben&b Canal Project. with a. view to proving the feasibility of pro"ididg irrigation from the Tawi river Two reports OD the subject were submitted in December 1863 and Oclober IBM but were confined to the country about SlIUkot aod above Gujranw81a ; as, however, the data were COli' aidered too untrustworthy to fra.me any acheme on, the Chief Engineer deolined to rocommend the proposal Nothing further WIUI done between 1866 add 1872, but in the autumn of tbe latter year operations were commenced for providing a complete level chart of the whole of the Doih wit.h the.iew to the pnpuat.ioll of a project for its irrigatiou. -

106 .. 94 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION.AND DISTRIBUTION Chapter IV'. At Agriculture, Atboriculture and Live stock. Canal-irrigation. [ Punja.b Gazetteer. The field work lasted two 1e8l'll, and in project which included 01t8 perennial and two inundation canala Wall prepared and submitted for orden, but in reviewing t.he project the Government of India remarked.. that the Governor II General in Council, havldg regard to the admitted insufficiency of the estimates. II to the uncertaiuty in the amoo.ut aud the certainty of great delay in reaching " the full amoud of the returns, did not feel just.ified at present ill embarking "in a scheme of such magnitude." Between 18'l7 and 1882 the Chenab Innndation Canal alone received any attention. In the latter year t,he Government of Indls. called for.. report of the Irrigation Projects under consideration which were Ilke!y to provtl sufficiently remunerative to be classed as Productive Public Works. After careful considt'l'jtion-of all lhe schemes which had been proposed the Chief Engineer selected tour which inclnded the Ramnagar Innndation Canal (the second ot the two mentioned above), and an estimate fdr it was prepared and submitted in 1882 under the liame of the Chenab Canal Project. This estimate WWl sanctioned in Augost 188' for Rs. 31,93.8Gl follow. :- Be. DiTeet. cash expendlture.. "' 29,35,1189 Indirect. chatges Buoh as CapltW&tloD l f abatemeju} of Land Revenue. 1!3,,886 Loss by Exchange _.. Leave and Pension Allowance Interest dunng construction J,M,377 Total 31,93,851 The bead of liiha inundation canal was situated on tbe left bank or the river Cheuab llear the village of Garhi Gola about 14 miles below Waz{rablw, and 8 a.bove the town of Ra.mna~ar from which it had originally taken it. Dame. The cana.] as designed consisted of 19 miles of maid. line and 156 of bmuobea. with a maltlmdm capacity of 1,800 cubic feet per second, and was desigued to cq,lllmand 881 square miles of country, of which 164 square milea were nncultivated crown waste bringing in grazing revend.e odly. The depth of water in the main canal was estimated to be 7 feet, and the bed width 109 feet. It was anticipt.ted that 144,000 acres equal to 225 square miles would be annnally irrigated, ""bich amounted to 25'4 per cent. of the groi!8 area commanded. A Division for the construction of thit canal 1fa.8 formed on tbe 1&t January 1883, but some time was necessarily loat in preliminary operatiods, collecting establishment, &0., 80 t.hali ground was not act11&11, brok.ell11ntil the 29th 1011' of that :tear, and the cadal was opened for irrigation on the 9th July The difficulty, not to say impossibility, of sl\tisfactority working 80 large a canal all an inundhotion system SOOD became apparent. The head reach Silted np almollt. solld early in t~e cold 8eason andw'6ndered il; difficult to mature the khanf crops or to give watering for tile rabi. The necessity for permanent head works with weir a.crol!8 the river which would allow 01 wattor being forced ioto the oa.nal was at once recognised and an estimat, with this object wu prepared in 1889 and was sanctioned in the same year. ' It was deoided after carefnl consideration that the weir should be bqiu opposite the village of Kh&nki 8ituated abont 8 milee below WBzlrabad and 6 above the old inundation head al; Garbi Go1&, a. feeder caual being dug from there to jom the old canal above the regulator and escape head whick had been built I.t Cheuawan. Work ;'ss commenced in the cold weather of immediatel1 Anction was obtained and pushed on with great vigt.n~-t?e work~ in the riyer ~nd the feeder canal being completed in JanQary t1me to give final watenngtl to the rahi crop. which had been sown on the innndation canal snpply, the first crop of the present pennnial Cbenab Canal wat ho'weter the kharif of 1892~ II; bad always been recognised that with. permanent weir it would be possible to command the whole of thf Reclma Doab, ud Eztenaion Project. after the commencemell&' of work on i~ an entirely rresh and completo estimate 1rU prepared lor a larke caul to

107 Gujranwaia plstrict.] CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 95 irrigate the whole Doab. This was sanctioned by the Secretary AugQ8~ 1892, and work on the extendecl project a~ once commenced. ot thit estimate is aa fouowa:- of Slate in Chapter IV. ~ The amount 'Agri,culture. Ar- JJead work eiji9uwttl1"9 Indl.reetcbarges- C'apltahzawon of abatement of Land ReYlnue L1cena, and Pension Allowances I 1,1i'i,69il 6,76,003 lloricu1ture ani BII. 1.56,84,175 Liye-,Uc~. 8,31,791 '.65, Tha Jinal project; of the Chenab Canal may now be brier,. described. It utiliaes all the channels of the old inundation canal, bul; the main Iiue will be widened from a width of 109 feef; to 250, and the maximum depth of water in crealled from ~ O feef; to 10'5 feet. The two largest. branches of the om canal, the Mian Ali and Rakh Branches, have been widened and inerealled in length, and two new ones, the Jhang IlDd Gogaira of still greater capacity, are designed to irrigate as rar as Jhang and Shorkot to the nerth and to the old Barappa. and Sarai Sidhu tahsi:a of the Montgomery loud Mooltan districts respectively, on the aouth. The full BlJPply of tbe canal will, if; ill estimated, eventual1y approximate to 10,000 cnbio feet per lieoond and will command an area of 3,000,000 acres of which 500,000 acros may be irrigated annually. By the end of the" state of the project was as follows: -The head works, consisting of the weir across the river, the under Pdt slo.ices and head regulator and river defence works we~ rogreaa up to a II. complete with the exception of certain,iterations to the original design, the ~ecessity for which has been demonstrated by the high ftooda of 1892 and 1893 which have exceeded all previous records all down the river. The widening or the main line from Chenawan to its end at Nanuana (a distance of 32 mdes) was carried out with the exception of some of the eartb. work and the completion c.f two of the bndges. Tbe Kot Nikka. Branch and rajbabaa of the main line had been completed before the inundatiou canal was opened ill 1887, but a ftjw additions were aubsequently made to them, and these were finiabed by tbe end of At Nandana where the main bue ends, the cana.l tricnrca.tes. Two brancbes, the Rakh and Mian Ali, wbich irrigate almosf; entirely the crown waste land were entirely complete, while the Jbang Bra. ch, which Willi only commenced i;:' December 1892, was Dearly completed for the d18tance if; traverses in the Guj. rauwala district. There is still another Branch, the Gogaira, to construct, which will take out of the main line opposite the VIllage of Sagar at. mile 288, and after passing the village of Chuharkana. to the east will swing ronnd to a. south westernly direc bon for the irrigation of the southern portion of the Doah. The line tlf this branch was lined out during and land aoquired, but want of funds prevented construction being started. The length of channels constructed to tbe end of in the Gujral)wala district is as follows in canal miles of 5,000 feet :- M" L'M lif'f1fnau- Kot Nlkka Branch Raith Branch llw1 Ah Branch.l>U,"6.. ewt._ Major- Ham Line.. _. Kot. NII[lI:a Branch Ball:h Branch M1&n Ali Branch 1l1J10l'- Main Ltne Kat NItka Bn.nch Raith Branoh M1&11.lh Branch, Z7 ~ 43 9i 40 It fa 711 Canalmues. to ll' 1I1lIt Canal.irrigation.

108 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [ Punjab Ga.zetteer, Chapter IV, A. Agriculture, Arboricwture and Lin stock. Canal.irrigation. The are'a. commanded by the canal in the Gujranwala. district i. estimated at ';07,166 Bereft, di\"lded as follow8:- Wazlrt.bad tahsn Halh.a.bad It Khangah Dogran It H' 10,3:;8 acree. ~6, ,187 lif this 221,000 acres are situated in crown waste, and Lbe remllinder '\86,166 acrcs in settled viuuges. 'l'be irrigation effected frodi the canal in the l~ujranwala district. Since it was opened has been 118 follows:-.t.. Year. Tahsil. Kharlf. Rab!. Total Acres. Acres. Acret'. U ) Z {.. {.. 0{ Wazfrabad'M IlIZ Hafizabad 10,OL2 Total 10,8:a Wazlrabad 1,~5 87 1,622.. Total.., ,017 20,727 47,6J.i ---- Halizabad 25,432 20, Wazlrabad 1,879 6 l,li ,df/lj --':'!::!!I-!~-- Hafizabad 20,408 11,02.) 37,423 Tot.al..{ Wazlrahad 2,837 I 2,837 Hafizabad 31,758 17,71}5 41),:;53 Tot.u ---- Bi,595 17,795 52,JOO Wazlrabad ,981 1,1181 { SAfizabad 21,972 11,571 33,5~ Total 23, ,571 35,52i Ha!\.zabad 67,O~ 5lJ, ,3«Total., ,857 59, ,433 Wazlrahad -- 1, ,6J2...{ Wazlrabad 1,912 I 177 2,()tj9 { ~ Hafizabad..,.-!~I_77~ ~~ Tota.l 70,004 I 77J;iS 147,159 The expenditure incurred on tbis project to the en Ii Expenditure up to of haa been as follows ;- date. Bead Works MaInLine Distributaries Dra.mage Works Establlsbment Tools and Plant. Suspense ACllounlt Total Works R". 35,37, ,19,683 12,211,1161 U,331 1,02,98,361 --

109 Gujra.hwala. District.] System of working. CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 97 The ca.nal system consists ofi. A main canal; ii. Main branches ta.iling olf the main canal; iti. Major dll!t.ributaril's tailmg out of the main line or branches; IV. Minor distributaries tailing oat of the major distributari~3 ; v. Village water-courses tailing out of the major or minor distributaries. All the channels detailed above except the la.st (Village water courses) are constructed, maintained and controlled by Government, the last are constructed, maldtslded and controlled by the Villagers The prinoiples aimed at, and with few exceptions attaiued, ~e l- lsf. That wah'r should be delivered in a Government cbannel to the bmndftr:y of eactl VIllage from which points the Vllla.ge distributing cha.nnels are ma.de by the VIllagers. 21m. That two villftges should Dot ha.ve an interest in the same watercour~e. The Il~beme of the canal contemplates sufficient wa.ter being given to the old or eatahli!lhed Villages of the d.strlct to irngate 40 per cent. of the area com. manded annually, which percentage is increllred to 50 in tbc case of all the ntlw Villages formed Ollt of the crown waste land of tbe Glljranwal" dilltrlct In hoth casem it is estimated that. the proportion of kh!l.rlf to rabl may be.l8 2 to ~. Thuq in the old settled Village. the area of kharff contemplated IS 16 per ceut. ami of rabi 24 pelr cent of the area commanded, whde in the Ilew vjllagtjs these percentages are 20 and 80 respectively. The present canb.l was desi~ned to carry 1,800 cubic feet. per second, but. t.ho d"mands for the new colonies ha.ve been 80 great tha.t. as much as 2,300 cnbio r.. et per Becond llave bepd foroeld down it. The altered estimated capacity of the cllnal will probably be 10,000 cublo feet The nltimate duty estimated for tills supply IS 55 acreq per cubic feet In tho kha.rlf and 120 acres in the rabi The duty ill' the kharif bas already exceeded, the estimate having been 54 acres in 1893 and 'i:t acres m In the raln the progress has Dot been quite so ~rl'la~, the dutyattnineld havmg been G;l acres in and 100 acrel! In Th. rlltes in for~e in the old "Illages Imvo been already mentioned, those tlf the new are gll"en IU the separate Il('count of the new oolony fllrd18hed by the ColoDlzatlOn Officlo'r. Chapter IV. A. Agr.iculture. Arboriculture and Live-atock. Canal irrigation. About 38,000 acres, or over 4 per cent. of the cultivation, ruftr inundated aro dependent on river floods. The general action of the Chenab la.nd. and Its influence on agriculture have been briefly referred to in Chapter J. ~'he crops grown on sai16ba land are mash,iowar, MJra, maize and rice in the kharif; wheat, barley, ma8,ar in the rabl. Khari crops are little sown owing to the danger of floods, and are u:mal1y poor in quality and Yield. 'l'he cultivation is necessarily rojgh owmg to the sodden state of the SOlI at sowing time. Of the l'abi crops, wheat and massar (pease) are the most im.. portant. They are ~own after the autumn floods su">side. Mallsar is gj:own on newly formed lands of inferior quality which re:' ceive only one or two plooghings, the object being to test what the\ land is wortb. Wheat is more carefully cultivated on the older and firmer soils. Thl~ land, howevel", is manured and rarely weeded, and as only the inferior kinds are grown, the outturn is usually poor. 'rhe produce on,ailaba lands depends primarily on the inundations having been full a.nd well timed, and in a less degree on the crop being aideq

110 98 CHAP. IY.-PRUDUCTION AND DISTRIllUTIOX. [ Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter IV. A by the rain after it has hpl outed. The crops entiet' much from A. Itu ear- weeds, and in addition to the danger fro'n untimely floods, t11f'i bfrl~;jtu:e ~nd are also liable to the ravage's of field rats and of pigs. 'l'h~ Live stock CObt of cultivation is, however, AO ligllt that the agrlcultoribt Rivel IDuudd.led recoups hlmself with even a small outturu. land. Uuirrigattld wi. 'l'th:l success of unirl'igated (ujrjlli) cultivation, w}liclt tivation. 18 of in~rl:laslug importanctj in this dlbtrict, occupying now 25 per cent. of the area. Ag'ctinst 19 per cent. at the revised 8t'ttlement of 1867.G8, is of course directly dependent on the 1'alOfa11. 'l'his matter has already been alluded to in Chapter 1. '1'he ulllrrigated cultivation is in fact of grenter importanca than the above figures would seem to show, for iq. a year of u.votll'able rainfall. not only is all the purely btirani land put un<ler cr'jps, but considerable part of the well al'eas are also sown as batcini. 'rhns in no Jess than ~6 per cent. of the crops were unirrigated, against 42 per cent. raised with weu irrigation. 'l'he chief unirrigated crops are jowar, Mjra, moth, fnung, til, and III favourable years, cotton in the khat'if; gram, wheat and gram, barley an.] gram, and oilseeds in the rabi. There 1::; a steadily growlllg tendency to substitute rabi for kharh crops on barani land. '1'he kharif crops are very precarious, and however heavy the monsoon rains, tltey wither away unless the btu conttnues well into September, which it rarely does, while the spring crops if they once sprout need only moderate winter ra1ol:i which ar6' more (le1'tl:1in than rain in September to bring them to maturity, and are more n.1uable when J eaped. A g ric u 1 t u r a I operatlous. '1'h18 movement is coincident with the development of what is known as cultivation with the kera or drill. '1'0 prepare the land for l'abi sowmgs it is ploughed once or twice befbre the monsoon raius, so as to let the moisture sink well into the ground. After the rains it is ploughed at least once, and then carefully rolled so as to 'press down and retain the moisture 10 the subsoil till the time comes for the rabi 80wiq,gM. 'l'heso uauahy take place in October, and the seed ldstead of being scatterod broadcast (chatta) on the surface and then ploughed in, is so>,n deep III the cool moist sqbsoi! With tlle drill. This ensures that the seed will germinate sl1cceesfllllyl and if helped after sprootmg by winter raids an excellent yield may be counted upon. '1'11e above process is of comparatlve'ly recent introduction in this district from the l\lanjha and Mahva. It first came into use in the Hal', where the rainfall is tlo slight that the moisture has to be carefully preserved; bnt it is now coming into vogue even on well lands in the highly irrigated charkhari circles and 18 said to be working its way up the Doah into Sialkot. The course of agricultul'al opera.tions bas been very fuu, and accurately described in pages } of the Lahora Gazetteer, and as the remarks are generally applicable mutati, mutan&ilj to all Central Punjab districts they have been quoted ~ eltenso.

111 Gujranwala District.]- landll the st()('k of the seed 18 seldom changed. but nnder the imloence of can III il"rlgtltlou old sef'd is said to ellange coloor and a. fresh stock must be brought in froll' time to time. Those cultivators who al'e well off and have the leisure, sometime. pick out from the standing crop tbe ears of corn wbich appear in CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 99. The grain used for seeding generally comes from the previon. year's crop, Chapter IV, A, Or if tha.t ill exhausted then it is taken on load from the Sowing. money.lenders. Generally speakmg, on well.irrigated Agriculture, Arboricu.lture and Llve-Btock. A g l' i cui t ural hest cundltion, and these are kept for seed. Sowing In this distnot is generally operations. done broadcllst (rmttn), except when the land is dry, when gram Ilnd wheat are Bown by dull (pttrj). Indeed, gram is nearly always sown by drnl. When the seed is very small it is sometimes mixed with earth before being liown, s~ oth('rwlll8 it woold be difficnlt to distribute it &quaily; cotton seeds are sdleared togetber to prevent them from sticking together Some ('rop, are f!;rolrn from lie.. dlin/ls (panerl) raised in nurseries, such lis tobacoo, chilhell, onioua and ri{,9 gpllerally. The general name for plough " in thill district is hal, but the people recog. nise the distinction between the hal plough and the mu1i1i,. Plonglung. ploogh here &8 ill other dl'ltricts. 'I'he latter ir the heavier kind of the two and is uaed chieoy in the Manjha. tract, the hal being rpserved for the lowla.nds They Are both made almost entirely of wood, the plonghsbare being the only solid iron; bul the joints of wood are strengtheut'd WIth iron fastenings. Altogether the hal baa about three sers of iron in It and the munoa aomewhat more The munfl4 makes a deeper and broader flurow tkan the hal and reqnires heavier' oxen. Thl!l perhaps is the chief reason why it ia conhned chietiy to the li8,ujha, where alone in this district hl'avy oxen arlo to b.. found. The hal goes Into the soil about 3 idchell the first time of plongbing, 5 inchps the Btlcond, and 7 or 8 inches the third. A mufifla plough may go dp( ppr. 'I'he people recognise tbe valne of deep ploaghin~, but lla.y they cannot afford the cattle. A plough can do two and a.-half kanala a day, on the lint ploughing, and three ka.n8.ls on tbe second. When the Ia.nd has been pl011ghpii once, the second time it ill ploughed crossways. The field mlly be plougb.. d In RP('tionll up and down, 01' in narrowiug circles, begmning ronnd the edge of the lipid. If the calthatora CIUa manage it and Rre 10 a. harry to finish, three 01' f011t ploughs work at a tiule, 8l\Ch following the other, but in a dlffen'nt furrow They rl'cognise tbe value of frequent ploughir:g and of having all the SOlI expoqed to the air tum and turn about, bat they do not often find leisnre either to plo11gh tbe land as often as they should or to beglu pioughlllg early enough in the seaso'l to givt'l the SOil adair chaace. No ploughing IS done nol"8s the ground ha.s been first moistened by raia or b1 artificial irrlga.tion. The formflt does not IIlways come, and the cultlvatorl cannot find leillure for tbe lattl'l' Aa the pnd just before Bowings they are roshed for time and sca.mp the ploughing to the fllture detriment of the crop. After ploughing the land is us11i1.11y smoothcd down wit,h II. heavy IIqnRrt'd beam called Bohdga. dragged by one or two pa.rs of Rolling. bullocks. the drivers of WhlCh stand on the bflam 'rhhl is part,l, 10 hreak clods and pulverise the soil and partly to conqolidali'i the IlIrface with" vlaw to the retention 01 the moistore in the soil. Genpralh' in irriga.ted land for all (,I'ope but gram, each plonghng ia followed by a rolling with the liohdga. Umrrigaterl land shonld alway!! be rulled a8!!()oll 11'1 it ill ploughed. otbl'rwij'e the litoistnre (water} on the strength or whl('h the ploughiug was done, vnll be lost to the soil, and the 'seed whflft sown will not gar'minate Npglect to carry ant this flracautlon rpaultr in mach of the fif'ld lown lying completely bare for the rest of the!!i'n q on, _IIA A matter of practice rolling iii, IlS a rille, done once or twi<.>e in land nnder prpparatinn for ram II0W ings, t'x('ept river flood('d land which ill lieldom rolll'ld for nny (,fop hnt whflllt. But nulrrigated land intended for allt11:nn sowings other than cott.on ir IIl"ldom rolled for wan~ of leiflure. the ploughing evpn on Ruch land is Vl'ry l'f'llt ri( t.e-d. Thfl pummer rllins on which Buch dry cultivation deppnds lut a short time (mh-, and the chief r>bject is to get in the seed all early M poiislble aftt'r the rai~v BflllSon has bl'lgun Fo!' dry ('otton sowing.. the laud ia oftpd plonght'd brat as parly &8 Fobruary 01' even Janunl'Y, and conseqnf>ntly a rolling til follow is Indlspensahle it the!loll is to be kept moist. Aftel' tbe sowin~s are done, the land may be plopghed and rolled once more to eovl'r over II.nd press down the leed,

112 Chapter IV, A. Agtjc1:1ture, Ar. boriculture and Live stock. 100 CH~P. IV.-PRODtrCTION AND DISTRIBuTION. [Panja.b Ga.zetteer~ ~ The last operation of all while the seed is still undur the groucd i. to divide the land into ('ompartmenta for (rrpater CODYflni. ellce of irrigation. This, however, ia collfined in moat pill t to well lands which are always partitloned of! into small kiyatll by lni'nns of rldge.s of earth ra~sed by two m"n working at the instrument A g r i (' U I t u r a 1 }..oown Elil the JQr/dM, wdlch IS a large wooden rake. one mall holds the operatlonq hnndle an~ the other pulls a string attached to the handle Ilt itt lower end where It JOins the rake. These k1yaru (\n well lands Ilrc never more than one. tjlghth or one tenth of an acre, and ofteu are inuch less. Tliis duty known as godi.choki i. carried out more Ol" less careru'l)' on well W d lands for the autumn crops, eppecially whpn the cultivtl. ee mg. tors are Aralns. Kambohs or LaMons. Wheat is nevor weeded notwithstanding the rapid growth of the Ollion weed known as llhllgdt or fjiyazt. The weedmg instrument in uso is f'qrnba or trowel' DellI' Lahora 11nder "peolaj conditions weeding is sometimes done by runnin~ a light Jllougb batween the rows of sugarcane or maize 01' cotton The crops which Ilre mollt weoeded in this dlstrlct are chillies anll maize Wheat is never weeded. It js exceptional for weedmg to be done on any soil but that under weu Irrigation. It is of course equally neoessary, and sometimes more 80 on canal irrigated land, but the cultivators do not seem able to find the time. or enerlz'y. IlJver floode!\ land requll'es more weeding than any other to get. rid of the thistles that spring up after plonghings and choke the rising crop I there however weeding IS IOl<lom or never done. It is curious to find that not even yet haa the absolute necessity of reo invigorating their irrigated laud every now and then with Ma.nuring. mannre come home to,tbe ya.njha cultivators. Of late they have been taking to it more, but even now large heaps of unueed manure are Reen lying outside the 'hllage settlements; no custom 8IUSt. ill the l!&nj}ja of selling mllnure, thougb all the Vll1agt>s which have no irrij!'lltion could make a comuderable profit thereby; add the M&u]ba people actually IZive away the valuable sobstance described on page 14 udder the name of kallay, king no. price fllr it. All this, however, will soou change. In wen irrigated trncta the addltion of fertilisers to land to improve ils productive powers is well undeor. stood and is practised by the people as far IlS their means permit. The principal manure is that of the farm yard, but as the droppings t)f cattle are largely needed for foel, the fields do not get au thelle' alao in well irri~ated tracts the cattle are very poorly fed for most of the year, 80 tbat the snpply at the best would be small compared with the amount of live stock. 'l'he manure available for col. tivation ia collected in heaps outside the VIllage settlement. Each.hare bolder knows his own heap. Every mornmg the cattle droppldgs not appropriated to make fuel cake. are carried out with the other house.weepings and rehre htter, and thrown on to the house heap. The refuse of non'proprietor'. houst'1 18 eithcr collected in IL common beap whioh is divided among1he share-holders at Intervals, or if the non.proprietors haye been divided 01I among ditferent proprietors, they put their refuse OD the heaps of their rcllpective patrons. LIttle ('are, bowever, is exercised in collecting mannre. and much more might be nccnmulated jf the people wonld pay. little more attention to the cleanliness of thell' homea, of the Village street ways, and the vicinity of their holllesteads. Leaves are nol; swept up and tbe raga of all sorts disfigure the ground. BODes which were formerly looked on 0,8 uselese areauowed to be taken off by sweepers for the mere trouble of collectldg them: the sweepers make a rair profit by Bt:'1ling them for export to bone dealers at Lahore. Lar~e cart loads of these may often be seed making their way to the city. From the manure heaps round the village, manure is carted to the land as it is r.'qoire'd. Also there are Contributions usually collected at the wells, where the work. ing cattle sttf.nd for Ii. good part of the year. The crop which IS alway" heavily manured is maize, and on the mauure laid down fol' it a. second crop, usna.l\y fodder but. sometimes wheat, follows the maize. Cane, chillies, tobacco and all sorts of vegetables other than melon. only do well ill manured land. Rice sometimes rt'qnires manure if the soil is hard and st.l!. Wheat is never manured in this dist.l"ict and cotton seldom. The early han cnan should have some manure; other juw(i.r wants none. The.fields close to the homestead are fertilised naturally by the visits of the population, and if the land 80 benefitted is under cultiva.tion. it is known as,nain or 90rll land. Sometimes, however, the '"

113 Gnjra.n'Ya,1a District.] CHAP. IV.-PRODt"CTIOS AXD DISTRIBCTIOX. 101 breezy expanse of tbe Vmaa-8 common 111 preferred for operations of nature, and Chapter IV. A. tbut 1111 Df'arly alwayii waste land The manure described above is thrown down on the land in amount. varying from forty to one hundred!rannds an acre aa far AgTiculture, Arboricutture and as one can judge from the different accounts gwen, and it IS tben ploughed into the 8011 Another method of mnnurmg ia by tl.rowing top-dressmg over the crops Live-stock. wben they are about & foot hig-b. Th.t dressing (,OnBllltS either of pulvensed manure or of the lcallar descllbed on pa~e 14 Tobacco and sugarcane, and if A g I' i c nt t n r a 1 the cnltivation IS very good "uth as is found in Arain villages near La.bore, cotton operations. and whoot are treated 1D this way. It IS 'bot easy to say what pre'portion of the land in this district is manured. In 18GB it was reckoned tbat 8 per cent. was so treated; but that ('alcu!ation mnrt have been based largely upon the individual opimons of the snbordldate officials engaged in snrveyldg the land I\nd cannot have been "I8ry reliable. It may be assumed wit.hont fear of mnch error tbat all the irrigated mall6 area, au land cropped lrith tobacco, sngarcane, cbiilitls. pop pigs, which al'e grown only nnder litigation, one balf tbe irrigated vegetable area, Rnd one-quarter of tbo irngated nce and antumn fodder crops.hould be classed 8S manured; this 8s!lDmption points to abont 6 per cent. of the total area nnder cnltlvation as being nnder madure, but It is quite possible that this caloulatlon 18 short of the mark. certa1l11y it is not over it. Yanure is earned from tbe village to the fields 01 from one Village to another ems In C~ll'ts (gadd,). They are also used for transport of fodjer, wood or lanj.ar on hire; grain, however, IS nsually carned on donkeys or camels, tbe former carryldg from It to 2 mllundi! and tbe lauer from 6 to 8 manuds. 'l'he village cart consists of tnangular frame work on wbeels, the framework bein~ abont 12 feet long and fonr feet broad bebldd, but tapering to a point in front. This is the important part of the enrt, and tbere he any pomts of supenority one cart may have over another. The platform ill known as the gadh and is made of the strongest wood, Shl ~hlll"; Its strength yaries wlth'tbe quantity and quality of tronworking abollt it. The carta ubed In the Maniha are mnch stronger than tbo:!6 made for the Hithlir ; the difference probably dahng back from old days before the extension of the Bari Doab Canal and railway, when many of the MaDjha Villages kept lar~ nnmbers of carts for hire, and subsisted cbiefly on tbe eardings. Eveu as lately as 1880 during tbe Kabul War not a few of the ManJba vl11agt'rs amassed considerable sums by letting out their carts for Government transport. Now improvement of agnculture and erteu'lion of railways have largely snperlit'ded cart hlr8 as & means of livelihood, bnt still there are villages near Lahore, from which carts are constantly let ont on bire to l"a,.i:ar contractors. Apart from tblll, however, the Manjha cal til Lave to carry fodder and manure greater dilltruct'8 than the Hlthlir carts and should be stronger for this reason alone. A ManJba cart; of ordinary make co&ta Rs. 00 and a Hithar cart costs Rs. 40. The wbt;els of the oee cost Rs. 20 and of the other HB. 14 or Rs. 15. A. cart inu-nded for two pairs of Olten is of courae larger than one intended for one pair, and reqoirea to be made mnch stronger. If a deboldi costs Rs. 60 a chubald. of the aame make would cost Rs. 80. One pair of bnllocks is the usual number, bot for a load over 20 maunds over an nnmetal1ed ruad, two pairs would be necessary. 'l'he framework of the cart is fitted at its edge 8U round with a nnmber of uprights, which are laced together with ropes: sometimes these are fitted with cross bars, over which a. blanket, coarse nclting, or a moveable thatch made of light. sirh can be st.retched if nec.easary. Covered carts, however, of this kind are not easy to procure from the vill~ell when req'wred in wet weather. The animals acc!l8totned &0 draw thelie carts are inferior, the best bnllocks in Manjha being kept at; work in the fields. ~ome sort of ftldcing is fle!oerally put up to protect fields whicb adjoin a Ire- FenCing quented road or open epa.ce near the Village. Similarly tbe cbief paths near the well, leadicg..t,o and from the well, are fenced. on either Bide. The fences are wade of bougbs of trees, bn8bf's or aurthing tbat comes handy. Important cropa like sugarcane are snrronnded with hemp plants planted in a. single row for tbe protection of the cane. Reed.~ns are erected to shelter Cl'Ope from wmd and sand. Yaize and jenc4r always require to be watched during the day while the Wr.1chlnlr grain is ripening, otherwise crowd. of birds would col- Jeet and apoll the crop. The wa.tchmau 8lta on.. high plat.lorm called the manu which is ra.i:1ed ou four 8takea aome ten or twelve feet

114 102 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. r PunjAb GAZetteer. Chapter IV, A. from the ground: he is armed with.. gmmn. with which he lling' mud pellets, made by himself, at the birds. Near ra7eh. a watch over many crop parti Agr~culture. Ar- culrr!" sugarcane and maizt', ~BI to bemaintalntld at nighlagaid8t pig and jackal. bor~cultllre a.nd The watchman here walk. about au night armed with a _pear, and cracking.. LIve-stock, long whip or making discordant yells. Sometimes Owners of adjoining land_ Agricultural opera. club together to pay one or more common watchman, and it i. Dot unulual for bl)ns them to agree together aa to what la.nds shan be 10WD with wbat cropl, 10.s to facilitate srrangements for sharing t!je exped8e of IUeb watchman may be foudd necessary, but. as a rule for maize or sugarcane, to which Tery close at tentlon mu~t be given, each houae provides ita own watchman. Scare crows arb sometimea used to frighten a.way birds and are put np in uriou. ahapes. Except cotton, pepper and poppy which are picked by hand, a.11 other crop. R are reaped with the ddtri or sickle. It is no eally lfork, eaplilg the stooping or squatting positiod, combined with an advancing motion, becomes very laborious alter a. little time and both hands are employed, one holdmg the sickle and t.he other the stnl!' to be ent. The work therefore is only fit for able bodied mea. women and children, however, can help in tying np the sheavea in the villages wbere custom permit. women to work in the field, Ordmarl!Y, the autumn hrrvesting I. dodit by the cultivators themselvell, assisted by Village menials. 'l'he rabi crop, how eyer, in tracts ej.tonsively irrigated from well or canal ill more than the Tillagen can manage by themselves, If the barvest-is to be finished Within a. reasonable time. Much of the wbeat reaping therefore is made over to the hued reapers or ldwal, who are paid in kind, being a.llowed ~o carry off.. band Ie (tharn) of wheat each evening, 'l'he lawa can cut on the averllge about two kanals if! a day Bnd the shack weighs shollt one maund yielding 10 or 12 sers 01 grain when thresh ee!, ao that this charge comes to about one mannd of grain for each acre cut. When the real/ing is done the stuff i. collected near tho tbreshing fioor, Tb hi which is.a circular piece of gronnd, pressed down hard res nil', and firm, and carefully cleaned I.. he lite of the threshing floor is selected to suil; the holdldg I generally each well hal it. separate tioor and the" cultivating shareholdera thresh in turn; take i. driven into the ground in the centre of the floor; the crop to be threshed ls placed around the stake, to which one or more yoke of caul!! 8re fastened by a rope: sometimes three or four bullock! or buffaloes are drivm in a row. To them is yoked a rectangular ha.ndle made IIf 'Piece of wood tit'd together which ia cover~d with straw Bnd weighted with clod. of earth or other heavy aubstance that comes in bandy. The cattle are mnzzled.1 A rule; ench row requires a driver, and another man is needed to pot beck the straw which gets out or the track of tbe cattle. The handle is called a phd.la. It il always used for threshing wheat. or wheat and Jl'ram mixed. Other ('fop' are often threshed without the phdla, the trampling of the oxen being sufficlent to separate the grain from sheath. Maize and jowdr head. are usually beaten out with sticks, the mo.lze cohs having been firat picked out of the sheath by hand, Rice ia generally beaten against the edgo of.. circular hole in the ground. Math and some few other grains are bcat~n ODt with a pitchfork. When tho grain has been separated and the straw thoronghly broken, the. stnff ia tossed up into the air ~ith a. pitc~fork ~nd ih~n Winnowlnll'. further cleaning IS done by shakmg the gram and chaff shu Jeft mixed in a. winnow1ng basket (ella») held up aloft in.. man'. hands aboye L1S head to catch the breeze. III the month of May when the spring crop. are being harvested there is generally.. hot wind bloll'ing at BOme part of the day which helps the process, and the hotter and fiercer the wind the sooner the harvestmg is over. The following statement shows for each month the different stage. of field work connected Wlth t'he 'Various principal erope, and the Agncultural calell- kinds of weather which are desirable or the revene. dar. Each native month Iilccupies approximately the latter half of the English one first mentioned a.nd the first ha.lf of the second. I Chert (March-ArrIJ). Suga.rcane, cotton, tobacco, melons and onioes are sown. Rapeseed and Bome or the grain are reaped. Plonghinj!s sbonld be doni!! for kbs.rif sowlegs. The less. rain this mojith the better, provided there hll8 been moderate rain in the earlier spring months.atmospheric disturbances are frequent, and the people bye io dread of hailstorms which, if they eome, de.trol auy &:rop. ih" pall OVlilr,

115 Gujranwala District.) CHAP. lv.-production AND DISTRIBUTION. 103 Baisakh (April-May). Melons, cotton and vegetable sowings continue. Early autumn fodder crops are also 80wn, au crops rl"oontly sown are watered. Babi reapiogs generally completed, except wheat in canal-irrigated tracts Autumn plodg'biogs still in progresiii Suddeo sbowers occasionally come, bot It ia best to ha.\"e no rain, otherwise the crops lying oot. in the field may antrel'. Cha'Pter IV. A. Al culture. Arboricultllre and Live stock. Jeth (May-Jllne). Ra.bi harvesting completed. Autnmo plougbings and sow Agricultural operaings continue on irrigated land. Cane, cotton, t9bacco and vegetables are weeded tiona. Rnd watered. Tobacco, vegetables and melona beg'lll to be gatbered; moderate rain is necessary for the \Ulll'r1gated cotoon, and is bene6clal to other crops that have been sown, but if too early in tbe month, is apt to iojure tbe cut crops. A strong hot sno and wind are desirable. Hal' (Jone-July). Ploogbings for kharlf in progress on irrigated soils and 00 uoirrigated land If any rain falls. Rke planted out. The la.te SprIog crops are gathered. Maize sowings commence Waterings in progress on -cane, cotton and e8tly fodder crops. These last may now be cut as required ~'me weather is desirable in the begiolllng of the month, bnt the snmmer rains shonld brl"ak bcfore the eud, otherwise the hea.t becomes intolerable and kharif plougbings and sowings on unirriyated land are in danger of being postponed too late, also gram 18 very Decessary by this time to supplement the exlstmg fodder stores. Canals should all be in good working order IIond the Deg stream should begin to fill. Sawan (July-August) Alai1.e sowings completed. Late fodder crops sown on irri~atod land. Weedmg and watermg done In sngarcane,'cluliles, cotton and m&le. Other operations on un irrigated land depeud on the ramfall Kharif baran' aowmgs should be completed by the end of the month and rabi plough 10gB ahould be In progress. B&n 111 reqoired at interval::!. Much strong 8uDshme is ldjunoub. Wlod should be moderate, and from the east. Canals and Deg litream shonld all be running. BUchon (August-September). Waterlngs done on all irrigated autur:n crops. Ploughings in progress as far as possible for all rabi crops. Some weedldh eliould be done On maize, cbilbes, sugarcane and vegetables. Gram aod rape Bowin~s commence. Rainfall occbtiooally ill necessary, otherwise tbe uoirnga.ted crop. begld to dry up ; the well cattle fail onder the prc8sty'e put lou them to U'rigate the whole area sown. Also In the absence of rain the heat becomes exc6881v6; the season becomes \Ulhealthy i aud the cultivators begin to go down with fever. Assu (September-October). ether un irrigated rabi crops are eown and RII early rabi fodders at wells. PJonghings coutmue for irrigated Bahi SOWUlgs. Kharif uoirrlgated crope are partly harvested. Cattltl disease is usua.liy preva It'Dt and fever is general. Slight rain is beneficial early in the month.' but idlurio08 later. ' Kfl.tak (October-November). Kh&,flf harvesting' continue's. All maize aud most of the rice are eut and threshed. Cotton plektng commences. Irrigolted wheat ploughlogs and sowings are carried on busily, and rabi fodder crops are 80WD. t)udshine and moderate wind are required Rain is injurious as It beats down the young rabi crops as they emerge from the ground I and pro bably too Dog stream. The seasoll becomes healthy and Sickness generally Cea6es. Mngba (November-December). Wheat sowings continue in can!l'l.irrigatod la.nd. ltice reaping and threshing is completed. Cotton and chuhes picking goes on, Waterang ie done for ubi fodder crops. The weather should be the Bame ae in the previous mont.h. Fodder supplies begin to run short. Po.h (December-January). t Wheat.owin~ on canal:irrigated Ian~ lh08t be COlD pleted in the firet. half of the month. Barley SOWIng may continue a. latue IlLter. Sugarcane is cut and ploughings for the next CIIDe crop are begun. Well il rtgation gues on busily for all crops. Wheat straw' and other dry fodder has pn lbably ruu out, bot the early l'abi fodder crope nre pro~bl.t rea?y for euttiof: as required. People begin to look anxiously for tht! wldter rluds ~., brang uu tho YOUtig wheat and fodder crops and save the well cattle. RaUl' ahonl.;1 certainly fall before the end of the month.

116 104 CHAP. lv.--production AND DISTRIBUTION. [ Punja.b Gazetteer. Oh~pter IV~ A. ~Ugb (January-February). SugarcAne i. cut and elll'ly fodder crcp. 'Well inil!;ation ir carried on dlly and night, Ploughing, bejfin for early rabt Agr~culture, Ar crops. Dry fodder IS difficnlt to promlre. OC(,alliol1lll rain i, dcairable, followell boln.cllltutretnd by bright 8unllhine Co avert l'11~t. Moderate wind generally blow. and the cattle Ive-S OCAr soffer greatly from cold. Unless there has been rain the liigu frostl injure the 1 ('rops, especially gran A gru:ultura opera. tions. rhgan (February-March). Plonghing. done f(lr caoe, cotton and tobacco. Some Cllue, tobacco acd vegetables are 8Qwn. In'igatlou absolutely necesmary for all cana) and well crops. Moderate ralll desirable 110 that the grain ruay ewell. BrIght Ilunshine a180 is nec"s8ary. Late frosts IIJ\d ItroDg wlnd in d"y-tiol8 very hurtful. rriuclp'll staples. rl'able No. XX shows the areas under the principal agricultural staples. The remaining areas under crops in 1!:!92 93 were distributed in the mannel' shown below : : f - Crop. Area. Crop. AreB Acre8. Acrel. Massar 941 Spices Dt) 1'\)118 3,339 'Mebdi (henna) 3S.. china. and kangni 6,684 Fodder.. 27,&10 LInseed 855 Swank, maduaj, &1.1. 8,020 ltape ' \ 20,439 Mung.. 38,4:.J1 '!4ramira. Ilnd lialia 2,939 Mash.. a,ooo }'ruits.. 1,082 Rawan t 1,123 Cllrrots and turnips 7,412 Hemp 019!Ielolls. 6,016 Sa.nkukra.or Vii Til.. 17,476 Chillies ==- A more com~rehensive summary of agricultural results is given In AppendIX A ~hich is based on a careful compilation of the agricultural statistics for the five years :h""l'om this it appears that in the quinquennial average of c-rcry )00 acres of cultivation 5 remtdned fallow and 95 were sown j of every 100 acres sown 7 failed and 93 came to Dmturity; of every 100 acres so harvested 63 were irrigated, :37 unirrigated ; 39 were grown in the kharh tt8 irrigated, 21 unu'rigated) ; 61 iq. the rabi (45 irrigated, 16 'Qnirrigatcd). T,ho proportion of the leading staples to the total area harvested ]8 shown below in the form of percentages :-., roo u Cane ~ t.,. 2'5 Cotton " 4 Maize 3 Kharif Jowar.., c.. n I Mung a Moth 55 l Miscellaneous.., 7 - Total J'. 39

117 Gojranwa.la District.J CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION Chapter IV,,A. '". :'5 AgrJculture, Arboriculture and Live-stock '5 Principal staplea. Total e '" 61 (Wheat. f Barley Gra.m Rabi."1 Oil seeds l~ii'''''' The following is an account of the principal staples of the 1.- Klanl crop district :_ Bioe. Rice is chie~y grown iu the Deg villages on the southeast of GDjranwala tahsil, the Aik villages of Wazirabad, in the marshy lands along the line of drainage channels, and above au on the sour clay lands of Wazirabad and Hwabad irloigated by the Chenab Canal. Its cultivation is therefore extending rapidly with the increased facilities for canal irrlgation, and now averages over 25,000 acres. It is almost. invariably an irrigated crop, and requires a stiff clay soil aud abundance of water. The superior varieties, known as mmhkia or scented, begami and rallua, are little grown, except along the Deg, where the rice is famous for its quality owing, pro:" bably, to the rich deposits left by Deg Hoods, and fetches a higher price in the market. The coarse white rices, known as jhona, bagar and dhan, are most common. They have a large hard grain, difficult to cook and do not expand in the boiling. The methods of cultivation except in Deg villages are very rollgh but are gradually improving. The seed is sown close to wells or canal cuts in beds covered with a thick coat of manure early in June. The young plants are transplanted in July when about 9 iuches high, the Jand having first received four Qr five plollghings, two clod-crushings, and as much manure per acre as is available. The transplanting is a laborious and delicate process and costs about Rs. 2 per acre. Transplanting from seed beds {panitlj is however by no means general, t40ugh it'is now being adopted by ajl cultivators who wish to ensure a good crop, and can spare the time and labonr. In canal. irrigated villages where as is often the case, a large area of common land distant from the village has been put under rice, such niceties of cultivation are disrt'garded. The seeds are sown broadcast and ploughed into the soil, the land receives no mannre" only a few ploughings, and weeding is rare. The crop is at au stages most sensitive to drought and should be always 3 to 6 inches deep in 'water, the top of the plant, however, standing clear. A week's drought in September or the beginning of October will ruin the labour of months, and hot winds when the ear is forming will reduce the yield by on& half. Hence the outtum varies enormollsly. In Deg villages aud on the best canal lands it is often as 'much as 32 mans per acro. The average may be taken as 20 mans. The rice straw (parau) is used chiefly for litter, but.if 'pasture is Bcarce it is often given as fodder to cattle. It; 18,

118 106 ~RAP. l'v.-l'ro'd'uction AND DISTRIBUTION. t Punja.b GataUeer, Chapter IV, A. however, wanting in nutritive qualities-&nd cattle nevel" tb'rive Agr.ic~re, Ar- on it. borl~ulture and The most va.luable 'Cl'dp for its acreage, wbich averagu Live stock. about 18,000 flc'res, is sugarcaue. It is gro\\'n to a. slight Sogarcane. extent on the river lands of Wazirabad, but chiefly on the wells of the Wazirabad and GulrBnwa.la. pargan~s, and to a. lesser extent iu the Chenab and Banga'r circles of Ba6zabad. In fact it may be said that every well in the district grows its plot of C8.ne (varying from 1 to 3 acres and averaging Ii acres per well) except in the Adjoining Bar and Bar circles. The cultivation, however, has very largely decreased since Mr. Prinsep's settlement, a fac~ wllieh is probably to be explained by the increased facilities for import from Sialkot and the Jullundur Doab, where the cost of production is mu('h less, and also by the greater outla, of capital which the crop requires and the extra fiemands it makes upon the 'Zamfndar's labour. It is an autumn ~kharif' crop. After careful preparation of the land it is sown in Phagan (February-March), the crop ripens in Maghar (November and December), and the juice is expressed by the primitive wooden beln" in January and FebruarY9 The three commonest varieties are dhaulu, chinkha and tareru.. The chinkha, also known as nikka, and the tarer" are most _commonly grown. The former is an inferior kind and qf red colour, the cane is very sweet ltnd is prized for the excellence of the gut made from it. 'l'he latter is a. yellow sort., and the cane is not very strong 01' straight, the gur made from it is inferior, and it is valnable chiefly as a fodder crop for cattle.. 'fhe dhaul1l. 01' white, a. delicate va.riety, is esteemed the best; but it demands extra labour and attention, for which agriculturists consider that the superior crop does not Bufficiently compeneate. Besides these varieties, a new kind named Sahara.ni or Mirati has lately been intr9duced from the North. Western Provinces. It is chiefly grown in the vicinity of large towns, and is mnch in demand for retail sale a.t the bazars as the..stalks, while thick and strong a.re also soft a.nd juicy. Another species known as J.ahu is also of recent introduction. The gur produced trom it is inferior in qualityp though very sweet. It is generally used in the,manufacture of country liquor. The de.i or Labori va.riety known also as kala ganna and pon" is much grown around the towns of Wazirabad, Sohdra and Ramnagar, and retailed in sticks in..the bazar. The people ha.ve curious snperstitions about sugarcane; the setting the cane is a. solemn operation; none of the family are allowed to spin on that day for fear it should become a. stringy and worthless crop, and when the crop is ripe the first juice pressed in the new sugar-mill is distributed gratia to fakirs and servants f Th() old wooden belna thongh slow, expensive and inefficient was in universa.l use till a few years ag9, but the Behea. and other iron mills are now gradually BU persewng it. They cost only Rs. 2~ to SO, require less labour and

119 Gujra.nwa.la. District.}' CHAP.. lv PRODUCTIO~ AND' DISTRIBUTION. 107 ~xpress more gur tharn the old ana cumbrous belna. The Chapter IV. A. 60ly objections to them are that they so' thoroughly (?Tush the Agriculture, Ar eancs as to render the paehhi or refuse useless for making- well bericulture and ropes, a.nd. the oil used in lubricating them is a.pt to find its way Live stock. lod'ntffio th1e juicehand iniurbe the ~uahtybof t~e (fur. 'rbhle lat~ier Sugarcane. I CU t Y cad owever e ov-ercome Y USlDg vegeta e 01 S. The outturn. is generahy from 14 to 2.4 maunds per afrre. Cotton (kap&;.s) is also OJ kharh crop. The average area Cotton. for the five years ending was 30,000 acres,. but WIth the extension of canal irrigation the area in the last two- harvests, Kharif 189~ and Khadf 1894, has risen> to over 52,000 acres, and it bids fair to become the staple- autumn crop\ It is generally an irrigated crop, but in the Bar if spring rains~ are full and tim.ely large areas of Mrani cotton are growdi. The cultivation had much decreased since the- settlement of.} when it had obtained &. fictitious impetus owing to the civil war iu Americ8J. The fol1'f OF five years ending 18P2-93 had 'been very unfavourable for it, but th9 last two hmvests have been most successful and its eultivatioir in the Bflr will undoubtedly extend still further with canm irrigation as it is a favourite and payldg crop on nah1't land. The- seed a.fter preparation by steeping in watel' and rubbing with cow.dung is sown in. Cheyt or Baislikh (March and AprIl). The cotton is usually gathered during Katak. and Maghar (Oetoger and N<wemberl" the women t>f the cultivator's family being usually employed in this work. The picking is marde every BeTenth 01'" eighth day. The crop often sustains considerable damage from rats. Only -the indigenous variety, which yields one-third. to one-fourth of a set- of j ginned to a ser of nnginned cotton is commonly grown. Attempts have been made b.y the District Bol:!>rd to introduce the foreign or reel-flowered species, but without Sll'Ccess. The experiments made :recently with the N.aga. Hills variety in the Plew c010nies have however been vmy successfu.l. 'J'he Egyptian cotton does not seem to take kindly to this climate and -does not flower tilll>ecember when all other cotton has already been gleaned. The average olltturn mal be- put at 81 maunds per acj'e. The cultivation of maize has- considerably ino'l'eased of late Maize. years, and now aterages 22,000 acres. It is now the most important of the Kharlf food crops. It is always irrigated except on auuviallands. It forms the staple food of the agricultura.l cla.sses during most of the wintet', and is therefore rarely Bold. The stalks might be made into a valua.ble source of fodder for the cattle in the 'Winter months, but instead ol being ca.refully 'Stored are Hung aside when the grain has been removed and left to rot in the wind and rain. The crop requirt}s careful cultivation J five or six plollghings before sowing,.. and 50 or 60 mans of manure to the acre. Careful weeding at least twice is neces sary. The crop near the river suffers much from the Tavagea of pig, and in the Bir circle, where the soil ill well suited for it,

120 IDS OlIA.P. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBU'.rION. t Punja.b Gazetteer. Chapter IV. A. it can bardly be grown at all as jackals, wild eats and other. ~ric~e, Ar. jungle a?imals display an extraordinary fondne!s for it. The boriculture anc! outturn IS 12 to 14 mans per acre. Live-stock. low'r.,moth and mung. Jowa'l' is the largest of the kharff crops in area averaging 75,000 acres; about one-fifth ol the crop is irrigated" and this only when grown for fodder. In Charkhari villages it is chiefly used for fodder purposes and is sown very close, the crop' being seldom allowed to come to maturity but being cut whde still green and before the ear is fully formed. In Ban gar aud Bbr villages jowa;,. is sown for food, as well as for fodder. The fertile loam of the Bar is peculiarly suited for it, the outturn is extremely variable; in a good year it will conceal an elephant, while in a dry year it will not shelter a. hare. After the ear has been plucked, the stalks are carefully preserved for the cattle, ard a good jowar crop is therefore a great boon to. the zamindar as it enables him to save his cane and wheat from requisitions for fodder. The kharlf pulses moth and mung are usua111 sown together or combined withjowar and til which give them shade from tho sun and shelter from sand storms. They cover between them about 60,000 acres, and may be regarded entirely as an unirri.. gated crop. They are sown chiefly on the li9hter loami (mairll and tibba) found all over the district. Mung alone does well in a stiffer Boil. These crops are largely cultivated as an article of winter food by the village menials. They require little preliminary preparation of the soil and do best with moderate and well distributed rain. A heavy fa.ll washea them out or brings up weeds which choke them up. rrho straw (mi88a Musa) is. very valuable as fodder. II -Rabi crops. Wheat. Wheat is the staple crop of the district, 35 pe~ cent. of the cultivated area being occupied with it. A bout 90 per cent. of the crop is irrigated and most of the unirrigated crop is grown on 8ailaba or inundated land. It is grown on MraTii land only in very favourable years, though mixed with gram it is a favour.. ite btirani crop. There are several varieties of wheat grown. 'l'he best is a. remarkably fine white kind, known as 'Wadtinik or dagar. The yield both of grain and straw is at least 25 per cent. greater than that of the other va.riet~es. It is chiefly grown in the Charkhari circles close to the wells in manured land, the seed being carefully seleoted from the best ears of the previous crop, and is sown early. The other chief kinds are berrera or mixed wheat, a degenerate form of wadanik. N.kki or g'ujarkhani, an inferior variety less nutritious than either of the above but ripening early and requiring less careful cultivation and fewer waterings, and lastly yoni or beardless wheat, in some respects like nikki, but with a. heavier ear and better yield, while the flour though not; so nutritious is white, pure and digestible. On well lands the wheat, at least in fields near the well is usually manured, the distant fields receiving a.

121 Gujn.nwa1a DUrneL] ClUP. IV.-PRODUCTIO~ n'"d DISTRlBtnos. 109.top dressing or having cattle folded on tbern. It is rarely Chapter IV. A. weeded and the risidg crop is sometimes choked hy ~nch weeds Agrjculture. A~ as bug1.al naunak, jana, &0. The land should receive five or boriculture ILIld ~ix plonghings before sowing, and nnless aided by rain the crop Live-stock. requires five or six waterlngs. Wheat is most commonly rotated WheaL with maize which takes little out of tbe soil. The yield may be estimated at 10 to 16 mans per acre on irrigated land, () to 8 mans on,c:nl.iba and btif'ani. The ontturd of straw (bail,a) is nearly the same. It is stored for fodder in pits (dha,) carefolly plastered with mnd and is served out to the cattle mixed with green fodder or chopped turnips or the stalks of iov:ar, maize or cane. Barley as a rabi crop rank8~n~t after wheat in importance, Barley. the average area being over 60,000 acres, of which two-thirds is generally irrigated. h does not require such careful cultivation as wheat, gets fewer waterings, is rarely manured, ripens earlier, and does fairly well on the inferior soils Dot suited for wheat. It is thus a favourite crop of the poorer cultivator. One great advantage is that i' can be sown np to 15th January, while wheat must be put in by 10th December, and thus if the winter rains set in abont Christmas a good deal of fallow laud is hastily ploughed up and the barley i3 sown. The yield is rather less than tllat of wheat, though with similar advantages that of barley wonld be greater. There are two varieties, the raighafllbari or k<.brji, an imported species which is beardless like goni wheat, and the dui or indigenous kind which is much more commonly grown. The grain is only oonsumed by the poorer classes who caunot; afford wbeat. It is largely used for feeding horses, and the b1&1ila is much''' superior to that of wheat for fodder. Gram is an important crop in this district, covering an Gram. average area of about 60,000 acres. It is very seldom irrigated, ahd is sown generally on good clean clay or loam soi~ any traces of iallar being fatal to \t. n is grown with most success in. the Bar where the soil is cool and undeteriorated by continned cropping. The crop is particnlarly suitable for tbe Hafizabad and Kbaogah Dognin tahsu.s with their scanty rainfall and luge unirrigated area. It is usually sown in farrows with the drill, and wheat or barley or oi~eeds is often mixed with it. If winter rains 81'8 favourable both crops mature, if they fail the gram is so hardy that it generally holds its own, even if the other crop wither away. '1'he yield may be estimated. at 8 to 12 mans per acre. The crop is liable to injury from thnnder. storms which bligh' it, or from heavy rain, and these are especially to be dreaded when the pods are filling onto Gram is eaten by the rnral population all the year round either dry aud whole or parched (ehaubina), but ehi~fl.t in the form of cui nt the evening meal., -. The rabi oilseeds include different; varieties of linseeij, rape 0i1aeeds. aad mustard seeds known as alsi, laramira, t"pa"ki, loria, laroll.

122 110, CHAP'. rv.-pltodoctlon AND DIST1UB'UtIO~r r Punja.b Gazetteer,. Chapter IV, A. the products of which are!o frequently confonnded. They are-. Agriculture. Ar- both lrl'iga.t~ a.n~ unirriga.ted ;. mos, of the- irrigated crop, k(ili boriculture. and Ba.rlion or turuips,. IS cut while green as f~od for cattle or men, Live stock. while the 111lirrigated known all #ripakki, I'Inalwant and tciramira: o lseeds arfl allowed to ripen fer the sa.ke 6 tbe &eed wllich is made 1. int,o different kinds of oil,. eolya oil, ~usbard oil, &0', and usod for cooking OJ' \lurning. Yehudi Orium. Of the kharh ailse-eds', til (sesamom} and. BfJlrBOOI (~ust~rd)1' the former is generally an unirrigatad, the la.tter an irrlgl\-ted, fop" The area. under oilseed~ ol 0,11 classes comes to about 40,00() acres, and the high prices that have prevailed of la-te years,. owmg to the steady demand f<>r export, have given an impetll, to the cultivation of these creps. They are grown with mosil success in the Bar villages ai'o\l-nd Chuharkana. and Jhabbar where they thrive wonderfully in the clea.n 103lm soil. Part of the crop is pre'ssed locally, the oil bemg used largely as an article of food and medicine-, and the refu!e (oil-cake) is 81 valuable artide of food for milch cattle.. For lighting purposesthe vegetable oil has- been driven. out of the field by the imported mineral oils, and the kerosine tin is now one of theevidences of eivilisution to be met with in the most remote- Tillagea-. _. The eulture of mehndi is not general, bu-t it deserves somet motiee. It is an evergreen shrub, and from its leaves tbe henna. dye used so generally at Hindu mar,iages is extracted. Fewcrops. are more valuable, as when it has once taken root it win. go on yielding'two crops of leaves iu the year for as much as 3(} or 40 years. It needs however frequeut manuring anti constant irrigation. Its culture though most remnneratlve is not extendlilg owing to the prevalent superstition that ill luck. attaches to it. Anyone growing it will certainly be childlessand ever goes in imminent da.nger of sudden death. Tobacco is grown on. the highly enriched or maunred lands common round ali villagtts and close to the wella. It is sown in a, sunny, well protected spot in Katak (October) ; the seedlings are tra.nmpla.nted in Magbar.Phagan (Jannary and Febrnary) and ripen in Jet or Har (Mayor Jnne). The lana' cannot be too well mannred, and constant irrigation and hand hoeing are essentia.l. The return from tobacco is so large that the trouble necessary for its production is amply compensated. The sandy soil round Kassise in the Hafizabad tahsi.lyields a crop famousfor its flavour. Neaflyall the leaf is consnmed locally. 'l'he local production is not suffioient for the dema.nd.. The poppy is very little grown in this district. The area in t;ecent years does not average more than 100 acres, an:d SA it is usually grown in Sikh villages for the private consumption of the grower, and snoh consumption is now a penal offence, it has been suggested J in order to avoid the friction and odium certain

123 Qujranwa.la District.] CRAP. n.-production AND DISTRIBUTION. 111 to resolt if id1juisirorial powers are freely exercised, to prohibit Chapter IV, A. "'the growth of the crop in this district altogether. Agrj.culture. Ar- The crops grown primarily ~s fodder are cham, Beni' and bcir:!%~.:,nd mailla (clover), turnips (Bhalgkam), but many other crops Floch lls jo'u:ar) maize, cane, mo'th, mitng in the kharif, wheat, barley, Fodder crops, 'China, kangni. in the rabi are freely laid under contribution for fodder if the sopply of pasture or of straw (bhusa.) rons short. The extent to wluch resort is had to these crops depend first on the extent of pasture land available, and also varies enormously from year to year according to the character of the season. III 8. season of drought like Habi ) , fully olle-third of the green wheat, 'at least one-balf of the sugarcane, and nearly au the jowar, moth and mvn g were consumed as fodder, while in the followmg year grass, bhusa and the ordinary fodder crops were found to be abundant and sufficient, and it was hardly necessary to touch the other crops at all for fodder purposes. The proportion of 'Crops gro",n purely for fodder, and of grain crops, which are partly diyerted to fodder purposes, is greatest in 'Vazirabad, where there is a. great scarcity of good pasture. It is also considerable in the Charkbari and Bangar circles of Gojranwa.Ja.. In the above tracts the area. UDder fodder crops is from 10 to 12 per cent. of the whole. III the Adjoining Bar of Gujranwala, and in the Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran tahsiis pasture land is abundant, and the area. under fodder crops is only 6 to 8 per cent. of the whole" cultivation. Chani &lone or mixed with bhu8a is the favourite fodder in the hot weather months. In the autumn if grass is scal'ce, it is supple. mented by the stalks of jowar or maize and the bkui" of moth nnd mling. Illdeed, if these crops are pool' they are often' grazed \>y the cattle while still standing. In the early winter months, if pasture is scarce and the jowar crop has been poor, the sugarcane is laid under contribution. The canes are chopped up like iowar stalks and mixed with bhu3a. After Christmas the rabi fodder crops, turnips, carrots, come in~o use and rape (8arlon) and Mramira are often cut for fodder. These are rarely given alone, being usually mixed with bhuba or dried iowar and maize stalks. The clover crops Beni' and maina growu close to 'Wens in the stubble of maize, cotton, &c., also come into use about this time. In Febrnary or March, green wheat 01' barley is freely resorted to, as last year's straw has by this time often run out. In a district so largely dependent on wells the number of cattle that have to be maintained for working the wel1s and for ploughing is enormous. and their keep is one of the heaviest charges on the zamindar. The well and plough cattle over,all the district except the Ba.r where"the pasture keepa them going for f<.)ur or five montbs, have to be stall-fed all the year ronnd, and the above remarks will shew what a. heavy tax their maintenance is on the profits of agriculture. Besides drought and. floods, the twq great enemies to the Crop dise. crops are weeds, and parasites. For cane, cottod, and maize, careful weewdg (god$) is indispensable, and if, as often happens,

124 [ Punjab Gazettee,r, 112 CHAP. lv.-production AND DISTRIBUTION., heavy monsoon rains retard or prevent this work, there is a Chapter IV. A.. A riculture Ar- great falhng off in the yield. Wheat is not often weeded, b~nculture 'a,nd barley never, and both these crops, especially in auu vial and Live-stock. sandy soil, suffer much from weeds such as bughat J naunak }ana. H is a curious fact that fields sown with the aid of na.tura.l Crop diseasos. moisture run much more to weeds than if SOWIll with well or canal irrigation. The cause of blights and crop diseases is little understood by the people, but their results are often ouly too well marked. A parasite na.med tela, which atta.cks most crops, except wheat, is most commonly heard of. It flourishes in a drought, and, attacking the plant near the top, it works downwards and checks the growth. Bundi is a small caterpillar which attacks maize, tobacco and gram. Toka is a similar parasite which attacks cane and maize. Rnst (kungi) is the most dangerous enemy of wheat. It is brought on by raw, cloudy weather in January or February, following on heavy winter rains, and is most common in damp, water-logged soils. It turns the blades yellow t working down from the topi stunts growth and prevents the ear fro~ forming. A good shower of raiu J followed by bright warm weather, is the most effectual remedy for it. Sokha is the general "me given to the hot dry wind that blows often at ripening time in October and MarcI" prevent, the ear from swelling ont, and makes the ear small, dry and hard. White ants (8ewank) do mach damage to crops in sandy soils in seasons of drought, but the most dangerous plague of all are locusts, whose periodic invasions lay waste the tract they pass through like the march of a hostile army. In the hot weather of 1891, the sprouting kutumn crops over the whole district were devoured, the trees stripped bare of leaf and bark, and all ve~etation practically annihilated by them. Average yield: Table No. XXI shows the estimated average yield in production and, oon- pounds per acre of each of the principal staples as shown in tho somptlod grains. of food Ad mllllstratlon '.. R eport f "'h. 0 - '".I. e average consumption of food per he~d has Grain. Agncultnr.. Non-a.gn. ist.. oultur18ts. Total. already been noticed at page 28. The tota.l consumption of food Wheat. '.. Infenor grarlb Pulses 600,824 '7',096 1,374.,920 grains by the popula- ~~:~: l,~~:~:: J,=:~ tion of the district as Total 1,8.20-:;8~:;; ',l66,m estimated in 1878, fol' the purposes of the }"'amine Report, is shown in maunds in the margm. The figures are based upon an estimated population of 550,576 BOuls. On the other hand, the average consumption per head is believed to have been over-estimated. A rough estimate of the total production, exports and imports, of foodgrains was also framed at the same time j and it was stated (page 152" Fa.mine Re~ort)

125 Gujranwa.1a. District.] CHAP. IV.-PRO:QUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 113 that the local produce was insufficient for the 'needs of the popu- Chapter IV, A. ratio?; r..nd t~at. an a~nu~l import of some 634,0~0 li}au~ds was Agricu~et Arrequired, conslstmg principally of wheat, gram,.10war, nee and boriculture and barley, brought from neighbouring districts, and especially from Liye-atock. Ferozepore, add iii the case of barley from Gurdaspur. Since Average. Id' the above estimate 'Was framed, the production of food grains has production an~l:on: increased more rapidly than population, and the figures now re- Bumption of food quire to be recast. Taking the average area. of crops for the five gl1l.lue. years ending as shown in Appendix A, and applying to the leading food crops the following rates of yield per acre which are decidedly moderate- - Wheat, gram and ma.ize,0' 10 mans per acre Barley 8 It It Rice.. 20 Jowar, bajra, moth and mung 4 " " the total yield of these food grains comes to about 4,600,000 mans. r.l'he population iu 1891 was 690,169. 'l'he average annual consumption allowed for in the Famine Report was 8 mans 4 sers per head, and a.t this rate the total consumption per annum would be 5,600,000 mans, leaving a deficit of 1,000,000 mans to be made good by import. In fact, however, impor$ of food grains is rare except in seasons of scarcity; 10cal production not only snffices for local consumption but leaves a considerable and growing margin for export to the seaboard, and to the northern districts. The popular estimate whioh allows 8 mans for the andual consumption of an adult male, 6 mans for an adult womad, and 4 mans for children, is more likely to be correct than the results arrived at by the a priori TeasonuJg of the Famine Oommission. This would give an average consumption of 6 mans per head and a total consumption for the present population of 4,140,000 mans, leaving a. margin of 460,000 mans for export. and this is probably rather below than above the mark. The above estimate takes no account of the producd' of about 140,000 acres sown with miscellaneous non-food crops, such as sogarcane, cotton, &c., which are more valuable than food crops when turned into money, and from which the agricultural classes p'ay the land revenue and other cash lia.bilities. Table No. XVII shows the whole area of waste la.nd which Forest. is nndel" the management of the Forest Department. This amounts to only 15,250 acres and is nearly acres less. than it was at the revised settlement of , owing to the fact that the great block of Government waste on the south-west of the district, which was formerly under the Forest DepartJ?1ent, in the Hafizabad ~nd Khangah -:Oogran tahsils, ha.s now been allotted for colonization purposes. Government, howeve~, has retained the proprietary rights in all of this, except abouli 10JOOO acres sold by auction sale. The Forest rakhs are now isolated blocks, of which there are 2 in the Gujranw6Ja. tahsfi, 2 in Wazirabad, and 17 in

126 Ohapter IV. A., Agriculture. A.rboriculture and Live stock. FOr('sts. 114 CRAP. tv.-production AND DISTRIBUTION. ( Punjab Gazetteer, Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran. Most of these were formerly under District management, but were made over to the Forest Department in 1893 when the colonisation operatiqns began. '1'ney form a small bot usefnl fnel and fqdder reserve, and should be carefully maintained for that purpose, now that village waste is so rapidly being brought under the plough. They are leased out annually for grazing, and, as a. r::;le, a.re taken up by the adjoining villages z the rates obtained avergging 7 or 8 ann as per acre. A list of the rakhs, showing area. and average income of last five years and of the present year, is given below: G ujrbw41a w Anrage TahsO. Name of rakh. Area(n income acres azlra.bad Income in to 18\ { B atizabad 'II".~ I Ra. RII. Chichl'a ,823 1,85() SabniaDwala 221 3'7 45 Baoli Aktitga.rh { G16 13:& 13Q Bela Bantpttra ~. ( Wamke 10' Bela Kadirplll" I I Kila Morad Ba.kbsb 200 1M 103 JiDdoke 4($ I Tbatta. Muklltil' 42' I PiDdi Ja.l Chak Khiali KilaBamRaug 285 8'7 100 JaDgla I l Pindi Bhatti 206 ISS 2%5 f CbakW'hi >3 240, Lagar (Part.) 1, I Makki Uncbi ingah Dogran i Makki Kh&ra t ".208 I.. 2,900 3,100 Ifammoki.., t 2,55a 330 ' l lharana t Jhinda Jha.riana } I Total t 15,250 7,860 7,95G

127 Gujranwala Distric~.J CHA.P. IV.-PRODUCTION.A,ND DISTRIBUTIOY. 115 Table No. XXII shows the live-stock in the district a.t Chapter IV, A. "different periods. The figares for show an enormous A. culture Ar increase nnder all heads except camels. The increase; is DO brrlculture 'and doubt largely due to better enumeration and to the fact that, as Live stock. fodder was plentiful, all the cattle were in the district at the time. Live-stock Though there-is a popul~r opinion to tna contrary,. there is no doubt, however, that the extensiod. of cultivation not only requires but enables a larger number of cattte to be maintained. 'l'he only part of the difltrict where cattre are probably decreasing is in the Bar-, where the peaple, especially the nomad tribes, former]y looked entirely to' their flocks and herds for 81lbsistenCA, but now, sroce they nave ta.ken to agriculture, have been getting rid of their surplus stocks. The number fluctuates enormollsly with the seasous. A prolonged drought cuts off the old and fee-bie as well as the young and weak cattle, and in the year J it is compnted that about one-firth of the cattle in the district died of starvation. The- gaps have, however, been more than filled up in the two prosperous years tbat f()llowed. There is no Government ram; there are-, however, 14 Bissar bulls, of which 2' are in the Gujranwala tahsl1, 3 in Wazirabad, 8 in Ha6za.bad, 6 in Khangah Dogran. The pro-, duce is muoh valued fol' agricultura.l purposes. A cattle fair is held in April each year at Eminabad in connection with tbe local Baisakhi fair, whicb lasts for three days, and is very largely attended.. In ,000 bead of cattle were exhibited,. 52 selected for prizes and 4,690. Be. sold for over Rs. 70,000. Ra. 863 as' U MIlch COWl 110 shown in. the margin were given by 20 Bullocks way of prizes. A fee of 3 pies per 14 Sbe buffaloes h 1 of 1 a Re~uffaJoMo 8, rupee was realised on t e sa e catt e, :I Cows (for purposes) breeding II and this 'brou..l.t n l'n an income of R.hout u. r Rs. 1,100. In Wazirabad and Gujrauwila, tho people rarely breed their own plough and well cattle. 'rhey pn.rebase them at the local fairs, or at the Baid,khi and Dewali fairs at Amritsar,. or from itinerant dealers from Jhelum, Glljrat and Peshawar.. on the north side, and from Hissar and Montgomery, on tne south. 'l'be price is. generally paid half and half.at the antumn and spring ha.rvests ; credit (udnar) being given if the purchaser is poor, but a sma-ll sum is generally paid down 8S earnest money (l1ai). The bullocks of the north Punjab, especially of the 'Salt Range, are the best for draught purposes. In Ha6zabad, aud Khangah Dogran, where there 18 plenty of available la.nd, the people breed their own cattle largely, and the cows of the Bar are famous for their milching properties. In 1893 a horse show was s/iitrted, tentatively, at the same fair and promises to become very popular. At the fair of 1894,

128 11G CHAP. IV.-PRODUOTION AND DISTRIBUTION. I [ Punja.b Gazetteer. Chapter lv. A 500 horses and mares of all kinds were exhibited; of these 147 A illure Ar competed for prizes, which were awarded to 70, the total value.. b~:l~ulture'and amounting to Rs.418. No fee of any sorh was levied on the Live-stock. entry or sale of the horses. Live-stock. In 1892 a cattle fair was sta.rted at Shabkot, under the manag{;)ment of the Colonisation Officer, for the benefit of the colonists, and promises to become a very successful institu. tion as it brings together the nomads, who have surplus cattle to dispose of, and the new colonists, who are anxious to buy. In 1893 the District Boards of Jhang and Gujranwa.la jointly defrayed the expenses of the fair, but in 1894 the ex' penses were all borne by the latter. A fee of 3 pie I in the rupee was Jevied on the price of each animal sold. Tho whole of tho money raised, which was about R,. 439 along with the District Board can Camollll for "Horses " 4 Mules ",..,.. I) Donkeys, Bullookl!l IIolld COWI!I for 1111 llufia.loes for Total 9401 head ::io tribumon of Rs. 300, was spent 8;269 on the arrangements of the f' all' an d on prizes. f or spor t s 14,'400 and on kmllat.. The number 8,680 of animals sold in ,071 h. th. II own In e margm. In many pal'ts of the district, and especially in tbe Gujranwa.la and Wazimbad tab ens, where the area. avail. able for pasture is small, great difficulty is experienced in tbe matter of fodder for the cattle. The subject bas been already alludeq to in connection with fodder' orpps. In severe drought, the cattle are taken to the belas along -the ChenA.b and Ravi, and sometimes as far away as Umballa. and even Saharanpur to pastore, but suc1;1 extreme measures are no longer necessary 8S fodder crops can now be raised in abundance on the canal. The brancbes and bark of the kikar, the ka,ril, ber or malle" are commonly used as fodder in very dry seasons. Horse-breeding. The Government system of horse-breeding lias been in operation since The mimber of branded mares for horse-breeding is now 215. There are three horse stallions in the district, viz., an Arab stallion at Gujranwala, a Norfolk' trotter.at Wazirabad, and an English thorough-bred at Ha.fizabad. ' There are also three donkey stallions, two oe Italian and the third of Persian breed at Gujra,nwa.la, lufizabad a.nd Wazirabad. The donkey sta.llions are very popular among I the zamindars. In , 102 branded mares were served by horse stallions, and 251 mares by donkey stallions. The District Board has recently purchased three Arab pony stallion.s for small mares. Hitherto, the jmprovement in the breed of horses has not been very marked.,the lea.ding men

129 Gujra.nwa.1a District.] " CHAP. IV.-Pll0DUCTION li." DISTRIBUTION. 117 of the district to whom one might look to take the initiation are.. nearly all Sikh 'Sardars, and the Sikh has neitber the know ledge of or taste fol' borses which his Musalman neighbour shows in the adjoining districts of Shahpul'" Jhang and Gojrat. A Sard~r of blne blood, with broad acres and large j<;gitbj is not ashamed to be seen bestriding a pony which a regimental grass-cutter wonld despise. A better spirit is, however, beginning to show itself, and, if the horse fair ali Eminabad is cu.tefolly nursed for a few years to come, it will probably help considerably in' improving the quahty. 'I'here are four.alutrie. employed by the District Board, one for each tahsil; they are all qllalified men, and receive Rs. 15 per month, pins Rs travelling allowance. A reward of Re. 1 is granted as an incentive for eaeh successful gelding operation. Chapter IV. B. Occupations, Industries and Commerce. Horse-breediDg. SECTION B.-OCCUPATIONS, INDUSTRIES AND COMMERCE.. Table No. XXIiI shows the principal occupations followed,poeupatiod of the by males of over 15 yeus of age as returned at the census of people. J 881. But the figures are perbaps the least satisfactory of all the census statistics, for reasous explained in the Census Beport of 188J, and they must be taken subject to limitations which al"e given in some detail in P&rt II, Chapter VIII of,,the same Report.. There are no corresponding figures as yet available for the eensus returns of 1891, but there is no reason to suppose that th.e figures would show any great.change in the present distributiod. among the different classes. More detailed figures for the oecupatiod.s of the people, withont distinguishing males of over 15 years of age, are, given in Table No. XVII, Pa.rt 13. of the Census Report for The District Board has sanctioned t11r(,8 Veterinary scho Jarships of Re. 6 each at the Veterinary College, La.hore. Two of them ~re now vacant, aud one is held by a studeut selected by the Gujranwela. Local Board. Table No. XXIV gives statistics of the manufactures of.principal industhe district as they ~tood in The small town:= and Manufaoof Nizamabad, neal' Wazirabad, is still famons for its workers 8. in iron. Under native rule, they were chieby engaged in the manufacture of w('apons; their trade greatly declined for many years after annexation, but has now revived again, and there is now a.considerable manufacture of swords which are supplied. to the police and the troops in Native States.

130 Chapter IV, B. OCCollationa, Industries and Commerce. 118 CHAP. IV.-PRODUOTIO~ AND DISTRIBUTION. [ Punjab Gazetteer, The following note on some of the I!pecial indastries of the district is by Mr. Lockwood Kipling, late Principal of th= Lahore School of Art. Nizamaba.d in thia district il bowd for its cutlery. Th. tourilt.. PrinCipal indus. C 1 frequently offered at hotela ad4! d41 bungalo",. JIIan7- tnes nnd manufac. ut ery. bladed pocket knfrel bristling with hooks, Icrew.driven. tores. and othor contnvances more calculated to display the ingenuity of the maker than to serve the oonveniel1ce of the plll"chaaer. These are generally accompanied by tobacco cutlera, Bomewhat elaborate and automatio machine for cutting cake tobacco, neatly moonted on polished.r.ca1wz", wood, wontlerfuuy well hdished for native work, costing only Ra. 6. These are specimenl of.. trade in outlery which seems to have beeu established for.. long time a' Wazirabad and Niza.mabad, where also guns, pistola, sword., razors,.pears, horse blts, bnllet.moulds and other steel srtlcles are made-it would perhaps be better to say, can be made-for there is oot.. regular prodootioo. Th. tiniah and polish of the articles, though not perfect, is better than tlht quality.' the steel, which, although tough, fa defioient in hardness, and is often solu"cely to be distinguished from good irod. The edge of.. Nizamabll.d pen.knife J8 soon blunted, and, as a "Rodger's" knife can be hll.d ia any baaar for eight 01' sometimes six anoas, it may be imagined that the looal production is but small. The forging of these articles is often admirable. This J'.. matter qnite apan from the quality of the metal and the eubeequent finish, and iii is nsaany tbe ('racial difficulty of the native smith, wbo seeme ia forgin, babitll&lly to bara Ius iron, and to leave his welding to the care of Providence. h other parts.f the country one resulli of the ordera of the Supreme Goyeroment, to the effeot that cutlery of native make should be euhatituted in Governmeat oftiop. for that hitherto importlld from England, has been.. demonatrat.ion of th" hopelessness of.. competition between Indian and Sheffield cutlers. That the craft sorvives at au shows, however, that. countt7 cutlery finds.. place Bomewhere. A vet7 rode fquo of pen.knile with immonable blade and turned.up point, in a wooden handle, seems to be the only article of Nlzamabad production that finds a large sale. Thi. ia to be seen ia the ehop. of au hardware dealers) and most. schoolboys are furnished with one. Brass vessels of souod workmaaship are made at Gujrbwala, and.. large selection was sent to the Ponjab Jl:llhibltioD, Bras. and ivory. These diller in n&) importan' respec' from those of t.he rest of the province. Small and pretty toye in ivory are also made at Gojrb. wala, models of fruit!' to serve 8.S I'nUmony bottlea'lllightly tonched with colobr, ivory bangles, pepper castors, walking.cane haodles, small boxe., and other fancy articles, all however very small and eimplylathe.turned, were sent to the Punjab ExhibltiOD. This doee not seem to be.. regular tradet but olle of the many apparently accidental crafts p.'actised bl indn'idnais in out-of tbe way places. At Wazirabad a triviality or English Introduction baa. found.. place J the t:lanufacture of chenille. Many yeara ago it wa, fashionable to make silk into strings resembling elongated hairy caterpillars, and it is Btill used al trimming. The original massive form ie prese"ed at Wazirabad, and applied to the deooratlon of a variet7 f)f objects, luch as glove boxeb, ehppera, cap., cushions, flower vases, and the like. The ohebille is dyed io the crudest and mos~ brilliant coloors, and in the C&8e of balta. It appear. to be glued down to a wooden or past.eboard fonndation in.. son of mosaio. A beer glue in chenille is often offered as.. emf d'qluvre, and similarly Incoogruous articlet Me to be Been in the housel of Enraai&lll, who have.. passion for..?lolent colour which is not euil)" &ooo1jnt"d for. The silk is imported from Amritaar, wluch ia the Bilk centre of the Punjab. A large selection of articles including cntlery, guns, swords and pistols from Nizam.abad, bra.ss work and pottery, glazed and unglazed, from Gnjranwala., and ~huz"arie,. f;om Ha6za.bad anti Gujdnwa,la. were Bent to the PunJa.b Exhlblt!On of Many of these things showed excellent workmanshlp, and among -the Niza,mabad exhibits especially were several very elaborat~ and highly finished guns, knives, tobacco catters and other articles.

131 Gujra.nwa,la District.J CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTlOY AND DISTRIBUTIO~. 119 But the demand for them was not great as they w,ere highly priced Ohapter IV, B. '-nd were genera.liy more ornamental than osefu1, and the large Occupa.tions, majority were returned unsold to the great disappointment Industnes and pecuniary loss of the artisa.ns, who had been led to expect and Commerce. that most, if not au, of the articles would be disposed of, and P inc'pal indostheir pockets as well as their reputation would greatly benefit trie: a~d mannfaothereby. tares. There are no statistics avaijable for the general trade of Coorse and nature the district, though Table No. XXV gives particulars of the of trade. rivel" traffic passing throngh it. 'fhe figures are taken from the Famine Report of Since that time the improvement in other means of communication has considerably interfered with this traffic. The trade of the district though rapidly growing is not as yet very important. The principal marts are Oujranwala, Eminabad, Klla Didar Singh, Wazirabad, R'mnagar, Akalgarh, Pindi Bhattian, Hafizabad, SheikhupurQ., Sohdra, Ranike and Vanike. At these places a brisk traffic is maintained in country prodnce of all kinds, Including country-made cotton cloth, which is woven iu considerahle quantiti~s at many of the larger villages. The export trade is now growing, the country produce being conveyed by road to the railway stations of 'Vazirabad, Ghakhar, Gujramd.la, Kamoke or Lahore. In good years wheat is largely exported to Rawalpindi, Peshawar, ana the seaboard at KarAchi. There is a large and increasing export of gram to Sialkot, Jhelum and Lahore. Of late years Q, good deal of coarse rice has been sent to the North Pnnjab districts: The trade in oilseeds is developing very rapidly, but the trade in cotton, the cultivation of which has received 1\ great impetus from the Chanah Canal, promises to surpass all others, and au through the winter months strings of bullock-carts laden with cotton may be seen slowl, wending their way to Gujd,nwala and Lahore from the remoter parts of 1Ia,6zabad or Khangah Dograoo.' Very large quantities of sugar (kana) are imported into Gujrcinwala, Wazfrabad.. aud Ramnagar for purposes of.retail or re-export to Jhang. Gujranwala also exports vessels of brass and bell-metal..and small quantities of jewelry, shawl-edging and scarves. Ramnagar exports leathern vessels (kupa) used for the carriage of ghi, grain and oil.., The export of ghi from the Bar to Lahore, Sialkot and Amritsar, though diminishing every year owing to the break.. ing up of pastnre, is still very considerable and may be estimated at 21akhs a yeal". Firewood and charcoal are also largely exported to Lahore and SiaIb>t in country carts. There is also some trade in wool, some of which is made np locally into blankets, namdas, &0., but most of it is sold to Shikarpuria traders in Gujranwala for export to Karachi. There is a trade in skin and hides carried on by Khojas which is natur.. ally briskest in a year of drought. In 1887, a factory for refining

132 120 CRAP. IV.- PRODUOTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [ Punjab Gazetteer. Cha.pter IV, B. saltpe'tre which is made from the shora, earth found. in old Prices Weights mounds and ruins in the Bar, was started by Seths from Robtak, and l'rs:e~sure8.and and about Rs. 20,000 worth is annually scnt to Calcutta. Communication. Course and nature The great grain and cotton exporting tract will in faturo of trade. he the canal-irrigated lands in Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran. Recently, as the development has begun, there are even now large stocks of grain, chiefly' wheat and rice, whioh, owing to the want of carriage and defective communications, cannot find their way to flo market. The opening up of this tract by the Wazlrabad-Mooltan Railway, running down the centre of the Doah, which is just being begun, will enable all this surplus produce to find its way to a suitable market and will give a great stimulus to trade. The opening of the North-Weslern Railway and of \he branch line to Sialkot has had a depressing effect on the trade of towns like Wazirabad, Ramnagar, &0., which were great centres formerly for river",borne. traffic, and the local carrying trade. They have also lost the trade in salt from the Mayo mmes, which was largely conducted through commission agents in these towns, but now finds its way by rail direct to the place of import. 1.'he timber trade at Wazhabad still survives. The Kashmir State and the Forest Department have large df'pots close to the river where the logs are landed, stored and sold to contractors and timber merchauts. The timber trade has, however, lost much of its prosperity since steel -sleepers superseded deodar on the railway, and also for roofing purposes. A good deal of timber is sent down the river jn rafta to Jhang, Mooltan and Sukkur. The l'iver-borne t,raffio js, however, being steadily driven out of the field by the railway. Wheat, suga.r and ghi are still sent down in country boats, which, after delivering their freight at Mooltan or Sukkur, are genera])y sold as the process of towing them back wouhl be lengthy and arduous. There are no periodical fah's for the sale or distribution of merchandise. At the large religious fair held annually at Dhaunkal near "Wazirabad, ploughs manufactured at Jammu are extensively sold. Table No. XXVI gives the retail bazar prices of com- modities for the last 30 years. The wages of labour are shown in Table No. XXVII, and rent-rates in Table No. XXI. Prices, wagea and rent rates. SECTION C.-PRICES, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, AND COMMUNICATION. Price of land. Table No. XXXII gives statistics of the sales and mort. -gages of land during the last eight years. From theso it appears tha.t the average price of land sold duridg tha.t period

133 Gujranwal& District.) CHA.P. IV.-PRODUCTION.AND DISTRIBUTION. J21 is.rs per acre, and of land mortgaged Re Chapter IV, C. ===========""'=-==-==-- The figures in the ma~gin Prices. Weights Tahail. Balea. liortgages. show the average prices andmeasnres. and realised by sale or mort- Communlcations GUJranwala ~s.~. gage of land in each of the Price of label three tahsils since the re- W.. r.ir&ba.d vised settlement of Hab.. bad '1 8 They are taken from the assessment reports. In all the tahsils there has been a. notable increase in the value of land of late years. ~rhus, in the Gnjranwala. tahsil, in the period J the average selling price of land (cultivated and uncultivated) was Re. 16 per acre, and the mortgage value Rs. 14 j iu the period , these rose respectively to Rs. 24 and Rs. 17 per acre. In 'Vazirabad, from the selling and mortgage prlces of cultivated land were Rs. J 6 and Ra. 21, respectively. In they were Rs. 41 and Ra. 30. There have been large ldcreases in the Hafizabad tahsil within the period during which canallrrigation was introduced, and in the Bar the price of land rose irom Rs. 4 to Rs. 9 per acre. The present vajue of land there is much higher 8tl11, and it is impossible now to purchase even banjar land that is likely to be commanded by the canal for less than Rs. 15, and if the land is at all of good quality for less than B.a. 20 or Rs. 25 per acre. In this tahsil the usual rates paid for hnd acquired by Government for the purposes of canal are as follqws :-. Chahi Ra. 25 to Ra. 35 " 20" " 25 Banjar " 12" " 20 U nculturable. 5.' In Wazlrabad the rate paid fgf chtihi land is usually Re. 85 to Ra. 50 per acre, of 8ailtib" Rs. 25 to Rs. 35, and of baran, Rs. 20 to Rs. 30, while in Gujranwala the rates are chcihi Rs. 30 to Us. 45, barani R8. 20 to Rs. 30. In ,000 acres of Government waste commanded by the canal were sold at a. rate of over Rs. 40 per acre. 1'his was all in the present Khangah Dogran tahsil. The following are the local measures of the district :- "Ill GujraowlJa ghmao" kancils, and fliarla, are equivalent to acres, half BUreS. roods and poles, respectively; 22 inches = 1 hath.; 3 hath. or 66 inches = 1 111",; 3 lara, long by 3 l:ar&1s broad = 9.arsQl, or 1 marla; 20 marza. = ] 1a"d1; 11 LantU. = 1 rood; 4 roods = 1 acre or ghw1ti(jo; 640 acres mue 1 mue. llellolll1l"es and welv;htb for food grains.-4 Jhodt = 1 f)lwopll 40 fjgropu = ) tapa; a topas = 1 d/ltdpa; a daropdl = 1 pie; 4 ples = 1 maund; 3 maund. 2 fopas, or 12. pies = 1 fjgftd; 4 fui"ds = 1 ",oi,.i; 6 tulds = 1 cjuttoick; 4 clutt6en = 1 pao:, f'ao' = 1 sir: 5,ira = 1 dhari: 8 dhuri, or 40.Jr, = 1 maund. Measure for cloth is called ga.. 16 g,,,..am = 1 gall or 36 lnches. Measures for wood.-tbis ga. is 3 inches 1e88 than 'he English yard i 'piflu = 1 tclif16; 24. tcu.ri.t = 1 g(lsl. " Weights and mea-

134 122 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [POllja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter IV. C. The man, taken as a standard of weight, is the pakka PriCf'S Weights l,ahor", man, weighing 40 ser8; taken as a standard of capacity.. and Measures, a.nd the 'man contains 16 topas, and this is known 98 the kacha Oommunications man. 'fhere are two top(is called the Chima and Chatha, after Weights and mea. the tribes among which each is in vogue, but the Chima tapa is sures. in almost umversal use, and the district may, therefore, be sa,id to have a fixed standard of capacity. The tapa, however, weighs Communications. Rivers and ferries from Ii to 1: Bers accordlog to the kind and quality of the grain. The tapa of wheat weiglls l~ Bers and the T.,acha man. therefore, weighs 26 88rs. 12i A acha mana are eqnal to one mani, w lllch in the case.of wheat is equal to B pakka mall In all IIgricultural calculations, exce'pt in some 'Vazirabad' villages bordering on Sialkot, the pakka mani is the standard. The figures in the margin show the communications of tho district, while Table No. XLVI shows the distances from Commnnications. ~hles. place to place as authoritatively fixed for the purpose of calcnlating' travelling allowance. 82 M Table ~No. XIX shows the 47 areas taken up by Government for communication in 1,261 the district., NavIgable rivers Metalled roads RaIlways. Unmetalled roads The Chenab is navigable for country craft throughout its. course within the district, and as far as Akl:1I1r, in the Jammu territory, about 50 :miles above 'Vazirabad. Much timb(>1' is floated down from the mountains, and it is sold nt'vazlrabad. The principal traffic on this river, as stated in the Punjab l?amine Report, is shown in Table No. XXVi but., as above stated, lt has considerably decreased of late years. 'I'he moormg places, and ferdes, and the distances between them, are shown in the margin, followin'" the downwl:i.ld co~rse of the VheDab Stations. river. The ferry at Sohdra is in charge of the SiAlkot dis Wazlrabad Khanke Garhi Gola. Ramnagar Kala. Kadiraba.d Pheroke Mahmudpur Hazara. Burkan Chucbak 6 9 I> 8, trict. There used to 5 be a bridge-of-boats 6 opposite Kadirabad 12 in the Gujl'at dis :!rict} where the old 4 Sal road from Miyaoi 3 crossed the flver, : bllt this has been I> done away with sillce the opemng of the =============.:== Sind-Sagar Railway and replaced by a ferry.' It has recently be'en propose'd to pnt up a small boat.bridge over the Palkhu at 'Vazimbad to. replace the wooden pile-bridge washed away by the floods In 1892.

135 Gujra.nwa.la. District. ] CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION some years ago, the carrying trade in timber from the Jammu Chapter IV, C. hjlis,.bu!?ar, w~eat and ghi by w~te.r to MooHan and ~akkar Price;'-Weirhts was lmportant, and the boat-bulldmg trade at Wazlrabad, and Measures. and Ramnagar, Malaluinwnla and other places brisk. The boats are Communications. cheap, particularly strong and well built j the Chennb boatmen Ril'ersl.lndferries. are reckoned excellent sailors. Boats on their arrival with fnugllt at Mooltan or Sakkar are eagerly bought up, and few, if any, return up the l'iver.. The North-'\Vestern Railway runs through the district, and there are stations at Kamoke, 5 miles from tho Lahore houndary, Gnjranwala, 12 miles OD, Ghakbar, 11 miles, and Wazlrabad, 10 miles. From Wazirabad a line branches off to Slalkot and Jammu, running for a distance of 6 miles through the district with a station at Sohara. The projected line connecting Wazira.bad with Mooltan, and rnnning via Ha6zabad through the heart of the Doab, has already been referred to. Railway. The following table shows the principahoads of the district Roads, rest.housel!!, together with the halting places on them and the conveniences &ncamplng grounds, lor travellers to be found at each:- c..names of the principal roads with haltinq places. and thtj convenience jar tra'ijellera to be found at eaoh in the Gujr.anwala Dist1 ict. Ronte. I Halting places. RE:MARKS _._-_._-- Gujranwa.lo. to Nau- Gujranwala. gal Duna. Smgh leading to Am- Eminabad ntsar. Nangnl Duna. 11 Singh. UnmetalJed, dak bungalow, sarai!lnd encaml,ing ground. Bungalow. Encamping ground , ,--_._ Grand Trunk Road Sadhoke../ from Lahore to l'eshliwar. Kamoke Dhill!tnw8Ji Gujranwala. Gbakhar Wazirabad 5 5 ' Saral ond rest hollse, Pnbhc Works Department road bunglllow. Sarlh, with bungalow, and encamping ground Public Works Department road bungalow:. O/tk bungalow, aurai and encamping ground..8ari\i, \'11th rest-honse, enchmping ground and Pubho Works Department road bungalow Dak bungalo,v, Saral, encamping gronnd, CiVil rest-honee, }'orest bungalow and PubliC} Works Department bungalow.

136 124 CHAP. lv.-production AND DISTRIBUTION. Punja.b Gazetteer, O.aapter IV, O. Names oj the principal roads with halting place. and the convenience/of' Prices, Weights traveller, to be joutld at each in the Gujranwala District-contd. and Measures, and Conununications. ~~==~=====7==========~I~.S~=T========'====~~======~ Roads, rest honses, ~m encamping grounds, Route. Ualtinll places. ~ ~ k ~o RE.lUB.1t8..!l i'i A GujranwalatoJaJal. Gujra.nwala pnr 11'& Hafiz. abad... Waz!ra.ba.d to Pindi Bhattl DAk bungalow, liaral and enoluilp, ing grouud. Kila Didar Singb 10 Buugalow priva.te (but opeu to European officera). Naukhar Bafizabad Jal&lpur Wazlraba.d Saroke Ramnagar Vanike Jalalpur ~ f.f f" f" fi Rest house. Sarli, 'With bungl\low, and encamp. tng grollnd. Ditto ditto. DAk bungalow, liarai, encamping ground" C,vil rest.house, Forest; bungalow, and Publio Works Department bungalow. Rest bouse (to be demolished). B.ungalow (bamdari) and encamp mg ground. Sarai, with bungalow, encamping 'gronnd. Ditto ditto. Pindi Bhattian. 13 Ditto wtto Gujranwala to Gujranwala Shcikhupura. Majju Chak.. f.. D! : bungalow, encamping ground and saral 17 Reet house. Sbeikhupura. 15 Sarai,'with bungalow, and encamp ing ground , Wazlrabad Hafizabad. to Wazirabad Saroke Ak8.lgarh. IIafizabad Di1k bungalow, sarai, encamping ground, Civil reet.honse, ForeAt bungalow, and Publio Works Department bungalow. Rest houss (to be demolished). Ditto ditto. Sara_ bungalow, ard encamp ing gr'bund.

137 Gujranwala District. 1 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. 125 Nama of I'h' principal road, fdil'" Aalllng "lacel and tm con"enienc. for Chapter IV. C. trauller, to be jou'le/' a' fac'" \fa t1«l Gujra.wJla Dutricl-eontd. Priees. Weights IlldMeasurea, and Commmuca.tions..S Roads, rest. housefl, Route. Halting places. encampin! grounds..to I ~-----I Gujranwala to Gujrbw.ua Dak bungalow. encludpidg ground, RamnBgRr. &alii. Kaliski RAmnagar 12 Sar&i, with bnngalow. 15 Rest house (b&ridari) and encamp. ing growld , Gnjranw&la to Gnjrinwala I Vanike "lei AJuUgarb. Kal&ski 12 Ak&lgarh Vamb DAk bungalow, encamping gronnd, sarai. SarAi. with bungalow. Rest honse. SarAi, with rest-honae, and encamping ground Sheikbupnnr. to Sheikhnpnra Pwdi BhattWJ. Rest house, ground. sarai, Chuhark&na 12 Ditto ditto. encamping Kh&ngah Dog. 12 Old rest house pnlled down and rad. the Dew one has yet. to be CODstrncted, aud encampins ground. 8u'kheke 10 Canal bungalow'; encamping ground. Pindi Bhattian. 12 Sarai, with rest house, and encamping gronnd I ~---I.. --,--- - Kamoke to ~m. Kimoke nagar. Butala "" 20 S;v&i. with bungalow', and encamp. log growld. Private budgalow'. "" 17' Bungalow, encamping ground.

138 126 OHAP. IV.-PRODUOTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter IV, C. Name. (If the principal roa~t. 'With halting place. ana the cc.nreni',"c8 jor.. -:;;;. ht fravellers to be founa at each in the Gvjr, nwal" District-concld. P rices" w elg 8 and Mea/8ures, and Comml1nications.. --::e- CI ltoads, rest.bousell, Q) (JoQ encamplpg gronnds, Route. Haltin!&, places. CI Q.l REMUK8. ke. "'=.. -_. s heikhuptlra to Va Sheikhupura nike or Lahore to Kadirabad I I I Jhabbar Hafizabad Val~ke n afizabad to Pindi llafizabad Bhattian. Matteki i._.-+- AI adu Chak to MajJu Chak.- KbaDgah D\'lgraD. Jhabran KMngab Dogr8.n N ausbera to Ram Naushera nagar 'lit" N au. kbar. Naukbar AkaIgarb '" Ramnagar 1. Matteki 2. Majju Chak 3. Marh 4. Baddoke 5. Manawala ls A G Rest.house, Barai, encamping grotlnd. Ditto Ditto ditto. ditto. Ditto dit.to Rest.house, Barai, encamping ground. Police bnngalow Police bungalow. Rest.boose, sarai, encamping gr~utld. Rest bouse haa to be boilt yet Rest bouse. Ditto. Ditto. est.bonse,.. edcamping ground.,1 ::: ~POliC6 bungalou's. 1.t.) The district rcst honses and sarai bungalows are provided with crockery and cooking utensils, but it is safer for visitors to take at least the latter with them. New rest houses have been proposed for Hafizabad and Khangah Dogran. At the latter the need is most ur~ent, as at present there is absolutely no accommo,)ation. BeSIdes the bunga:lows shown in the above list there is also a series of canal rest.houses, along the main line and the valious branches, frctm the head works at Khanke down to the

139 Gujranwala. District. 1 CHAP. IV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION outll-west boundary or the district at distances o,ually not Chapter IV. C. exceeding 10 miles, viz. :-. Prieea. Weights Distance from bead or and Measures.a.nd from Io.si bllnga)ow CommUllieations. Kb&oke- Chenawb Hneha.. Sagar RhUD Nanuana SlIidoagar Vi.mke CbRk Khan1 Matta Jabad Ko~ ChiaD Kila Ram Kanr Shab 111m&! 1andoke Kot Nakka Sukbeke.. flinduana BlrunwDla N01" Line. Nabrianwala. }loohiwala lsukheke). 'Marh Sangla ldelnaua SaIl.lr Yanga.t. Pakka Dala Badw&ll Gajianl\ '" ratlike Bci.jba1Ia. Gaja.,. Gola RJ.Jbaha. Madhora Rdiboha. Ko'IUJbaha. Kot Na"'a Branch. Jha1lg Branch. &1.11. Braflch. M,d. AU Branch. MaflG1twdla R,.jjbaha.,.. a~ head works. Mdes '" 61 Distance from bead or previous Rest house. Miles. 11 Boads, rest houses, encamping ground.., &0. Karkau La'kerma.ndi Bhnhkot Rdjbaha. 6 11,

140 128 CHAP. JV.-PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION. [Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter IV, C. The~ bungalows are available for the use of Civil officers Prices, Weights when not occupied by,the officers of the Department. They are and Measures, and better comtructed and III every way neater and more com!ortab19 Communicatlons. than the dlstl'lct rest-houses. Few districts are, therefore better R()ads, rest-houses, supphed with rest-houses for camping purposes. ' encampmg grounds, &c. The district does not lack roads, but many of them are of an extremely rough character and Impassable in tbe rains for cart traffic. Of 1,317 mlles only 56 are meta.lled. The most important is the Grand 'rrunk Roa.d, which runs the whole length of the district from north to south 42 miles, parallel to the railway, but by far the greater bulk: of the traffio goes by rail. rrhe nex.t road in importance, from a traffic point of 'View, IS that from Gujran wala to Hafizabad, which is now bp,ldg metalled b.v the District Board as far as Kila. Didar Singh, 10 miles. The Gujranwala ~nd 'Wazirabad tahsils are well provided with communications, as they are in direct contact with the Grand 'Trunk Road and Railway, and there are several feeder roads connecting the outlying villages with these lines of traffic. Another road which has increased greatly in importance of late years is that from Sheikhupura to Piadi Bbattian, &. section of the old frontier road from Lahore to Bannu, by which much of the pr.duce o t1:.e canal-irrigated tracts finds its way to Lahore. The roads in the Bafizabad tahsil, though numerous and laid out on a most extensive scale, have been 80 neglected that wheeled traffic IS almost unknown and the produce has to be conveyed to the central markets at Gujranwala. and Waziraba.d on pack animals. Since colonisation operations began, several new roads have been laid out, and the old ones in this tract, which were formerly merely paths winding through the juogle, have been demarcated and put, in what is by courte&y called, repair. Nearly all these roads radiate from K,pangah Dogran to Marh, Sangla, Shahkot, Mananwala, but the road from f:)heikhupnra. to Mananwala and thence on to Pindi BhattiaD throllgh Marh is one of the most important, as it is the route followed by colonists from districts east of the Ravi, and goes through the heart of the area colonised in this district. There are also excellent roads running along the main line of the canal and the branches and leading rajbahas. 'llhere is also a road from Gujranwala. to SUllkot via Daska j this road is bridged throughout and metalled for three miles in the Gujranwala district. 1 t is eight miles in length within the district. The 1'0804 from Gujrnnwala to Dinanagar and on to Pasrtir is un.. metaued; its length within th9 district is six miles. The road from Wazit'abad to Daska. runs for six miles within the district and is unmetalled; that from Wazirabad to Sialkot is metalled. It runs for six miles within the district. l'he dak bungalows in

141 Gujranwala District. CHAP. lv.-production AND DISTRIBUTION. 129 the district at Gujdnwala and 'Vazirabad are furnished and Chapter IV, c. provided with servants. The police bungalows and sarai p' W' ht bangalows have a certain amount of furniture, crockery and anrii:isu:~l a:d cooking utensils, but no servants. The cl).nal and district Rest CommuUlcatlons. houses have furniture only. There are Imperial Post Offices at Gujranwala,.A~algarhJ Abmadanagar, Bainka Chima,BaddokeGnsaian, Bntaia, Chena. wan, Chabba SandhuRn, Chabll, Dllawan, Eminabad, Ghakhar, IIafizabad, Jhabbar, Jandiala ~her Khan, Jal3.1pur, Kamoki, Kila Didar Singh, Kila Mian Singh, Kot Bhawani DaR, Kot JUar, Khangah Dogran, Khanke, Karkan, Ladhewala, Matu Bhaike, Miraliwala, Marh, Naushera :Nizamabad, Philloke, Pindi Bhattilin, Ramnagar,..Rampur, Sheikhupura, Saroke, Sohdra, VaDlke, Wazirabad. District dak offices are establish. ed in connection with. the Primary Schools at Gondlanwala, Chuhar Kana, Dhauukal, Kalaske, Chak Bhatti, KanIa Tarar, Kot Rara, Kaloke, Jallan, Karyal, Choranwala and Ajnhinwala. 'l'hey are managed by the school masters, who recelvb Rs.2 to Rs. 3 per menbem for this addition to their work. A great deal has been done in recent years by the Department and the District Board to improve postal arrangements by opening new offices, putting on additional runners and extra postmen. From the head.quarters at Gujranwala, the post is sent by ekka dak to Hafizabad and thence on to Khangah Dogran, and distributed through the head offices at these centres to all the subordi. nate offices. Similarly, the post for Gnjranwala. is first collected at Khangah Dogran and Hafizabad, and then sent in by e~ka dak", Post Offices. A line of telegraph rans along the whole length of the North. Telegraph. Western main line with a Telegraph Office at each station and an office has now been opened at Eminabad ; an Imperial Telegrapb connects 'Yazlrabad with Sialkot, and also with Hafiza. bad. Khanke, Chenawan, Akalgarh and Ramnagar are sta.tions on the latter lme. 'fhis line has been prolonged by the Canal Department along the Rakh Branch, through Marh and Pakka Dalla into the Jhang district, and it is hoped that an office Will soon be opened for the publio at Khangah Dogran. By the courtesy of the Canal Depa.rtment, the Deputy Commissioner is allowed to make use of the canal wire.

142 [Punja.b Ga.zetteer, CHAPTER V ADMINIS1'RA1'ION AND FINANOE. SECTION A.-GENERAL. Chapter V, 11 'fhe Gujfllnwaln. District is under the control of tbe Com- General misslollel' of the HawalpmJl Division. It was transferred {roln Exerntlll' '111 J thu Lu,here DivisIOn, with which, geographica.lly and ethnologi- (lally, it had a close connection in 1885, but the change hall never been popular with tile people, Uawalpindi being 10 hclurs' Journey by rail, Lahol'e only two, and the question of its ra.. transfer to Lahore has ofteu been mooted. 'rhe district is WIthin the jurisdiction of the Divisional and ReSSlOn Judge of Si61kot, but under present arrangements civil appeals are dlspoqed of by the DiVisional J ndge of Lahore. 'rhus appellants in revenu >, civil 3.nd cl'iminal cases have to go to l!awalpindi, Labol'e and Sialkot, respectively-obviously a most inconvenient arrangement. Jo(hclUl. The ordlllal'y head-qlla.:.-ters staff of the distl'jet consists of a Deputy CommIssioner, an Assistant Commissioner in training, a Subordinate Judge, generally with the powers of Additionn.l Djstl jct Judge, two.mx.tra 'Assistant Commissi{)l1erS anti n. Hevenus Extra Assistant Commissioner. Il'here are now four tabsils in the district, 'Viz., Gujranwala., 'Vazfrabad, Ha.6zabad and Khangah Dogl'sn, the last of which was establi!lhed in OotobE'r.J 8!:l 3, being formed Ollt of the southern half of the old liafizabad tahsil. Each tnhsil is in charge of a. Tahsildar assisted by a Naib. 'l'he village Revenue staff is shown in the mar gin. Tabsil. --- Office j Field UnungoB. kinungos. Gnjranwala. 1 4 Wadrabad 1 8 JUfizabad 1 6 Khn.ngah DogrAn l 1 2 NeW' Colony, {- 8 Pat wads. '" 100 CO ; l 2 ABBietaDts. 'l'here a r 0 fonr Munaiiis in the district, one flach at \Va.. zirabad, Hs... fizabad, and two at Guj- :, ran w Ii 1 n.. The Hafiza bad Milnsiff also has j urisdiotion in Khaogah Dogran. 'l'he statistics ot civil and revenue litigation for tl1e years are given in 'l'able No. XXXIX. l'be executive staff of the district is assisted by a bench of four Honorary Magistrates at Gujran\va.la and of two at 'Vazfrabad; by U'ja. Harbans Singh, Honorary Magistrate al Sheikhupura, and Rtija Atta-nUa. Khan, Honorary Ex.tra Assistant Commissioner, at Wazirabad. All these benches and Honorary Magistrates have 2nd olass powers. -The Gujranwala Bench has juris. diction wibhin the oity a.nd sa.dr tm.ncis, the Wazlra.bad Bench

143 Gujranwala. District. J CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. 131 within the town only. Raja Harbans Singh's jurisdiction Cha.pterV. A. extends over his own jagir, embracing 169 villages in Gujrtin- General. waja and Khangah Dogran, whtl~ Raja Atta-ulla Khan's extends Executi e over the Wazirabad tlulna. excluding the city. Raja. Atta-ulla. Judlclal. v Khan has also the powers of a 2nd class and Raja. Harbans Singh of a 3rd class :M unsiff. The police force is controlled by a District Superintendent c. I o f P ohce.. The and jads. DISTRIBUTION. strength and ais- Class of Police. TCltal tributlon of the strength. Sta.nding Protection. force is given in guards. the margld. The standing guards mclude 81 men pmployed at Che '- ~ Total IlawanCentralJaIl, and mne at the , District (Imperial) Mun1cipal pumtivu police post of Flfoz-Bhikki. Besides the above there is a force of five chaukidars and one daffadar at KIla Didar Singh, but these nre not enlisted under the Police Act V of I80I. In addition to the police force there are 1,515 village watchmen who are pau::t from the c'haukultira cess of the villagc q, levied on houses according to the circumstances of the 1 eslden ts. The tba.nas or I,ead-qnarter stations of CIrcles of.police jurisdictiou and the chaukis or police outposts are as follows. The area in square miles, accordio/l to the recent ~urvey, and the populat.ion, according to census of 1891, are also given. Thlinis (Police Stallons). -~----- Gnjr.anwala sadr Gujranwala city. Kamoke Kil& Didar Singh Total TahsiZ Gfljr(I,nwdla Number Area iu Popula. of square villages. miles. I'tlon , ,78S 175 3lli 84, J. 66, ~5S 269,166 and Ii rlmln8. S, po ce ChauT.i. (ttutposts). Emina.bad. Nangal Duna Sillgh. Sahdoke. Naushahra. Dera Dun~u Bam. Thana to '&Chich attached. KamoJ..e. Do. Do. Do. Kil.. Didar Singh.

144 Chapter V, A. General. Criminals, police and jails. 132 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. Tahsil Hafizabad. t Punja.b Gazetteer, = = Number Area. in Popu1a. Thanas (Police Stations). ot flquarq villages. IIlIles. tion "-_ IIU.fi.labnd 145 3GG C2,343 VaDlko G 39,30-' ---- Total J.,03J. I' Illdi Bhattiu n S li2,387 ========~-=-================~~==~-~ Ohau7.(s (outp08ts). Shami'r Sukhoki. llafizabad. Do. Tahs Z lvazirabad. NQUlbel" Area. iu Than as (Police Stations). of square vlllages. miles. --,--_._-_.-._ Wazirabn.d aadr Wazlrabad city AUIgarh OhauMs (ollfpo.t,). Gnkhar. Rarnnngar. Total r Popula. tiod C7,04:l C ,006 1 Thdlla to which attached. Waz!rabad. AkUgarh. Tahsil Khangah Dogran. 100,775, 15,786 Th8.nas (Police ~tntions) KhaDgah Dogran SheikMpura. Shahkot Chaukill (olltpo6ta). Chubarkana. Mananwala. Total I Numbor of viuages. Area in sqnare. rolle _ =0- Popul8,- tlon ~4 80,lCJ , , ,303 Thd1l.a. to wh\ch. attached. Khwgah Dogran. Sho.hkot.

145 dnjranwala District. 1 - CHA.P. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. 133 The thanas of GnjranwaJa. city and Wazirabad city and the Chapter V, A. ~utposts of Eminabad and Ramnagar are held by Municipal General. pohce. The rest are Imperial. The thanas have Jately been c. als Ii recast to bring them into conformity with tahsil and zail and j:;~ boundaries. Two new than~s, Shahkot and Vanike, were added in 1893, but no proper buildings have yet been erected. The population of Shahkot tbana is now at least double tbat shown above; as it includes most of the newly colonised area. A punitive police post hact recently been established at the village of Bhikki in the Sheikh6pura. thana. The cost is distributed over this and five adjoining villages notorious for cattle lifting. The district lies within the Rawalpindi Poli'Ce Circle, under the control of the Depnty Inspector-General of Police of the 'Vestern Circle, stationed at Rawalpintli. po C8 The District Jail a.t the sadr contains accommodation for 348 male and 12 female convicts and is generally full. Lifa and long term prisoners are transferred to the Lahore or Chenawan Central Jails. The Central Jail at Chenawan, about 18 miles down the river from 'Vazirabad, was opened in 1883 as a. temporary arrangement to provide accommodation for the convicts employed m excavating the Chenah Canal. Owing to the subsequent develol2ment of, and changes in, the scheme, it; has been m::lintained up to date. The number of prisoners is- generally abont J,OOO, and over half of these aro employed in gangs on earthwork on the Chenab Canal. The jail is in charge of a Medical Officer who is also Superintendent. l.'able No. XL gives statistics of criminal tria1s, Table No. XLI of police inquiries, and l.'able No. XIJII of convicts in jail for the last five years. '~'he SanSIS are proclaimed H Male d h C' Tnbe..en. c1uldren. ToLal. un er t e I'lminal Tribes Act, and the number on the register on the 31 st December 1894 is Sansis 1, ?63 shown in the margin. The women of this tribe have been exempted from the operation of the Act by order of Government. 'fhe Sansis from time immemorial have been addicted to honse-breaking, theft and highway robberies. They are being gradually reclaimed by employment in cultivating lands for the zammd:irs and menial capacities. 'J.'he men of the tribe are registered, and not permitted to leave their villages without tickets-or-leave, which tbey obtain on application at the police station within which tbey reside, and which they show at tho police station in which they take up their temporary residence. The police when out patrolling look them up to see that none are absent without leave. The lamhardar of the village can giv.e leave of absence up to 24 hours.

146 134 C~AP. V.-ADMIN'ISTRATION AND FINANCE. [ PUDja.b Ga.zetteer, Cha.pter V, A,. Gener.. l. Pounds The following is 8 list of tlle cattle.pounds in tho district showing in whose charge they are :- Gujranwala city Gujrauwala Kamoke Kilo. Didal' Singh Wazirabad Gakhar AkaIgarh Hafizabad Vamke Pindi Dhattlan KUnga.b Dogran ShekhUpura RamDogar Kot Jarar KUnke Mujo.waranwaila Sangla Marh Mananwala Shahkot." In charge of Municipal Commit.tee. The Police. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Municipal Committee. Zaildar of Kot Jafar. Eltecutlve Engineer, 1st DivisioD, ChcDab CaDIlI. Tahsildar, Khangab Dogran. District Board. TahslIdar, KUngah Dogran. The Pohee. Distnct Board. '1'he District Board bas now proposed to' take over the management of all the cattle-pounds in the dibtrict, except those at Kbanke and Gujranwala city, Ramnagar and Wazh' abad. The Municipal Committees of the latter two places have proposed to take over lhese two pounds. ReTenue Excise. The gross revenue collections of the district for the last 25 years, so far as they are made by the Financial Commissioner, nre shown in 'rable No. XXVIII, while '1'ables Nos. XXIX, XXXV and XXXIII give fqj'ther details for land revenue, excise and stamps, respectively. Table No. XXIIIA shows the number and situation of Registration Offices. 'fhere are four non-official Sub.Reglstrars, cne in each tahsil, viz. :- L9.la Barka!; Ram, Pleader, at. the sadr. Sardar Dyal Singh, Ch8chi, at Wazirabad. Lila Harsukh Rai, late Deputy Inspector of IJolice, at Dafizabau., Mirza. l\fahmud Beg, late Inspector of Police, at KhAngah Dograu. There is one central distillery for the manufacture of country liquor, situated at Gujranwiila, and from this a good deal of liquor is sent to Sialkot, Gujrat, Shahpur, Rawalpindi, and avon Peshawar. The central distillerie3 at Wazirabad and Hafizaoad have been abolished. Poppy is cultivated in this

147 Gujranwala. District. ] CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE a Tahal1. Area. in &eres. Acreage duty lr rupees. district to a small extent. Chapter V, ~ The.figures given in the General. mar m n show the area. under E' D' t t ~. SClBe UI ric cultivation and the acreage Fonds duty levied on it in the year.. Gujn\.nwala. 29 UT t. Wa.JIraba.d %3 IBl~ Table No. XXXVI gives HafizabAd 12_ the income and expendltnre from District Itunds.. '1')16 annual income is now abclut Rs. 91,000, but it will continue to idcrease considerably for some years owing to the levy of local rates in the newly colonised a.rea. The District Board as at present constituted under Act XX of ls8a consists of 24 members with the Deputy Commissioner as e;e-opicio President. Of these membels, 16 are elected, being delegates from the Local Boards, "iz., 6 from the Gujranwala, 5 from the 'Vazirabad, and 5 from the Hafizabad and Khangah Dogrnn tahslls. The rest are nominated, t:iz., four appointed by name and four e;'jl.officio, viz., the Deputy CommissIOner, the Civil Surgeon, the District Inspector of Schools and the Executive Engineer. With the exception of these e~-()fficio members the term of office for members, whether elected or appointed, i~ three years. The three Local Boards which return delegates to the District Bo~d consist of the following members:- Gujranwala. 20 elected, 4 nominated. W &7.1rabad ~ " Hafizabad and KUogah Dogran 19 " 4 " Each zail elects one member. No separate Local Board has yet been constituted for the new Khangah Dogran tabsu. The rrahsildars are ez-ojicio members. A scheme for the abolition of the Local Boards, and the reconstitution of the District Board, by which the latter would consist of 36 members, viz., 24 elected direct-one for everyone or more zails-and 12 appoiij.~ed by name or office, has recently been submitted. Table No. XLV gives statistics of Municipal income, Monicipalincome. while the muuicipalities themselves are noticed in Chapter VI. Four small municipalities, Pindi Bhattian, Hafizabad. Jalalpur and Sohdra were aboli.shed between 1886 and 1890, but under Chapter X of Act XX of 1891, Rafizabad and Sohdra. have been recently declared notified areas. The octroi system ==========='7"""='==-== is in force in all the Sooree of income. Amount. municipalities and notified areas, and is Re. the chief source of Ferries.. 5,067 income. The income Dflk bllngalow, Wazirabad 179 EncamplDg gronnds 528 Nazul property 21 Cattle-pollllds 6,152 from Provincial properties for is shown in the margin. Total 11,947 1'he ferries, bunga. low_s and encampldg grollnds have already been noticed at pages ~ anq t,he~ cattle-pounds at page 134.

148 J 36 CHAP. V.-.ADMINISTRATION.AND FINANCE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, Chapter V, A. General. District Funds. Gt;.TRA.NWALA DISTRICT. S talement showing income f10m Provincial prdperties for fite yea" from to )4., Source of income l Rs. Rs. Ra. Rs. n., Fel'rilJs with boat bridges Nll. N,Z. N,Z. N,Z. Nd. ") JI without» 8,319 8,860 8,419 6,197 5,067,Q~ '"' '0" GIG) Staging bungalows ~~a Gil 1:1.. " Encamping grounds 739 1, a: 0 Cattle.pounds 2,781 4,60i 3,809 5,819 6,152 ::::0 -III N'azuI properties J J - Total 12, ,764 13,051 12,743 11, l0r Nazul properties managed S by DIstrict Board. Nazul properties managed by ~unicipal Commit ~ tees. The list of nazuz properties in charge of the District Board and the Municipal Committees and that in charge of Government is as follows:- 1. Atalgarh weh in Gujr'nwu.l1l. 2 Well in Lohianwu.Ia. 3. Land in DadwlUi. 4. Do. Sheikhupura. 5. A well at Jhabbar. 6, Do. Ajniu.nwu.fa.. Dutrict Board. 7. 8& MunicipaZ Comm,ttee, Wazirabad. A well at Balar. Honses id Jandiala Sher Khan. Well Panjab Singh. Do. Theri Ba.nsuin-. Well land iu KJ1a Morad Bakhsh. 1. House near Lahori Gate in 3. Sialkot Gate, Wazlrabad. lien of six shops, or mustlfarkhana, Wazlrabad. 4. Labori Gate, Wazfrabad. 5. Akft.lgarh Gate, Waz!rabad. 2. Land attached to Takia. Daim, Wazlrabad. 1 & 2. Two shops at "Ramnagar. MunicipaZ Committee,:B4mflagar. Build'flg' managed by Go\'ernmeflf on the Naz"Z Regi8ter. 1. Kacha fort at Udhowalf. 6. Katra Namakwala (salt market), 2.. Kaeha stables at Naushera, now Ru.mnagar. used as school house. 7. A piece of land at Sohdra. 3. Old shops at Wazirabad, now 8 A Do. do. Dear gate quite demolished. Bobarwals, Aku.lgarb. 4. A piece" of land near gate 9. A piece of land in front of SoMra, Wazlrabad. Abkari building', Wasirabad. 5. A pleaa of land belonging tq 10. Eastern gate, Jalalpnr. garden Chathawala. Ram. 11. Kacha fort, Sangla.. nagar. 12. Eastern gate, SheikbUpnra.

149 Gujranwa.la District. ] CIIAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND Ji'IN ANCE. i37 REMARKS.-Tbo DIstrict Board is managing the liazul properties entrusted to its cllarge anj payldg An annual cortrlbutlo!l of Rs. 105-to the P,ovJnclal Ievellnes in lieu of tllo income receivf'u by it, f\'om lst Aplll 188G. The Munidpal Committees of 1Vazlrnbad and ncl.mnagar do not pay any compensation to Government, and the inc'ome and the E'xpeudlLuru arc both credited to and 11Rld from MunicIpal Funds. Chapter V, A. General. District Funds. IVazlrallad.-The ~ll1nicipa] Commlttee lately sent up a proposal that tllo l>ix liozul shops entrusted to 1ts management be alienated and a house Df'ar the Lahori GatE', which WAS a private property, be acqmred Instead. The owners ofthe pnvato house Agreed to take over the six shops in heu of thl'ir house, and the proposal "as c:anctioned by Government. ThiS privelte house is next dour to the Lahori Gato which serves for the private residence of Tahsildcir and Nalb-Tahsildar. 'I'he dflk hungalow at GujranWlila. is in charge of the MuniCipal Committee, Gujranwala, which receives a grant of Hs ]30 per annum for ItS mallltenance from PlOvincial revenues. The receipts against" stagmg bungalow" in the statement only reprf'sellts "Wazirabad dak bungalow recejpts." Figures for other Government estates are, given in Table No. XVII, and they and their proceeds are noticed III the suc." cecdmg section of this Chapter in which the 1and revenue admiolstration of the dlstllct is treated of. TaLle No. XXIX gives figules for the princ'lpal items and the totals of land l"evenue collected since Table No. XXX[ gives details of halances, remission's and agricultural auvauccs for the last ten yeal S : Table No. XXXbhows the amount of assigned land revenue, while 'I'able No.XIV gives the areas upon which the present land revenue of the di~trjct is Lased. 'Ille total cultivated area m the old villages at the recent re-as:.essolentwas 800,015 acres, alld thettotal a~se8sment, including Rs. 5,802 deferred assessments, was Hs. 8,83,226, giving au incidence of ns per acre. Further details as to the basis, incidence, and working of the cnrrellt settlement WIll be foned below in Section B. of this Chapter. Table No. XXXVII gives figures for the Government Board Education. and Aided Schooll'l of tlle rllstrict, Hlgll, Middle nnd Primary. 'rho HIgh School~ which teach up to the Entrance Standard hre the American Mission School at GOJranwala and the Scotch 'Mis!>ion School at'va?.irabad. These llave already been noticed. There is no Govf>rnment HIgh School at Gujninwala. There are EDO'lish Mlddle Schools fol' bo)s at Gujranwala and Akal. garb, a~d Vernacular Middle SchoQls at H9fizabad, Ramnagar, Kila Didal' Singh, Pmdi Bhattian and Sohdra. A scheme for the conversion of the Vernaculal' Mlddle School a~ Ha6zabad I

150 }S8 CHAp. \T.-AnMI~ISTR.A.TlON AND FINANCE. t Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter V, A. into an AngloRVernacular School is now under consideration. General. The Pl'imary Schools which number 64 are situated as below :- Education. Tahsil G'IIjranwcila, 29. Eminabad. So.ntpura. Firozwala. Kamoke. Mmillwala. Sadhn Gnrara. Ladhewala Yaraicb. Chahll. Jalan. Chaba Sindhwan. Kot Bhawani Das. 1I1anduila Vara.ich. Kilo. Mian 810gb. Kot Sa'adulla. PhIlloke. Baddoke Gus&in. Gakhar. Bainka. Chima. Ladbewala Chima. Kilaske, Nidala. Pakka. Jhattanwall. Kot Jafar. ~hak BhattI. ala] pur. R8.mpur. Kat Nakka. Sukheki. Sheikhupllra. Jandl8.la. Sher Khan. Kaloke. r Abdal. Arup. Ballewala MaUu Bbaike. Butala Jbando. Singh... Sbarm Singb. }{atta. No.ushabra Virknn. Gondlanwala. Bh8.noke. Bupra. Mughal Chak. Karyal. Papnakha. Tahsil JVaztrabad, 19. Di1a.war. Mandlala Chatha. Saroke. Kat Harra. Abmadnagar. Dhaunkal. Wa.zlrabad. Tahsil Hojizabad, 10. Ramke ChaLha. Kaulo Tarar. Vanike. KaluluwaIa.. Laware. Tahsil Khangah Dogran, 6. I Va.rnn. ChuharHuR.. Jhabbar. All these schools are maintained by the 'District Board which spends nearly Rs. 25,000 per annum on education. 'I'he facilities provided for primary education Rre readily availed of by all classes in Gujranwlla and 1Vazirabad, but in Hafizabad and Khangah DognLu even primary ('ducation is still backward, though signs are not wanting that the people are bflginning to shake of their attitude of indifference. New English schools under private management are springing up which do no~ receive a.ny aid from public funds. There are two schools of this class in the town of Gujranwala, viz., the Khalsa School, which t(laches up to the Entrance Standard, and the Isl8,mia. Schoo!, which teac11e8 up to the Middle School Standard. Schools of this description exist also at Eminabad and Hafizabad, but these are still in their infancy. ". For tbe advantage of boys passing t,bs Middle ~~hool E~R ammation ;n the Vernacnlar and desirous of prosecntldg thelr ~tudiea in English, special cla.sses are formed in th~ Mission Schools

151 Gnjra.nwala District. ] CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. 139 at Gujranwala and Wazirabad, and the Khalsa School at Gnjranwala. In these blasse.s special arrangements are made to prepare the stndents fo-r the Middle School Examination in English only, after wllich they join the regular High School course. There is also in the town of Gujranwala a. Girls' School with several bralches supported by American Missionaries, and five Female Schools maintained from Municipal and Provincial Fonds. In one school of each of these gj'oops instruction is given up to the Middle Standard Examination. The district lies wilhin the Lahore circle which forms the charge of the Inspector of Schooh at Lahore. Table No. XIII gives statistics of education collected at the census of 1891, and the general state of education has already been described at page 52. Besides the schools mentioned above, there is no other particular private school requiring notice, except one smah patshjla maintained from the estate of the late Rai Mo.I Singh, w}lere many poor Brahmins ~nd Hindu mendicants get le~sons in Sanskrit as well as their food. and MuLammadan and Sauskrit Schools at Wazlrabad supported by a muafi grant. '1'11 ere are several indigenous schools throughout the district, and a number of them receive grants-in-aid from District and Municipal Fends under special rules in the Punjab Education Code. 'I'hese aided indigenous schools are practically taking ~he place of new Board Schools, and by giving small grants to them Local Bodies are relieved from the necessity of opening Board Schoola of their own. At present the number of snch schools is OVE'r 30; many of them are low-caste schools,1 maintained by the American Mission. General. Edllcahon. The Gujranwal& ~Iunicipal Scbool was founded as a Ver- GujranwUa Muni nacular School in It was converted in May 1860 to acipal School. Zilah School, teaching up to the Matriculation Standard of the Calcutta University. For two or three years a small namber of candidates were prepared for the University Entrance Examination, but the attendance was poor in all the classes. As it did not flourish as a High School, this branch was abandoned and the school converted into a Middle School in 1869, since when it hr.s made decided progress. In 1886 tile school with its entire staff was handed over to the mnnicipality, which now manages it aud receives from Government a contribution eq~al to the gross expenditure of the school less the income from fees and the sum formerly contribnted by it for the s81ari(>s of part of the establishment. 'rhe flchool is now called the Gujrauwal& Municipal Board Scllool. 'I'he pre Rent maiu school is located' in a commodious pakka building in the western portion of thl! city. 'I'he school is uucler the direct supervision and management of a Head Master who has four Assistants, 'Viz., two Eng-lisb Masters, a Mathematical 'I'eacher and B Persian Teacher. These work immediately under llim in tbe Middle Department. In the Upper Primary Department there are six teachers, three English and three Vernacular,

152 Medical. 140 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRA'tION AND FINANCE. [Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter V, A. Besides the teachers abovementioned, both th& Middle and Ule G _. 1 Upper Primary Departments have the service!s of a teacher or. ene;}&.~,r Persinn Caligraphy flnd a teacher of Gymnastics and Drill. GOJfnnWI1 110 mum cipal School. l'he Lower PrImary D cpartment consists. 0, f tl Ifee b h 1 rn~c (ls, enc 1. of which has three teachers. The branches arfj located m separate --"'-===;:==========--=====_,'" pe.rts of the city, one Expenulture, \ 11.ddIBB~Aool of them occnpying the RnnctlOned anu E~ I # non.sanctloned 1 0 " c 1\'ab'" Nl1mber ot ~a~ 1 u 1011 I use,v 1 ra AI U- ertaljltshment pupils on roll "e N fr. rula RanJ'it Sin\O'h is Year. contmlloncies, at close of ~ and echolar March each said to havo een ships, mllll!' yea.r. Number of born. l!"io'ures are C1pllol and dis' parme",.., trlct. given in the margin Rs. for each of the last )NIlO \ll lfiii11l2 ls9l 0J ~ 1I,F'IO 6,8HO 6,833 6,070 7,090 HI five years showing (a) expenditure, (lj) number of puplls, (r) results as shown by examination!. The Board ScllOOls and the Primary Aided Schools in the tlistrict are supervised by a District Inspector of Schools. All the Middle and High Schools have boarding-houses attached to them, where students from a distance get lodging and cookod food at a very moderate expense. A Gymnastic Master is em.. played to teach gymnastics and drill to the schools in the district. A 'reachers' Association has been founded with tile object of ennbling selected teachers from dietant parts of the district to meet once or twice a year to discuss educational Bubject~ connected with their work. On the whole, the district may be said to have made exceptional progress in educational matters, and tho Loca.l Bodies as a rule show great interest in the subject. There are now twelve dispen!llarjes in the Gujrlinwii.la district under the general control of the Civil Surgeon. They are established at Guj ranwala. (where there are two, the main and the city dispensaries), 'Vazlrabad, IIafiza.bad, Ramnagu.r, Akalgarh, Pindi Bhattian, Khangah Dogran, Shahkot, Shcikhu PUl'A" Butala, and Eminabad. Those at Butala, Akalgirh, ShAbkot, Khangah Dogran, Eminabad and in GujranwAla city have been established within the last four years, and that at SheildlUpura. was transferred in 1894 from Jhabbar where it was doing little good. Table No. XXXVIII shows the working of the dispensaries for the lash five yearel J It is satisfactory to note that private enterprise has of late years dono much towards the extension of medical relief. To the dispen. sary at Butala, Sardar Balwant Singh, E. A. C., generously contributes Hs. 20 a month, a.nd it is called by his name, and with like liberality Raja Barbans Singh contributes Hs. 80 per month to the malotenance of the dispensary at Shmkhupura, which also is named -a,ft.er him. To the newly established dispensa.ry at Ewinabad the Dewana of the place, nota.bly Dewans Amar Nath and La.chman Das, who have given subscriptions of Rs. 500 and Ra. 1,000 res..

153 Gujranwal8, District.] CHAP. V.-ADliINISTltATION AND FINANCE. 141 J'ectiveJy, ha.ve liberallysubscribed, and Dewan Gobind Sa.hai has provided the ~ispensary building. The sadar and branch dispensaries at Gnjranw4la are maintained by the Municipal Committee~ The dispensary at 'Vazirabad bas since 1894 been in charge of an Assistant Surgeon. It is supported by Municipal.b'unds, the Railway Department paying Rs. 20 per mensem as share of the maintenance charges. The cost of the IUmnngar dispensary is borne by the Municipal Committee and District Board in proportion of one-third and two-thirds, respectively. Akalgarh is in c1large of a qna1i6ed 1st grade Compl)under and is maintained by the District Board and Mnnicipal Committee. The rest of t1]e dispensaries are in charge of Hospital Assistants and maintained from District Fonds, but half of the cost of the Shahkot dirpensary is raid by the Jhang District Board, and the Muuicipal Committee, Eminabad gives a grant of Rs. 20 pel'mensem to the dispensary there. The district IS now very well provided with dispensaries at suitable centres, much Improvement baving been effected of late years. Chapter V. A. Genera-I. MedicaJ. This institution which is a dispensary of tbe first class was,gujr8d1i'ala Sadar opened III 18'::'4. The present building is situated close to the Dispensary. Railway Station aud Post Office, in the immediate vicinity of the town and due north of it. It contains two main wards for male patients, a sepal'ate ward for female patients, no detached ward, a lunatic ward, an operating room and a. dead-house. There is accommodation for 16 male and 8 female patients. A separate ward for well-to-do patients is now in course of construction." 81t1ce 1889 the dispensary bas been in charge of an Assistant Surgeon. It appears to be very popular and is largely resorted to by all classes of the native commnnity. In addition to the ordiua.ry medical esta.blishment, 12 hakims or practitioners after the native method are maintained by the District Board, and one by the Municipality of 'Vazirahad. 'l'heir posts ara to be abolished as they die off.. - There is a small Church at Gujrarrw41a, capable of seating Ecclesiastical. some 80 or 90 persons. No Chaplain is posted there, but the Chaplain of Sialkot visits the station about every quarter to hold service. The engineering aud traffic arrangements of the portion Head-qllarteN {)C of the North-Western Railway which runs through the district other Departments. are under the Executive Engineer. North-\V estern Railway, and District Traffic Superintendent, stationed at Lahore. The headquarters of the Engineer-iu-Cbief of the 'Vazirabad-Mooltan Ha.llway now uuder construction are at Wazirabad. The great military blghway of Northern India., known as tbe Grand Trunk noad connecling nengal, Hindustan and the Punjab proper WIth the north-west frontier at Peshawar, runs almost parallel to the railway line, and tbe portion in this district is under the Executive Engineer of the Gujoonwala Divisioo, statiooed at Gujranwala. The Provincial 'Vorks in the district are also under

154 142 CHA.P. V.-ADMINISTRATION A~D FINANCE. [Punjab Ga.zetteer, Chapter V, B. his control. The first, second, and part of the fonrth Divisions. Lands and Land of the Chenah Canal are in this district, with head-quarters at ReVCDll.e. Khanke, where the head of the canal is Gujranwala I\1ld Lahore, Head-quarters of respectively. The forests of the district are under the Deputy Conservator of Forests, Gujranwala Division, stationed at Gujranwala. The telegraph hnes and of?ce3 are controlled by the 'l'elegraph Superintendent at Lahore, and the Post Offices by the Huperintendent of Post Offices, Gujranwala. Division, at GujranwtUa. other Depa~tments. The SIkh revenue system. SECTION B.-LAND AND LAND REVENUE. The revenue history of the district in so far as it bears on present conditions begins.. with the Sikhs. During the rise of SIkh power and the struggle of tbe rival confederacies for ascendency, roughly from 1750 to 1810 A. D., there was no fixed policy at all ; might was right. In act,1;he state of things cannot be more appropriately described than in the quotations. rc Becanse "The good old rule sufficeth them, the simple plan: " That they shonld- take who have the power. "And they should keep who can." By 1810 A. D., after nearly a. century of anarchy fatal to au material improvement, in which nearly every VIllage WIlS sacked or burned by one or other of the contending parties, or deserted by the owners owing to, the general i9secnrity and successive famines, the district had fallen into the strong hands of Ranjit Singh, and comparative order and security were restored. The ::Maharaja's fiscal policy was two-fold. l'art of the district was portioned out to the local chiefs or his own followers on a. semi-feudal system, to make what they could out of the people, subject to the obligation of military servico j the rest was farmed out in grottps of villages to kardars or farmers of the revenue, wbo contracted to make certain fixed payments to the Royal Treasury at Lahore. Thp kardars and jagirdars alike realised the revenne direct from the cultivators by kankul or appraisement of the crop, batai or division of the crop, and chikota or lump payments in kind and cash, changing one mode tor another as they found it to their profit. Each system pressed equally hard on the people who were regarded as a sponge to be squeezed to the utmost limit compatible with their continuldg to cnltivate, and when they refused or werp unable to pay, the land was made over to ontsiders. 'l'he resnlts of this system are thus described by Mr. Morris :- " 'l'he evil consequences attendanli on thilj systl'dl are wortby of notice, jf ouly to show what the effect:. has been on ODr present flystem of revenue collections. First, iii made the people improvident: they knew that the more they worked and the larger their returns, 10 in proportion woulll the GonfnmeDt. -

155 GuJranwa.la District. ) CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATIOY AND ~IN4NCE. 143.demand 'be enhanced; whilst the more idle they were, the leas would they have to pay to Government Thus was a premium offered for IdlE'lness. Secondly. it Chapter V, :u. was directly to the advantage of the k8.rdar tbat the cultivation should increase. Landa and Land It therefore beoame bis interesli to give over the land to t.hose who wonld till it Revenue. besc, who were generally mere cultivators. Thus the rigbts of proprietor. were The Sikh revenue dlsregluded,and the value of property consequently deoreased. The result of system this depreo atlon in the value of property In land is tha.t, instead of finding the VIllage commllnjtieil strong, WIth elements of stability 10 tbem, "e see them weak, unable to alford help to erch other, and One and all repudiating the principle of joint responsibility. The consequence of this 'arr. (kan1.td) Iystem has been to make the people improvident to the last degree. 'fhey have never been aool18tomed to pay tor more or less than the actual return of the crop. They do not understand providing for the exigencies of a bad season by laying by from a good one: consequently bloed add regular money payment.a are very unpopular with them. A~aiD, formerly they always looked to Governme1lt for help in linking wells, &:0. ThiS help they readlly got from the k8.rdars, who were personally interested in extending the cultivation. The result is that now they can do nothing for themselves. " The assessment so demanded and realised wonld now seem to us incredlble. In the richest portion of the district, viz., along its eastern boundary, the ordinary rate was one-half 01' two-fifths of the produce, or a fixed charge of Re. 1 in the kharif and two mans of wheat in the rabi per acr ", which would now be equivalent to an assessment of Rs..5 per acre. Good wells with 30 to 50 acres attached had to pay Rs. 120 to Rs The only exception to the general fiscal oppression was Dewan Sawan Mal, who about 1825 A. D. obtained the Bar and adjoining Bar tracts in the Hafizabad tahsil, partly in farm. and partly in jagir. He enc:>uraged the pastoral tribes of the Bar to found villages and settle down permanently to agriculture by allowing them to hold the land at a very lenient assess" ment, ultimately fixed at Rs. 62 per weh. He also made' reo missions in. favour of those wbo founded new villages or sunk new wells. Were it not for this wise and far-sel:1ing policy, the nomads of the Gnjranwala BSf would neve'r bave settled.on the soil, but would have remained homeless and landless vagahonds as their brethren in Jhang or Montgomery are to-day. This striking exception J however, only he'ightened the effect of the general oppression. In additlon to the ordinary revenue demand, there were a multitude of petty exactions known as nazar, farashkhana, topkhana, hooli, varying f"om Re. 1 per well per harvest to Rs. 2 per villagel, while villages at a distance from the central market had to pay an addition of from 8 annas to Re. 1 per mani of 8 mans for difference of prices and cost of carriage. A more crushing exaction was the free-qu{lrtering of troops on the people and the necessity of furnishing supplies for the Sikh armies on their way to the frontier, the high road to which lay through the centre of the district. In fact on few, if any, districts in the Punjab did the hand of the Sikhs fau mofe heavily tban on this. The result was- that under Sikh rule proprietary rights, had no value, the distinction between owner and tenant was unknown, the State demand absorbing all the profits of cultivation, and the possession or land was regarded rather as a burden than a privilege. At annex- ation consequently we found the district impoverished and

156 144 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FI~.ANCE. t Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter V, B. demoralized, the village c')mmunities weak and repudiating th6 L d prmciples of joint resp0nslbility, the people leading a. hand to Lan:e~::Ue.an mouth existence from hal veet to harvest, unable 01' unwilling to 'fhe Sikh re\enu8 do anything for themselves and averse to a fixed sybtem of system. money payments. Few districts, therefor~, had a WOl'SO start under British ful ', and unfortunately the E.'fi'('ct of our fin,t experimeuts in a~sessment, in which we took as a f;tandard the amount which the Sikhs had been able to dragoon out of the pe("lple, was rather to increase the dernoralizatlotl than to check it. Sllmmary ment. Regu1ar ment. settle '1'he summary settlement ofthe di'3trict was made in by Mr. Uocks and Major Lake, Assistants to the Re!1ident. '1'he basis of calculation was the collections 10 grnin and kind for the previous five years, lists of which were supplied by tho kardarr. 'rhe grain payments were commuted inlo cash at the rate of prices then prevailing, wljicb, owing to the demand for supplies for the troops in the field, llappened to be exceptlonally high j and an all-round reduction of ~O pel' cent.. boing allowed, the balance was announced as a fiud cash demand. Thf! total for the whole district was Rs. 6,69,550, and the incidence per cultivated acre Rs " From the methods employed it was inevitable that the assessment should be glaringly unequal, but lu addition it was oppressively severe. For a few years the zamlndars, buoyed up by high prices, paid the demand with some regularity, ~f not with eafse. At annexation prices fell o\ving to tho disbandment of enormous bodies of troopl'l, the income from service feji off, money became scarcer, while the demand foj' It owing to the new system of fixed money payment increased. A severo drought in 1849 increased the strain, and auotlwr and moro disastrous drought in 185 J, accompanied by a deadly epidemic of murrain among the cattle, brought matters to a crisis and made it appai'ent that the sumidary settlement which lind originally been announced for only three years, but ev~ntt1- ally ran on for seven, could n.pt be maintained without ruming the district. Every year the collections proved difficult and bail'ionces accrued. From 1849 to 1853 the balances averaged n per cent. on the demand, rising in 1849 and 1853 to 10 and Ib per cent., respectively. The pressure was most severe in the highly irrigated tracts of Gujranwala. and )Vazirabad which had suffered most from the exactions of the Sikhs and were least able to bear the strain of over-assess settle. ment. In the Gujranwala pargana, for instance, a balanco of over 17 per cent. accrued, and the number of wells deserted in one year exceeded 300. It was evident that a. reduction ot assessment was urgently needed, and in 1851 the regular settlement was begun by Mr. Temple who was in charge of the operations for the whole Rechna. Doah with Mr. Morris as his ASSIstant for. the Gujran 'Valu. district and the trans-ravi portion of Lahore. In 1853 Mr. Morris received independent charge and _completed the

157 onjr&j1wa,la District. 1 CHAP V.-AD MINISTRAT ron AND FtNANOE. operations in The standpoint from which he approached Chapter Vt B. his task is tb us described by him in his report:- Land and Land fc It was evident that redaction was necessary, and tbat to ensure lor the Revenue. futare regular payments, and determine on an assessment that could be reason Regalal' lettleably expeoted to work well through any number of years, a. considera.ble a.mount ment. of Government revenue muat be saordiced. The following considerations also convldced me tbat a llgbt &Bsessmenli only could work well and suco6ssfully in the tract :-viz, the general inferiority of the soil; great depth of water from _ the surface; the a.bsence of development of natural resources; the nomad chnracter of the people; their idleness and improvidence J tbeir thievish pro. pensities and aversion to money payments; the absence of propnetary rights a.nd low 'Value of landed property; the scantiness of the population, and absence of oultivators," His method of assessment was briefly to divide each pargana. into assessment circles, and having regard to the revenue history, agricultural statistics, and ex.isting condition of each circle, to determine the general amount of reduction nt'cessary. Having collected his ass(lssment data, viz., rates on wells, rates on vokes, rates levied by the Sikhs, tahsildar's estimate and a produce estimate based on the assumption that the Government was entitled to one-sixth of the gros!! produce on irrigated and one-fifth on unirrigated 1ands, he deduced from them the rates necessary to bring'out the desired rel'lult. In all but tlle river circles the rates be finally adopted were not so much soil rates as Jump sums on wen areas, which in each circle he divided into three classes according to their c~nditjon, efficiency, quality of tile soil, and number of yokes attacbed. The method was in accordance with the practice of the ppople in distributing the revenue. Bis village assessments were worked out on much the same principle, but were farther modified by the grant of SU9& ter:cporary reduction for tbe first two or tllree years in favour of estates which had suffered materially from the drought of as would enable them to recover from their depression. The financial result of the re-assessment was to reduce tho original summary settlement demand, excluding petty 'mtl.afis by about 19 per cent., t:iz.:-., TabSl1. - Percent Summa.ry Regular age of. settlement settlement. reduc tiod. us Tncid~nce of regular settlement per cultivat ed acre , Ra. :Rs. BIJ. a. p. Gujr&Dwala 2,91,5'18 2,32,' Wazirabad 2,01,56'1 1,67, Ratizabad 1,76,405 1,42, 'Iotal '0' 6,69,500 5,43,362 19/ 1, 0 : -

158 146 CllAP. V.-AD1UNISTRATION AND FINANCE. t Punja.b Gazetteet, Cha.pter V, B. In GujranW11la and 'Vazirabad the cultivated land alon~ Land and Land was assessed. In the Hafizabad Adjoining Dar anll Ba.r villages, R~venue. a sum of about Hs. 3,000 was assessed on the waste, calculated Regular settle- at the rate of Re. 1 per 100 bead of cattle. This tirni assess- ment was clearly madequate, and villages with little cultivation and large profits from cattle and from the produco of waste land escaped very lightly, while the burden of assessment was thrown on VIllages which had broken up their waste. ment. The relief given by the regular settlement was great, but the people had been 80 sorely tried by the over-assf"!smcut of past years followmg on the oppressive exaction of the SIkhs that they were averse to bmdmg themselves to a fixed cash assessment even when this gave a sl1bstantial reduction of the old demand. The most delicate and ardnous task connected witll the settlement was to induce them to engage for the rennue', and, when they had been 1';0 engaged, to prevent them from l'epudlating their responsjijihties. Mr. Temple, who gave out tho assessments of Gujranwala and 'Vazirabad in 1853, notes;- "When I annoudced thejamo8 I could see that in their hearts the people were unwlllmg- to enter into any en)!:akements at all for cash payments J n Bev81al cases Mr MorrIS had sh0'y.d consldelatlon to villages that had ButTered most from the drought of 1851 by offenng them reduced jamalj for the fir~t two yeals. "The reduced Jamris wcre accepted and the usual eo!!agement Il,'IVen ID, but, In Mr MorriS's words, no sooner did the time for enhancement arrive than the people gave in a petition beggldg to be released from their engagements." Such ca.ses of recusancy were rigorously dealt with by the Settlement Officel', who procured the transference of the sbare of such l'ecusants to more solvent shareholders, 01" its temporary alienation to farmers, who agreed to pay the Government revenue, or its sale to the highest bidder. In GUJranwala 15 estates were wholly, and 2 partly; transferred to outsiders; in Wazirabad one whole estate and one-third of another were similarly transferred under pressnre of the assessment; whilo in Hafizabad the transfer covered one JVhole estate, one-half of two, one-third of two, one-fourth of two and one-sixth of threo estates. In addition to these transfers of whole estates or shares, no less than 280' cases of transfers of holdings covering abou t 14,000 acres took place; the old owners' in most cases owing to poverty or the pressure of assessment volnntarily transferring their shares to more solvent sllareholders. By these methods a serious expropriation of the old proprietors in favour of capitalists or specomtors in land was begun, which was the subject of long and bitter controversy at the time. Ultimately it was laid down by the Lieutenant-Governor that the refusal of a proffered jama by the proprietors does not render the compulsory sale of their land legal; all that they can be made to forfeit a.re the privileges of contracting for the payment of the Government revenue and of managing the estate. On this principle being applied, temporary farm (mubtajiri) took the place of permanent aliena.tion, and efforts subsequently ma.de to reinstate the old

159 Gujranwa.la District.] CHAP. V.-ADIDNISTRATION AND FINANCE. 147 owners by compromise with the alienee were generally success- Chapter V, B. -rul except in cases where whole estates had been transferred to Land and Land wealthy capltrllists hke the Dewa.na of Eooinabad and the Sardars Rennue. of Butala, who claimed to hold on the ground that they had Regular spent monel Oil the property. ment. In spite of au all-round rednction of 19 per cent., there is no doubt that, Judged by our pre~ent standard of assessment, viz., half assets, Mr. Morris's assessment was too high. ThIs is apparent from the facts that his demand cultivated acre was from 6 to 16 per cent. above the incidence of Mr..o'Dwyer's present assessment, though prices bave probably increased 50 per cent since, and that during the cultency of the regular settlement profit rents were almost unknown, the owners in most cases being only too glad to get tenants to cultivate on condition of paying the Governme-nt revenue with l\ - nominal malikana. All over the district, and especially in the most highly developed tracts, it soon became apparent that some villages were overasses~ed. Balances began to accrue, and m many estates reductions had to lie given. In 1858 a. general enquiry Into the conditions of the more depressed estates was carried out by the Commissioner, the result,of which wa~ that the deferred or progressive enhancements were generally given up and a. reduction of about Rs 21,000 or 4 per cent. &0 :Mr. MorriS's i ama was granted. Thenceforward, assisted by a return of good seasons, the increased security for hfe and property nnder our rule, the settlement appears to have worked smoothly enough. Bettle' The revi~ioll of the ~regular settlement, which had been ''Revision of settle. sanctioned for a. term of ten years from the date of the givldg menta vut of the original assessments, was undertaken by Captam Nisbet under the general supervision of Mr. PrlDsep, the - Settlement Comlllissioner, in 1864 and completed in I' Captain Nisbl:lt thus describes the state of affairs at the beginning of ltis settlement :-,I I soon found that though after revised assessment the demand for land revenue was far from being excessive, and there was no great distress, yet the rates fell very unevenly, and Villages were either in one or the other extreme. N early one-quarter of the whole district is foildd to be heavily taxed, while 716 Villages are hghtly, anj only 193 flurly, assessed. The general complarnt I heard everywhere in my tonrs in the district was, not mnch of over-assessment bnt of inequality of rates in ut'ighbounng Vlllages. The very considerable increase in the Jrflgated area. and small nnmber of wells out of nse betokens the prosperity of late years_ Tllongu at the present revlsion of settlement no great increase of revenue has beed ta"ell, every endeavour has been made to Rive relief in the way m')st needed, add avoid as far as possible great mequahty of rates in villages of the same usessment CIrcle Some TariatlOn there mnst; be always, In proportlon as estates diverge from the centre of the chalk, and partake less of its charaoterlstics as they approach the boundary of adj')lnmg CIrcles." 1'h~ Government share of the produce was calculated at onesixth. The new rate iama iucluded a rate on water, and land revenue, first by applying to the irrigated area a well rate, higher or lower accordmg to the fertility of the circle to be assessed, calculated on the assumed average profit of the area watered by

160 148 CHAP. V_ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. (Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapte'l V, B. 6,,'ell in that locality after deduction of all expenses, and then Land and Land adlling to tllis a moderate rate on the whole assessa.ble area as- Revenue. tt l/nirrigated." The weill ra.te multiplied into the whole number Revision ofsettle. of wens in use, care being taken to see that there was DO want of yokes or able-bodied population, and the barani rate multiplied into the whole assessed area, gave the new rate jama of the aesessment circle; anc1 the standard thus obtained was then applied to eacb. V'illage area and the result showed bmv the gllneral rate for the CIrcle would affect that estato. ment, l8ce 6S. rrhe totall'evenue of the district in 1866, including a Imall amount realized in lieu of titf';, was Rs. 5,28,554. The revenue abhessed by Captam Nisbet on the cultivation was initial Us. 5,45,575 and progressivo Rs. 5,85,827, to which must be added the) jama assessed on the banjar land, which was Rs. 11,475 initial and Rs. 23,234 progressive. Thus the grand total increasa in the 1and revenue of the district was Ha. 28,496 or uk per cent. initial, and Hs. 80,507 or 15t per cent. progressive. 1'ho progrestlive increase was generally taken in the tenth year ofsettlement. Full details of the assessment by parganaa or circles,vith the :jam'18 and their enhancement progressively, are glven in tho nppendlces to Captain Nisbet's report. The announcement of the n~w assessments was rec.elved everywhere with the greatest satisf~ction. Even in talisil Hafizabad, where the nctualmcreaso was lnrgest, not a single village declined to f'ngage. There is no doubt. whatever that the assessment everywhere was extremely moderate, and the absence of even a semblance of dissatisfa.ction would lead to the belief that it might have been higher. Tlle new assessment came into force in tahsil Waztrabad and the chglrkhari mahal of Gujranwala from the kharif kid Sarnbat 1924, corresponding with December 1867; in the rest of the district from the rabi kist of Sambat 1925, corresponding with J nly1868. The neiw assessments were sanctioned for a term of 20 year. A leading feature of the settlement was the assessment of pasture. Mr. Morris's ti,ni assessment was merely nominal and came to only about Rs. 3,OeO. Ca»tain Nisbet, after leaving 0. hberal margin for pastul'e, assessed the remaining culturable land in the Adjoining Blir of Gujranwala and Hafizabad at one anna per acre, rising progressively to 2 annas, aoo in the Hafizabad Bar at i anna rising to Ii annas. 'l'be initial assesl!ment on pasture was Rs. 11,475, rising progressively to Rs. 23,:324. The initial revenue assessed on the cultivation was Re. 5,45,575 and progressive Us. 5,85,827. The grand total increase in the land revenue ot the district was Rs. 28,406 or 6k per cent. initial, and Rs. 80,507 or 15! per cent. pl'ogressive. In the interval between the regular and revised settlements cultivation had increased 15 per cent., irrigation 20 per cent. o The assessment was severely criticised at the time as being unduly lenient, and the Lieutenant.Governor accepted t:qe proposal of the Financial Commissioner that the progressiv$

161 Gujranwala Distritt.) CHAP. V.-ADl[INISTRATIO~ AKD FINANCE. 149 enhancements should be taken at once aud the settlement sane- Cbpter'V, D. tioned for only 10 years. Ultimately, however, these orders Lan,;;d LUll! were reviewed, and it was directed that the term of settlement Reyenue. shonld stand for 20 years, as given out nnder Mr. Prinsep's lle1iaion of aettl. instructions, and that the progressive enhancements should not ment, be taken before the dates originally announced. By the people the new settlemen~ wa.s received witli great satisfaction. The State demand had now been fixed at So moderate amount )Vhieh left So margin for profit rents, aftd rent, as r payment in excess of the revenue, became now the rule, not the exception. The new settlement. how"ever, had a. bad start. The years were years of short or unseasonable rainfall with bad harvests and scarcity of fodder. This caused considerable distress in the Bar villages of Gujranwala aud Hafizabad. A special enquiry IIl,D.de at the time showed that an' epidemic d murrain carried off 46,555 head of cattle, valued at. 9lakhs. The distress was aggravated by the orders originally issued to realise the progressive assessments at once. Many villages in Bafizabad and some in Gnjranwala began to {all into arrears, and in 1872 the Deputy Commissioner reported that thoir conditions would have been deplorable had not orders been received. from Government that the progressive jamall were not to be realised before the dates originally given out, and that the excess already realised was to be credited against the current year's demand. In 1873 a. more prosperous era set in with abundant rains, copious harvest, and an ample supply of fodder. 'I'his lasted till 1876, and enabled the Guj.. l"anwala. and 1Iafizabad villages to recover from their ]OSS~8. ]876 and 1877 were very bad years owing to excesaive rains in the formel, and deficient rains in the latter: 1878 wab a good year j 1879 and 1880 were both very bad owing to the failure of \he winter rains, and the short harvests, comblded with the drain of produce towards the seat of war, raised prices to a famine pitch, wheat selling at 10 sers per rnpe~. ]882 nshered in a. period of agricultural prosperity which lasted up to 1884, when another bad cycle set in which lasted np to ]888. This period was especially disastrous for Ha6zabad, wherl', owing to the more uncertain rainfall, the fluctuations from prosperity to depression at least before the opening of the Chenab Canal have been more marked and rapid. In H86 a. suspension of the khanf demand amouuting to Rs. 4,333 was granted to 48 villages in Waziraba.d, where the crops had been severely damaged by hail, but this was soddenly realised in Yay 1887, and the want of consideration shown cad sed some hardship. In Kharil 1885 Rs. 6, was suspended in 47 vijlages in Hafizabad which had suffered most from the drought and fodder famine, a.nd this was collected in kharif 1886 a.nd kharif and Rabi 188i'. "-

162 150 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. [Punjab Gazetteer, Cha}lter V, B. The ha.rvests from 1887 up to date', on the results of which Land and Land the new assessments have been largely based, have beeu des: Revenue. cribed iu detail in the Assessmen~ Reports.. ReviSion of settle ment, 'raking for each tahsil, the live years prior to the new assessment as an average cycle, the result of the analysis is as folio", s :- Gujranwala. Wadrabad Hafizabad GujrauwliJa Wazlrabad Hafizabad Khartl,.. 2 average, 2 below avprftge, 1 V9fJ bad... 2 good, 3 bad. 2 good, 1 fair, 2 very bad. Bahi 2 average, 2 excellent, 1 bad. 1 bad, 2 excellent, 2 p:ood. 1 bad, 3 excellent, 1 very bad. So that the kharh whicl1 is by far the most precarions crop is successful in two years out of five, while the rabi in Gujrnnwala. and Wazirabad where the winter rains are more certalo and copi.ous is a good or an excellent crop in four yea.rs out of five, and in Hafizabad has been au excellent crop in three years out of five, bad or very bad in the remaining two years. The land revenue appears to-have been realised with regularity jf not always without difficulty, and resort was rarely made to measures more coercive than the ordinary warrants and anoccasional distraint. Second revised The history of the present settlement is giv&n in detail in settlement, th,e final report recently,submitted by the Settlement Officer, Mr. O'Dwyer, from which the foregoing account of the previous revenue history has mainly been taken. Re-assessment operatioos were gazetted on 3rd November 1888, and Mr. Maude joined the district as Settlement Officer on the same date, bnt the establishment was not completed till August 1889, and Mr. Maude left the diatrict on depntation to the Secretariat in June. He was succeeded bi Mr. O'Dwyer in September 1889, nutl that officer held charge of the settlement till its completion in June It was decided in the first instance by the Financial Commissioner that remeasnrements should be avoided as far as possi. ble, and that the old maps shonld be corrected and brought up to date where they fufllished a fairly accurate basis to work UpOD, remeasurements on the square system being confined to riverain and canal-irrigated VIllages, villages in which there had been a. large extension of cultivation, or in which there had beeu considerable internal changes by subdivision of holdings, partitiodof common lands, &0., or where the oldmaps were foond to be materially incorrect. Subsequently jt was foond necessary to remeasure in many other cases in order that the field maps should come up to the requirements of the Survey Department, and in conseq~ence revision of the old ma.ps wa.s

163 Gujranwala District.] CHAP. V.-ADlID''1STlUTION AND FIN.uCE. 151.effected in only 387 estates with an area of 365,000 acre!.', while Chapter V. B. 846 estates with an area of J,~75,OOO acres, or nearly 80 per Land and. Land cent. of the wbole, were remeasnred. Training of the patwari's Revenue. in sorvey work was begnn ill November 1889, and in February Second ret"ised 1890 measurements were started all over the district. 1'he settlement, progress at first was slow; gradually, however, as the pahvaris became accustomed to the work and were assisted in the heaner circles by temporary establjshment (amins), the ouuurn of work increased., In,~. azirabad, where only 45 per cent. was remeasured and neady au the work was done by patwaris, the survey was completed in Octobtir 189l. In Gnjrauwala the work was heavier, as 61 per cent. had to be remeasured, the circles larger, and the snrvoey, of which two-thirds was doue by the patwaris themselves, was completed in January In Hlifiz:abad, practically, all the area had to he remeasured, and as the average area per patwari was about 10,000 acres, the patwari~, who even after careful weeding ont were by no m~ans efficlent, had to he snpplemented by a large temporary establishment who measured over half the area. The snrvey was finished in April The \V hola field survey of the dis:rict, covering Toughly abont 900,000 fields and L650,OOlJ acres, excluding the colonised area, has been completed iu 21 yea.rs. The new records were prepared corrently with thd progress Revision. of the survey. Origmally, no special revision of the settlement. record of nghls. records was contemplated, but 8nch revision was gazetted by Notification No. 34-2, dated :nth May 1891, and a II standing record II wns accordingly prl'pared for each estate which ~ntalns the following documents :- 1. The preliminary proceedings. 2. Genealogical tree: 3. Detailed jamahandi with copieli of- (a) register sh,!'wing yearly total of transfel'8, (b),yearly register of areas, '(c) yearly revenue account, (d) list. of revenue assignments ana pensions, (e) statement of rights in well!!, <f) statement of rights in irrj~ation, if any. 4. Order of Collector determining the assessment and orders of higher authority, if any, modifying the same. o. Order of the Collector distributing the assessment over holdings.

164 'Chaptel' V, B:.Land and Land Revenue. Revision of the record of rights. 152 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. [PUDja,b Gazetteer, 6. Statement of customs l'espectidg rights and liabilities in the estate. 7. List of village ceases.. 8. Field map. An account of the contents of these documents and or the method in which they were prepared is given in pa.ras {) the Final Settlement Report. Re.assessment. 'The way having thus been cleared for re-assessment by So re-survey of the \V hole district, and the preparation of So new and correct record embodying all changes in proprietary right, tenancies, &0., up to date, the work of re-assessment was next taken up. The period of 20 years for which the first revised settlement was sanctioned expired in , and in 1887 tho Financial Commissioner (the late Colonel Wace) estimated the probable enhancement from re-assessment of the district a.s Rs. 80,000. The general principles laid down were: (1) that the Government ded;land for land revenue should not e~ceecl the estimated value of half the net produce of the estate i (2) that revenue rates should be framed for ea.ch assessment circle representing approximately the estimated average annual half net produce of au acre of ~ach class of land in the circle, the rents paid in money or in kind in au average year by ordinary tenants being taken as the principal guide to the estimate of the net produce, and 'u11 allowance being made for Sllch expense.s as by custom fall on the landowner. It,. was further laid down by the Lieutenant-Governor (Sir James Lyall) that, as the re-assesament of au the districts in the Central Punjab was being undertaken simultaneously and was to be carried out in a. cheaper and flpepdier way than was the castom, tho intention of GoverBment was to facilitate work and disarm opposition by making the assessment in each case decidedly moderate, and in case of doubt to give the benefit of it to the Eamindar8 on the principlo that moderation, combined with a fair regard to the intj,eresta or the State exchequer, would iu the long run secure both greater general well-being and a greater Government revenne.,. Thus the half assets estimate was prescribed as the limit rattler than _the 8tandara of a.ssessment, and caution in fixing the demand was inculcated throughout. Standards of as- In giving effect to these instructions the followicg stand eesement. ards of assessment were kept in view ;- (1) Prodnce rent hale net assets. (2) Cash rent half net assets. (3) One-sixth gross produce. (4) Rates of last settlement as raised in proportion to the increase of prices. And a. brief explanation of each of these standards mayappropriately be given.

165 Gujranwala. J)istrlct.1 CHAP. V.-ADlfINISTRATION AND :fliunce. 153 Clla.pter V, B. The method by which tile produce rent' half assets were "arrived at was as follows:-'l'he agricultural statistics of each Land.. nd J,and assessment CIrcle fol' the last five years were scrutmised and Revenue tabulated so as to sho\v how many acres of crops had been Prodace rent halt false d per 100 acres f 1 d h h net assets. 0 cu tlvatlon, an -w at was t e average area of each crop so raised. By means of the crop experiments carried out in the three years 1889, 1890 and' ]891, aided by local enqliiry and personal experience, average rates of yield were arrived at for ('ach crop. Applymg these rates of yield, the ontturn of each crop on 100 acres of cultivation was arrived at. The average prices of the leadmg staples, as shown in the Government Gazette, in the grain-dealers' books, &c., were then ascertained, and an estimd.te formed on this basis of the prices which might safely he assumed for the calculation ~f the value of the produce. Thus the selling price of wheat was estimated at 26 ~ers per rupee, of raw CottOll at 15 sers, of gur at 12 sers, and compared with last settlement it was found that prices had risen 27 per cent. all round. Having ascertained the above, it was only necessary to apply the scale of prices fixed upon to tbe outtllrn of each crop to determine the gross money value of the produce on an average holdmg of 100 acres in each circle. 'fhe gross outturn having been determined, the sbare which the landlord received was d('duced according to the average of the kind rent rates in the tract-usnally two-fifths or one-third in 'Vazirabad, one-third or one-fourth in GujranwaJ~ one-fourth in Bafizabad-and, l:ifter deductions for fodder and village menials, of the landlord's share-32 per cent. m Wazirabad, 26 in Gujranwala, 24'5 iu Hafi7abad-converted into cash in the mannel' explaloed above, represented the pro-, dllce rent half net assets which was one of the standards or rather the hmit of the Government demand. The produce rent estimate, however, being based on a series Cash ront hall of hypotheses (vulgice guesses) as to average harvests, average net assets. onhurn, average holdings, average price!'!, 18 necessarily lopeu to a large margld of en'or, In this district a more reliable method of determimng the lettlog value and profits of tand. and of deducing from them the half assets, is furnished hy the cash rents which prevail on about 250,000 acres 01' over 30 per cent. of the entire cultivation. These rents have been descrlbed in a, previous chapte~. They vary from Rs. 20 per acre in the highly cultivatj:ld, irrigated and manured la.nds around the towns of Gujranwala, Wazirabad and Ramnagar, to Re. 1 per acre in the most st9rl1e parts of the Bar, and are', as a. rule, ' competitive and fully and punctua,1jy realised. 'rhrougbout the 'Wazlrabad tahsil, where owners are numerous, holdldgs comparativt:ly small, markets close, communications fa,'vourable, and the demand for land keen, it was found that the rents wei a fully competitive, and in the Charkhari or most highly developed circle were oftfln rack rents. Conditions in the Glljranwala, Charkhari and BaDgar ciroles were similar, with this difference, tha~, as holdings were

166 154 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTB.ATION ANl> J'lNANCE. t Punja.b Ga.zetteer. Chapter V, B. larger, tenants fewer, and the pressure of population less, rents Land and Land were found to be lairly competitive but rarely rack rents. c!e::!~!lf net In all the abov~ circles,.therefore, the cash rent half assets asbots. offered the most rellable basis for re-iulsessment. On the other band, in the Adjoining Bar circle of Gujranw'la and all tho llafizabad tahsil, it was found that the largeness of the proprletary holdings, great area of available land, comparative scarcity of any tenants, ex.cept village m~nials who were allowed to hold at privileged rates, the want of good communications and markets, the backward an,d unenlightened condition of the owners who had in many places only recently taken to agriculture and had not yet fully realised the fall extent to which the profits of land had been e:p.hanced by high prices and more secure returns-all these causes combined to render cash rents low, sta,tiona.ry aud non-competitive. Accordingly in this tract the estimate based on cash rents was used rather as a corrective to the kllld rent estimates than as.. an independent standard of assessment. The average cash rents for each class of Boil in each circle were thus worked out. 'l'he total area. under such rents, and the tota.l reut paid, were ascertained from the entries I1R regards tenancy holdings as attested on the spot by landlord and tenant during the survey. A large proportion of the holdi nge, however, included dlffirent kinds of soil-ch&hi, Mrani, &c., held at a fixod ren t with nothing to indicate how much was payable on account of each. standard. The totals for the circle thus showed the entire cash rents paid on a gross area, including chahi, barani, nahri and sailtiljc, lands. ':rhe chahi area was, however, far in excess of al! tb~ others combined. 'The average casb rents for oarani,,ailaba and nahri lands were" therefore, ascertained froro the fi~ureb for unmixed soils in a number o( VIllages in each circle, and, the area and rental of theso lands being eliminated from tho circle total, the balance represented tho area. and rental of the chahi land from which the average cham rent was then deduced. Thus, the 6grtres for cash r~nts not on ly supplied a basis for tho calculation of the ball net assets.1or the circle as a whole and of each individual estate, as separate averages were struck for each estate, but also showed the a,verage letting value of an acre of average land of each class in the circle. Half nc~ aesets Taking one-half of the net value of kind and cash rents in each circle to represent the half net assets, the kind and cash rent half assets acreage rates were arrived at. There was naturally a difference greater or less between the two estimates, and the I\ext question was how to combine them 80 8S to get a. reliable set of assets rates. In Gujranwala, where the difference between the two estimates 'Was small, the half assets acrea~e rates were obtained by striking a me~n between the~. and the reso.lt was accepted by the Financial Commissioner. In Wazlrabad the difference though larger was not conside:able, aild the Financial Commissioner a.ccepted a. half assets..estlillate I

167 . Gujranwala District.] CHAP. V.-AD:MINISTitATION A~D FINANCE. ] 55 based on the application to the whole cultivated area of the Chapter V, :B. ltind, mixod (chikota), and pure cash rents in the proportion in Land and tand which they were found to exist in the area held by tenants. In Revenue. Hafizabad the produce h1).lf assets, owing to the lowness of cash Hal! net absets rents already explained, worked out 67'5 per cent. in excess of standard. the cash rent half assets, and it was found impossible to 80 combine them as to derive any single reliable estimate from the two; but the revenue rates ~liy imposed were about midway ~ between them. Another standa.rd, which, though useful for comparison, was One aixth globs of little. intrinsic value, was' obtamed by taking the value of produce. one-sixth of the gross produce. This, though difficult to justify on theoretio grounds, wa~ the traditional limit of the State demand in the settlements carried out between 1860 and 1870 nnder Mr. Prinsep's direction. It would work out lower than the produce rent half assets where the landlord's. share was high, sar one.half as in Amritsar and Sialkot, but in a. district like this, where the landlord's share is usually one-third or one-fourth and half of his net share comes to only 13'25 per cent. or be.. tween Clne-seventh and one-eighth, it exceeds the half net assets standard considerably. This standard was, therefote, of little practical valne for re-assessment. A more valuable standard was supplied by the application Ra.~of1ast8ettl~to the present area of the rates of last settlement with an addi- :::'r;!r:~rea:oed th: tion to represent the subsequent increase in prices.. In the case rise in prices. of Gujranwala and \V'azirabad it was accepted that for purposes of assesrmen~ the increase in prices of produce arrived at by ccmparing the prices now assumed with those prevailing before last settlement might be estimated at 27 per cent. Later on the principle was laid down by Government that-.. The comparison should be between the prices which actua.lly ruled during the first few years'of the expjrin~ settlement. and the pnces which, so far a. ca.n be judged, seem 11ke11 to prevail duflng the term of the new settlement." And, applying this consideration in the case of Hatizabad, the Financial Commissioner a.nd Lieutenant-Governor came to the conclusion that for assessment purposes there had been no increase of price's worth speaking of. For Hafizabad, therefore, two estimates were worked out, viz., rates of last settlement "as if there bad been no rise in prices, and the same rates increased by 27 per cent. for rise in prices as assumed in the other two tahsils. Before discussing the manner in which the above theoretical Assell81l\ent standards were apphed in each circle, and the actnal results pasture land. derived fl'om 'them.. the assessment of pasture land and the treatment of canal cultivation may be conveniently referred to. Captain Nisbet's assessment of the wasts has been already described. At the present settlement the pasture land in the Chenab. circles benetitted by river action has been assessed a.s a rule a.t

168 UO CHAP. V.-ADMINlSTRATION AND FINANCE. {Punjab Gazetteet, Ohapter V.:8. 2 anllas per Dcre.. tbe rate fixed in the di-nljuvion rules fo; Land and Lancl pasture land which IDOY hereaftl::r Le formej by river notion, Revenna. and no such area. has been exempted. A~Rfl88ment of In the other circles in whicb pasture land is abllodant, viz., pastnre land. the Adjoining Dar circle in GujrAnwala, the Dangar Adjoining Bar and Bar circles in Hafizabad, the system initiated by Captain Nisbet has been maintail'led with some modifica.tionll. In each circle an area proportiotled to the pasture requirement. of the village, which depends largely on tlle number of cnule and wells required to carryon the cultivation, has been exempted from assessment. This exemption in the Ha6zabad DAn gar, where, owing td' the abundance of wells, a. great number of cattle. 8re required, extends to an area equal to the area under cultivation; in the remaining three circles, where baran; or nf1hri cultivation requiring fewer cattle jg more prominent, to an area equa.l to half the total cultivation. The remaining nrea. has then been nssess('d 1 ike cultivated land with reference to its profits from grazing, firewood, ghi, &0., which have been ascert'lined by enquiry in the VIllages and comparison with the income derivel! by Government from the grazing 1eases of the rakhs for the last :30 years. The r.ates per acre are as follows :- - Gajranwala Adjoining Bar HAfizablld.Adjoining Bar Bar Annal. : Bangar 1 The pasture la.nd in the Dangar is, as a. rnltj, high lying, sandy or damaged by kallar. In the other circles it is of excellent quality, and the profits in villages with large areas of excess pasture are considerable. The total assessment on pasture la.lld comes to about Rs. 36,000, or which Rs. 32,76318 in HMizabad alone. ASllessmenli of 'rbe general principle for the assessment of canal-irrigated ('ana.l-irrigated land. land is that it should be assessed at the same fate as unirrigated land of similar quality and advantages in the same tract, leaving the advantage derived by the ow~ers from canal irrigation to be realised by canal owner's rate. As the water-rate is paid by the tenant, this assumes that the owner'. fate is in fact paid by the owner and represents the difference to him bptween the returns from the land 'as.unirrigated and as canal.irriga.ted. Neither of these assumptions was found to be justified by the circumstances of canal irrigation in this district. In Kha~H 1892 when the supply in the Chena.b Canal was made per~ndlal th" water-rates were fixed as tallows p~r acre :- R a. p. 1. Sugar9al1e lues' Toba.cco, indigo, melods. G Cotton, fibre., maize, oil.eed. and all rabi crop. ' except gram a.nd tna884r alld m48,ar.,. -,..,. ", a 12 0 l. AU ltharlf crope not specifie<\ "bove a.nd gra.m., e 0

169 Gujranwala District. ] CHAP. V.-ADlUNlSTlU.T10N AND FI$ANCE. 157.Not only were these rates paid bl the tenant, but the landlord Chapter V, ]I. while retaining his customary sllare of the produce-oue-third Land;;a Land in 'V'azirabad, one-fourth nsually in Hafiiabad-threw on tlle llevenue. shoulders of the tenant the butthen of the owner's rate as well. A.sseumeD& or This bad originally been fixed at Re. J per acre. but was reduced ClanaI.lrrigated land. to ha.lf tha.t rate or 8 ann~s rer acre for the first 10 years. In practice, therefors, the tenant paid the water-rates plu. the 8 annm per acre intended to catch the extra profits of the landlord. Looking to these facts and bearing in mind that tlle valne of the landlord's net share on nahri lands was equal to. if it did not exceed, the vajue of his share on chuhi, and that he had to pay no canal dnes of auy description, it appeared absurd to assess such land as if it were unirrigated. It was, tl)erefore, proposed that the owner's rate and water-rate shodld be amalgamated into.a. single rate payable by the occupier. and that nah,, land should be aesessed on its merits, i. II., with refetence to the ordinary half assets standard. allowance being of course made for the deductions for owner's and occnpier's rate. These nnd other proposals for the assessment of new land broken np wlth canllllrt'igaiton during settlement in the nafizabad tahsil were accepted with Bome modificatio~s and the decisioo finally arrived at was on the following lines :- ]. 'j'ha.t nnhri land should be assessed not at dry ra.tes, but like other Jand with reference to the half assets standard, existing nahri land to pay the Same rate as chahi. 2. That the increase of land revenue due to the assessment of nah,.i land at a wet instead of a dry rat~ i. e. J thl' difference between the two, called the nahri parta, should be separately shown and a credit for this a.mount given to the Canal Depart; ment. S. That this wet assessment oii the nahri area of was to be considered a fix.ed one. 4. That foture extensions of cultivation doe to ca;nal irrigation should be assessed doring Settlement at the dry (barani) rate or the circle, the Canal Department to receive a credit for snch extra assessment after account had been taken of the proba.ble ngl"lllal increase in cultivation in these villages in the absence oc the canal, which was estimated at 3,000 acres. 5. That the water-rate and owner's rate should be amalgamated into a siogle rate to be "paid by the occupier. The above orders were gtven ~trect to in the assessment of the old Bafiza.bad tahsil" and of the total fixed assessment a sum of Rs. 20,198 has been shown as flak", part4 for which the Canal Department receive$ an indirect credit.

170 158 CUAP, V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE.. [Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter V, B, The results of the a.pplication of the standards of assessment Land and Land nbove described to each tahsil and the whole district., tile Revenue, assessment proposed.by the Settlement Officer and FinaneiJ.1 Results of assess Commissioner, the amount sanctioned by Government and 88 II!-en~ for the whole actually given out by the Settlement Officer, the incideno, dlstrlct, per acre of the Dew and old assessments and the extent of tho enhancement are shown in the following table :- I I '1ll8\l AGd, O!I :i l8 ;; 'BGadnu 1_ ~. ~ ~ Li ~ GO <:> 'Q.lO.zad t too. co t - I I '100 UaAPf 111amsSGSSV ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ :; ~ i ~. <ID'.:-. "" ~. I '111am 1 ~..".trjilaof). ' <XI qacnnd :. :: ~ - :... I '" ~ g - 'JallOll1. t ~ CD a;..: lit..:.,slwmoo fsloa.1i!.i[ :. g ~.,; <ID'.! ~ I h I.. I 'JOOmo I.., :t 8... C>., :: 111amam98 <D h ~ ~ ~.,; <to ~ ot l;\j g ~ :2 ~.; 'lugo.l9d LZ ' '8J P10 I... ~ 1 :I ~ "' : :,.;, : 'SII1'BJ P10 I : w;--\ ~ 8i,,;.. I. or :r I I s. I..:,1 ~. 'S~lI11J Punt I.' ~.. a:: co ~ GO to.. ',,;..,; o.:l. os I a I II e ~ ~ '81UIIJ 1[9'110 ~ i! ~ -I ~ IN '~OU9Pl0UI I 0 III, R ~ I 0 e e ~ 8 le I '~1I9tD C>.,,.; Oi.. (!j.,.; ~ 8. ~ P9'lVAl'lIUO,,,.. -li89sn-a.r 8JOJQCl pli'iul9a! I R q$- i! i :. :..i ~ ~ li1 ).. p E:.., I ~... :&.a!;li ~ tit I 11. i 1 : I

171 Gujranwa,1a. District.l ClIAP. V.-ADlIINISTRA.TION A~D FINANCE. 159 From the above figures it will be. seen that the final Chapter V, B. J.ssessment, including Rs. J,745 for progressive assessment in Land Rnd I.a. d tahsil Gujr'nwal~ and Rs. 4,147 for protective well leases in ReveJ;lue. n all three tahshs, gives an enhancement of Rs. 2,37,315 on the Results of assessdemand of the year prior to re-assessment, and of Rs. 2,84,897 ~en~ for the whole or 48 per cent. on the demand of the first year of the expiring di.etnct. settlement, Rs. 5,98,329. The new assessment is 4. per cent. above the.cash rent half assets, 17 per cent. below the prod uee rent half nssets. It amounts to about 68 per cent. of the one-sixth gross produce estimate which is far too high", standard in this district where the owner's net share is only 13'25 per cent. or between one. seventh and one-eighth, while it is 9 per cent. below the e.stimate obtained by applying to the present areas the rates of last settlement and adding 27 per cent. for increase in prices of produce. As the original estimate of the enhancement expected was only Rs. 8(},OOO the results of the settlement from a. revenue point of view have been decidedly satisfactory. The immediate increase in khalsa revenue is Rs. 1,87,804, viz.:- Gujranwala. Waz rabad Hafizabad Xa. 40,410 42,078 1,05,316 Total i,s'1,8040 At last settlement two revenue iostalments were fixecl for Shares of revedue the kharlf and two for the rabi payable on the following to be paid in each dates :_,,, han est. Kha.ril Rabi 15th December, 15th February. 15th JUDe, 15th July. And i~ was left to each village to decide whet'ber it should pay equally in each hal'vest as in the proportion of two-fifths'in the kharif, three.fifths in the rabi. The two rabi instalments have now been amalgamated, and the date of payment is :- Gujranwala. Wazimbad Hafizabad. 25th JUDe. 1st July. 1st July. For the kharif two instalments have been retained as before, as the cane and cotton with which the land revenue is generally paid are not ready for m~rket till January or Febrnary. The most popular division was either eqaal instalments or two-fifths in the kharif, three-fifths in the rabi. If regard be had to the relative importance of the crops, a more suitable division would be kharif one-third, rabi two-thirds, especially in the river circles, but the people were averse to any change, an~, in a matter ot this kind, they ar,e best judges of their own interests.

172 160 CRAP. V.-AD1UNISTIlATWS AND FINANCJo:. [ hnjab Ga.zetteer. Ohapter V, B. In Gujranwala and 'Vazfrabad the settlement has been Land and Land sanctioned provisionally by the Local Governmpnt for a. term Revenue. of 20 years from Kharif 18tl2 t\nd will expire with Rabi 1912; in Term of settle Hafizabad, for reasons alrel\dy given, the term of assessment will Juen'. run for ten years from Rabi CbeDab colony. Canal 'l'he fohowing note 011 the history of the Chenah Canal colony in this district which has be.en left out of account ill the recent settlement and its development up to date hlts been klodly supplied by LlelltenantF. P. Young, the Officer in chargo of the colonization operations:- t. SILlJlllion aud The Chenab Canal colony in Its preaeut lll.age of development is watpred si~e of tho colony. ('xclurlvely by the Rakh a.nd lhan Ali Branches of the canal. It commence. fn the Khnngah Dogran tahsil of the GUJranwala. district abonf. 40 milel from the headworka of the canal, and stretches in &, south-welt direction through tbe Cluniot and into the Jhang tahsil of the Jhang dlstnct. II Burvey. FrehmlDary 'I'he colony is bounrled on the Gnjranwala sidt'l by the large e.tat~1 of lhndnana, Kot Nal..kll., Sukheke, Khangah Dogt'an, Gajulna and Manan"ala-I} few smaller villages being sandwiched In between these-and il in tho Gujran. wala district a compact. quadrilaterll.l with irregular aides measuring aood 20 ldlles by 17. It comprisel 106 separate estates; and the total area. is 33S square milcs or 213,188 acrcs. The revenue snrvey of the Governmenli waste la.ndil commanded by the Rakh and AllAn Ali Branches of the canal commenced in October 18.'10. A Bquare of 200 karms with hn lu'ea of 27 7 a.crea bad heen decided upon as the Untt for purposea of allq,tment, and these aquares wero laid ont on tho ground and demarcated by means ot masonry blocks at the four corners, Yll\age bollndarles being lddlf:lated by similar blocks With a convex surface. Mapi of eaoh estate showing the squarel, e.llsting habitations, welle, road., drainagcli, and projeoted water-courses were prepared on " Rcale of 40 kur"" to the IDCh, aud 100 copies of each on a. scale of 160 karma to th' inch were aubsequently printed. III. Conditions The actual businetos of ('olonisbtion commenced in Febrnary Previous prevalling before the to that there existed a smull C":UIIY of lla7.hbi rettlere, pensiuners from the commenoement of 23rd, 32nd, and 34tb Pioneers who were introduced during 1890 add 18!!1 : and colod1satlon opera- a rew grants or crown waste had been made on special and favourable trrml to tiou certainldchvlduals, mostly deaerving officera of the natita army The Mazhbil (a) Mazhbls. did It. certllin amonnt of cultivstlon With the.aut of the ongldally constructed inundation canal, but the other gran toes mamly contenwd themaelves With Illtting their land for ~azldg purposes I and untu the kharl' of 1892, when.. permanent lupply in the canal had been assnred by the constrnotion of tho headworks at Khaoke, the whole of the area. which il now compnaec1 in the Chenab Canal colony was pt"a.ctlcally produciive of nothing bat grtisi for the SU8- tenance of wandering herds of CAttle, and a.certain amonnt of firewcod. The development of cultivation sillce then h9.8 been ezttaordinbrily rapid, and Lhe exporta of cotton and wheat from 'he colony have already attained to such It figure as to materially atfect the malkets of the Pnnjab. (li) Nomads of Situated in the hea.rt of the Government waste there eeiated., few habitathe Bar. tions, the location of some of which shifted from time to time, where amah com JUlulities of cattle gra.ziera Bemi nomadio in their habita, had livlld for mbil1 years. In some cuel, wella had been.,unk and 81\1&.11 areas attached thereto had been Jeased for coltivatiod. I~ was tbe firat bwlloes. of tbe Colonisatiou Officer to settle these people, a task whioh presented conaider&.ble difficnltles, 9.8 they had DO faith in the permanency 01 the canal and httle inclination to abandtld. their old vagraog ha.blts aud settle down to the buainest of lietioo. cultivatiou, whilst they regarded the Introdaotion of settlen from other parts of the conntry with utreme jealousy. They were, howeyer, eventuajjy indnced to take land on tbe term a applicable to other peasant 8ettlers, and already give promise of developing ioto ixlduatrioul agrioulturlsts. The principal tribes of thelle poople ill the Qujranw,l.. di8trio~ are the WagUs of Ka.rkan (now located h. mao

173 Gujra,uwa,la. District, ] CHAP. V -ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. 161 Chapter V, B. 168), the Bars and M atmals of Moman and Choranwala (manza.s 29 and SO), the W8.8lrs of Pakka Dalla, Maluiuwali, and Kuchanwali (mauz8.s 288, 138 and 172), the Kharals of Borala (mauta 182) and the.mujaiwo.rs of Shahkot (mauza. 88) Land and Land Revenue. In March the Punjab Government sold by auction some 10,000 acres of. laud sltnated in certain 8t'lected villages of the colony, all in the GUJr8.1Jwlila G IV. DI8~osa.l of dlstr.1ct. An avenge price of about Rs. 45 per acre was obtained. la.~d~rnmen waste The rest of the Government waste land commanded hy the Rakh and Mlliu (a) Classes of Ali Branches of the canal has been allotted to three dassel! of grantees, lspltahllts, grantees. yeomen, and peasants. Grants to capitalists and yeomen were sanctioned by the Financial Com missioner on the recommendations of DIstrict or Departmental Officers The former could apply for any number of sqnares from six to twenty, and (b) Conditions of had to pay lis flazarana as many rupees per acre as there were integral squares grants. in the grant, subject to a mmimum of Rs 10 per scre The yeoman grant con slsted of 4 or 5 squares, and a. nmform rate of Rs. 6 per acre payable in two in!>talments was levied as nazarana. The mll.ximnm and minimum grants to peasants were three squares and hl11f a square respectively, and nothlog ba.t the OOS& of the square survey and of the construction of main VIllage water.courses-awork.. hich was undertaken on the settler's behalf by the Canal Department-haR been recovered from these grantee!,!. All alike are bound to bring one_third of the land allotted to them linder cultl' va\ion wit hid three years, and one-half wlthm five years from date of entry. SubJect to the fulfilment of this and certalo other conditions, embodhld in a. statement drawn up nnder Act III of 1893, and attached to the regl~ter8 which contain a record of all allotments made; the nazaruna payldg grantees will be entitled, on the expiration of five yea1's from the dates of the c('mmencement of their respective tenancies, to acquire by pnrchase the proprietary rights in their holdings, whilst the peasant settlers WIll be granted perpetnsll'lghts of occnpancy heritable but not ahenable by sale, gift or mortgage. Bevenne, rates and oesses are assessed from tun-vesll to harvest On tbe area. V. Assessment. actually 'Under oultivatlon, the asse!>smg officer for the present oolodised area. beiug the Executive Engineer, 2nd DIVIsion, Chenab Canal. The rate!! chargeable at present, a.nd for the next ten years at least, on each acre of CUUIVl:LtIOn are- (a) occupier's rate as in foroeon the canal; (b) land revenue at 8 annas; (c) cesees at annas 4 in the rnpee on owner's rate and land revenne ; (d) ina;ll~c.ina ali ILnnas 4 In the rupee on ow net's rate and land reo venne'.' The owner's rate, which bas been,l'emitted for the first 10 years, amounts to Re.l per a.cre of Irrigated cultivation. In the case of a.ll grantees the whole of these cbarges was remitted for the first year, and half for the second year from the date of tbe commenoement of each indlvidnal tenancy. Up to date, in addition to the area sold by auction, 149,285 a.cres of Govern- VL Land allottetl ment wa.ste la.nd have been allotted for cultiva.tmn in the GnJranwlila. district. how distributed This has been distributed between the va.rious classes of grantees as follows :-, DetaiL Number. Area in acres , 13 'Military grantees. Caplta.liats Yeomen Pea.t!s,nta Tot&} ,891 1,604 14,838 6, , , ,285 In.. few villages eapitalistl and yeomen are mixed, and in one or two peasant villages a.llotments have beed made to leo~ed.

174 Ohapter V, B. 162 OHAP. 'V.-ADlIINISTRAT10N AND FINANCE. [Pulijab Gazetteer; The year 1891 was one of scant rainf",n in the Bar, so that the land of promise presented but an nninviting appearance to the pioneers 01 the llew settle!' Land and Land ment. Many of those who came in the first few months returned to their homes Revenue. disheartened and disappointed at the barren and c!e80ia.te e.ppca.rance of the VII Pea 8 a. D t country, but the 80pply of would be colonists from tbe congested districts of the 6ettle~s Punjab proved inexhaustible, and from the moment when the first, crop be~n to appear above gronnd th~ attitude of the people changed, snd DO more suasion was necessary to induce them to take up land, much of which had been previously rejected as tmfit for cultivation. bisb-iets.from Colonists were selected in the first instance by Depnty Commissioners or ""blob selected. Settlement Officers from the following districts :-Gojranwala, Si8.Ikot, Amrltaa.r, Jallundur, HoshiArpurand Gurdaspur. The following table sbows the Dumber of peasants from each of these districts now located in the Gujranwala. vdlagcl in the colony 1- District. Number of grantees. Area. allotted. REMABK! Gujranw'l~ 1,559 31,673 Includes the old iahabitants of the Bar. Sialkot, ,292 Amritflar ,636 Jullnndur ,281 ltoshi&pur 254 ~,171 t Excilldes 8,038 &eres, - allotted to 429 MazbWa Gnrdispur.., ,454 4i,450 "ho come from vari' ous district Total.. 4,462 t117,503 - Castelil are distributed as follo"s :- Caste. Area. -- to 34,135 Hindu lat. HassaImAn Jata 50,500 KambohEf.. 8,581 ~ Ar'ius.. ti 20,193. Sa.ini. f.. 2,846 Dogar/l 0" 16U Yujaivar... 'J' l,08{) Halbhi. t'.. 8,9(.8 'rotal t-" 126."'U. = ;

175 Gujranwala District. ] CHAP. V.-ADliINISTRATION' AND FIYANCE. 163 A. already stated, one or more maill water-clo1ll'iies, leading either from a liranch of tbe canal or from.. rajbaha or minor, were COnstrllcted in each village by the Canal Department. before Bettlers were introduced. Ohapter V. B. Land and Lalld BeVlllll.. The settlers had to pay for th!s work ~ also for the square lorvey, and, VIII. I Il i t i.1 to enable them to do so WIthout crippling them at the outaet, nominal advance. charge. how nco. of ~eedvi, liu~ci~nt to m~ ~he cost, were mllde to au who wished it. In the Tared. G01r'nw'1& dlstnct most of the money thua advanced haa already been recotered together with the u~oal interest;,. without any difficulty. ' The progreb8 that baa been made in cnitivatiod is sufficiently apparent from IX. Progre.. in ~e figures!or the five successive harvests which have been reaped since coloma. cultivation tlon operatloua commenced:- Rabil893 Kharlf1893 nabil894 Kharlf 189" HARVEST... AB,u, V!fDJlB CULTIVATION. Irrigatea./ ~. Total ~-~ ---I Kharif ,450 4,589 31,039 25, ,548 38,259 9, ,24-i 46,5M ,626 33,285 ]0,656 43,941 The total area now allotted (including land sold by auction) amoudts to 156,4071 acres. The Cana.l Department only undertakes to irrigate the half of each man's holding in a year, 110 that the hmit of irrigated cultivation iu anyone harvest hu already been reached. It is true. that to some extent quantity baa heen substi. tuted for qu~ity, as ia evinced by the fact that in thej last khadf the revenue and water rates on 15,6840 acres, or over oue third of the cultivated area, were remitted by the assessing officer. This, however. is a defect which will be rapidly mini. mised as t.he supply of water becomes more constant, as the canal dlstributaries (which have. as is only natoral in the case of new earthwork, been liable to con tinual breaches) become consolidated. and as the settlers find leisure to bring more labour to the business of cnitivation. It must not be imagined that all I:as been fail" weather and plain 8aJ1ing. X. Initial dis. The eet-tiers have had innumerable dlfficulties to contend with, not the least of cumet. which has been tbe way in which the cattle thieves of the Gnjranwala, Jhang and l[ontgomery Bar have preyed upon them. In illustration of this, I may note that enquiries, made. by me Lhrough the patwad agency, elicited the fact that, from tbe date when the first settlers came to the Bar up to the end of November bead of cattle. valued in the aggregate at as. 16,000. had been lost by, or stolen from, the colonists in the new VIllages of the Kh8ngah Dogran tahsil alone. It is sa.tiefactory to be able to record tbat there is now very little cattle thenor indeed crime of any sort-in the new colony. Many villages have. moreover, suffered from an inadequate supply of water, and in almost all there have been individuals whose allotments have proved unirrigable or bad as to sou. By dint of. allowing free exchanges of allotted land with tbat (amounting to 20 per cent.) wbich haa been reserved iu every peasant village for grazing purposes, the difficulties of most of these last have been overcome; whilst; trouble and money have not heen spared to recf.ify mistakes originally mrde in constructing outlets or aligning water-coursea, SO that there are but few "mages DOW whioh do D~ receite their fair &hare. of water.

176 Cha,lter V, B. Lan! and tand I.evenue. XI.FIeld Maps XI1, General. 164 CHA.P. V.-AmHNISTRATION AND FINANCE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer t As was only to be expected, grea.t difficulties hlve been experic'l1ced in makmg a crop assessment froid. harvest to harvest without the Iud of fiel«lo, mnl's To obviate this difficulty the largoe 28 acre squares have bl\{'n.nhdlv](]ed IOto small squares with 40 karm sides, ellch measuring eight kanab IS m,llla~ It Lafl of coorse been a. work of considerable I.hihc\.lty to luduce the.iflmlodars to CODstrUc.t permanent boundarles to the squaretl tbuil demarca.ted ; but they have bpen qu1ck to appreciate the advantage of havang regular fields of an ascertamod area, aud sulhcient progress has been roade ID the wurk to prove the praotlcablllty _of the scheme, and to make it certain thl\t we shall be able to acoept these small square! as separate fielj", and prepare detailed nj,1ps accorjlilgly. after the,al~ harvest of 1894,{)S Admml.3trabve couvemences cun hardly be Baid to bave lrpt pace Wlth the nlju,r~ments ot the colony The roadi! fire In snocklog UlsrepllIr, li11d Bre rapidly Lecflllllng more and 1110re so. The to bsil buildlog at Khnngall I>ogran i8 moil!. ldllclpquate, and a new thana at Shahk'.)t (\'IblCh by a. sll{!ht alteratioll d tbe vld boundary lias been tran~rerred from the Jbang to the GUJIIlnwtila. UI>!tncl) IS greatly 11'8 uted, A hospital at the lnst 1llltned place and nl\a~e B( hools 10 \Jnc or two centres nre also urgcutly required The District llollrd of GUJran. '\\>ala hus r('cently applied to Government for a loan of Rf!. 3G,noo to be applied to the construction of these and other public works necessary {Gf tl <) dlwelop_ mcut of the colony. ThE! moet C'rylllg want of aji 18 a. RaIlway down thrc'>np;h the Doab to or,'" 11 P the tract and IIjfr)rd means of exporting t!.e Bllrpllls prodllc'6, much of whl(,h h,\b IJlt1prto, owlug te the distance from cpntra\ murkets, rldtlctlve COmmll11lCatlOns and the want (\f carrirge, had to he ullsold 10 the huods of tlw producers The p!"'ject for the const IUctivn of 8. Ilno from Wa71rnbar} to LyalJpnr at a cost of 40 lakhs has now been aanctlooed by tbe l:iecretnry of State, and this work, whlrh WIll contnbute more than any "ther to the development and proo;penty ()f the tract, hu Just been put ld hand. FIlJiher informatlon rcgar.dmg tha ('olony can be gathered frolu the separate report on the whole scheme by the ColonIZatIOn Officer Revenue Free grants. Some reference to revenue free grants has already been made in Chapter II, and a list of the leadldg jagirdars showing the amount of their grants has been given in Chapter III. As the dlstllct was the home of Ranjlt 8lDgh and of mal'y of his leading generals, minist'9r5 and courtiers, extenfive pigif grants for personal or military service were free'ly dhtrlhntrd onder the SIkh rule, whlle petty grants for religious idbtitutlons, Thak/lrduaraa, Dharamsalas, Shrmes, Mosques, 01' to thell' attendants, given by the ruler of the time or his local reprel.!~ntahve, were almost innumerable, Prior to annexation, probably over half of the district was held by revenue assignees, whose states was then far stronger than it IS llow, as it carried With It not only lega,l jurisdiction in the assigned alea, but also the right to arrange for the cultivation a.nd deal with the land practically as proprjetor. The participation of many of the leading Sirdars in the second SIkh War led to the resumption of some of tle largest grants at annexation. The local jurisdiction of those whose'j6.girs were maintaipeu was abolished, and they were treated, in theory at least, as mf:'re assignees of land revenue whose rights were hmited to the State demand, though the custom of reahslllg in kind wa~, where it existed, not Interfered with. At the same time a general enquiry was made as to the origiu of authority for, and conditions of, each WAfi and Jag}1' grant, large or small and the orders of competent authorlty as to its future treattne~t were obtained. Gran~s for military and

177 Gnjranwala District.] - CHAP. V.-ADXINISTRATION AND FINANCE. 165,Eersonal service were as a rule resumed under the orders of the C~apter V, B..,upreme Government, while personal and family grants, and grants attached to institutions or held on conditions of VIllage La'te~::u~and service, if based ou a valid title and evidenced by possession, Revenue free ~nts were as a rule upheld in full for the life of existing occupants,. and in part to their postenty or to the insbtutiops for one or more generations or in perpetuity. At the Revised Settlement of , all grants were reinvestigated, and under the general orders of the Supreme Government the system under which the Jagirdars realised ld kind in 40 jaglr VIllages was abolished, as the VIceroy laid down the principle that- II Any permu1810n to jt1girdars to make their collections in kind should be strictly conditlonal on the bond. fide oonsent of the zamindars of the Jogf1' estates, and t.hat any 1088 of revenue conseqoent on the revision of assessment moat be borne Without compensation by the jagirdar8 just as It IS constantly borne by the Htate " At the recenb Ssttlement all revenue assignments were again re-investigated. Many Me grants, sabject to the maintenance of institntions 8S well as grants in perpetuity or during the pleasure of Government or terd) of Settlement in which the conditions had not been complied with were reported for orders, and resumption was effected under the orders of the Fma.ncial Commissioner and of Government III 88 cases assessild at Rs. 754 and in 10 ca.ses involving an assessment of Rs. 2,142; while new grants were made ill fd.vour of institutions of publio utility in 21 cases involvmg an assessment of Rs Petty grants to indn'iduals or institutions for vlllage service were very numerous, though financially unimportant. These had originally been made):>y the village community, generally from the village commod, and were entirely uuder the control of the proprietary body, but at the Regular Settletrient the mistake was made of treating them as ]f they were ~rants held from Government and they were continued with the sanction of the Chief CommiSSIOner for the term of Settlement. At the Revised Settlement of 18C7 68 such grants were maiuta.ined, OIl the recommendation. of the Settlement COtl'lTIlS Sloner, Mr- Prinsep, "durmg the pleasure of Government conditional ou village servlce and good bebaviour and subject to revision at next SettJemt'nt," so thnt tile VIllage COmmllDlty's power of interference or dl'posal was practically abolished. 'Vhen the qoe1-tion was re-opened at the rect'nt Settlement, the FlDanclal CommiSSIOner ruled that the tenure was for the tprm of Settlement, and Rllch cases wert~ dealt with nnder para. 33 (e) of Revenue Circular 37. As a general rule, all personal grants were resumed with effec\ from tbe new assessment, the zamindars being given

178 166 CHAP. V.-ADMD,oISTBATION AND FINA.NCE. [ Punja.b Gazetteer,. Chapter V, B the option of excluding the land from assessment in the BacAh. 'Land and Land while grants to village institution II such as Khcingah., Tak'y(b; llenllue. M08que8, Dharam.cUas, &0., have, if the institution is properly ltevellue rreegrant& maintained and the owners desire its continuance, been main.. tained, as before, "for the term of Settlement subject to good conduct and the service of the institution." The result is that 686 grants, covering 866 acres assessed at Rs. 848, have been resumed. The number", area. and assessment of the grants upheld bas been given at page 165. The zamindli.ri indm. in the H6.fizabad tahsil had originally been granted by Dewan Sawan ]\fal to encourage the semi-nomad population of the Dar to found villages and settle down to agriculture, in the form of a remission of part of the land revenue, generally one-half to onefourth, as an inl,m in favour of the whole proprietary body. They had been maintained in a reduced form a.t the Regula.r Settlement. At the Revised Settlement of they wero still further reduced and limited to 17 esta.tes. As the object of these grants is now attained without the need of any such artificial stimulus, all the inamb, the value of which was only Rs. 1,008 distributed among 453 shares, were resumed at the recent re-assessment, subject to the grant of zamindci.ri intim8 in deserving cases where hardship might result from their resumption. When the enquiry into revenue.free grants, and the distri. bution of the village assessments was completed, a register was prepared for each tahsil, showing all assignments by villages arranged in alphabetical order. The register is divided into five parts showing grants- (1) In perpetuity. (2) (3) (4) lj'or life or lives or till term of Settlement. For maintena.nce of institutions... Ala-Iambardli.rl inci.m8. (5) Sujci.ia. p08hi or zamindari inama. All details of area, revenue, &c., have been shown according to the new Settlement. An abstract of the detailed order passed at the general re.investigation has geen given, and reference made to the original 'mali and jagl1' registers conveying the primary sanction to the grant. '.I'he final result of the enquiry was to reduce the number of assignments from 5,341 in to 2,071 in , the- number of shareholders from 5,690 to 3,004, while, in spite of the reduction in the number and area of the grants, the amount of lalld revenne assigned has been enhanoed by re-assessment from Rs. 1,29,905 to Ra. J,73,934. This includes zaildci.r' inci.mi Rs , ala.. lambardci.ri inci.m.

179 Gujranwala District. 1 CHAP. V.-ADMINISTRATION AND l'inance. 167 Rs. 6,438, and commntation dues Rs. 6,711. Tbe total extent of Chapter V. B. Jand revenue now assigned is shown below according to the. Land ~ Land recent re-assessment:- Reyenue. ========:::::;:=========r==========- Revenue free grant.. Total assessmeot. Kkalsa. Assigned. Percentage of total assigned. _ , Gujranwala 3,28,612 2,20,102 1,08, Wazirabad 2,32, ,9'11 Bi,6zaba.d and Khangah 3,21,9'16 2.'13,219\ Dogran. Total I~)--;;';: ---1-,'1-3,;;;:--:; In round numbers, one-fifth of the total assessment is assigned. The distribution of existing assignments, excluding zaildari and aza-lambartlari inama and commutation dues in which no land is assigned, in the!.ear , is shown below :- Cuss. No. of grantees. Area. Total assess. ment in Rs. In perpetnitl free of conditions Do. subject to conditions For life or Jives.., During pleasure of Government Up to the term of settlement Total, 214 1, ' ,0'11 260,504 25,2'19 20,349 DO ,4'10/ l,08,40lj f # 13,290 21, , ' ,43,616 so that only about one-eighth'of the'revenue assigned is held for life during pleasure of Government or term of Settlement. Table No. XXXV shows the Excise statistics for the last 5 Excille. yea.rs. There is a. central distillery for the mannfacture of the country spirits at Gujranwila, from which liquor is also sent to adjcjining districts and scattered,over the district : there are 49 shops for retail vend of country spirits and S for Europeall liquors. Eaoh shop is separately put up for auction annually. There a.re 67 shops for the retail vend of opium and drugs. The licenses for these are sold in groups by par ganas, 4 in

180 168 CHAP V.-ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE. '[ Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter V. B. Land and Land Revenue. Exoise. Stamps. Gujranwala., 2 in Wazirabad, 5 in nafiza.bad aud Khangab PQgrun. The total excise reve'nne in was Re. 59,657; viz., fermented liquors Rs. 50,1 J 4, opium and drugs Rs. 9,543. 'l'he excise revenue bas more than doubled since 1881, but the increase is in great mea~ure duo to the substitution of duty. paying for illicit liquot'. Illicit distillation was formerly very common in the Sikh villages, and the practice quickly revives if supervision is relaxed. In the Sikh times the consumption of liquor was very common among the Sikh and Hindn agriculturists, as it was cheap and easily manufactured. Our Excise policy, by enormously mcreasing the price of liquor aud reduc- 109 the facihties for obtaining it, has reduced the consumptiou among thls class where it has not driven them to illicit distillation. On the other hand,.. modg the urban population, Hindu, Sikh and Muhammadan, the habit of drinking seems to be rapldly spreading with the progress of western ideas, and the loos6mng of the authority of the caste, and a.bout h&.1f the Excise revenue is derived from the municipal towns, though they contain less than one-tenth of the population. '1 he gross and net income from the sale of stamps, judicial and non-judicial in the year , is shown. below :- DETAIL. Judicial. Nou.jadicial. Total Bs. R Bs. Gross income 1,04, ,780 1,44.,78-1 Net income 1,01,131 38,70lJ 1,39,893 The district is one of the most liti~iou8 in the Province, and the income under this head has increased 40 per cent. since The increase in the activity of tho Registration Department is even more rapid, the number of deeds registered having risen from 1,215 in ,2 to 4,249 in , and the value of the property I).fiected from Rs. 3,88,000 in the former to Ra. 11,94,381 in the latter year It appears therefore that litigation. transfer of property and registrat40n of deeds increase with the facilities provided.

181 Gujrauwala District. 1 CHAPTER VI. " TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES. At the census of ]891, all places possessing more than Chapter VI. 5,000 iuhabita.nts, all municipahties, and all head quarters of Towns and district and military posts were classed as towns. Under this 14unicipabtiea. rule the following places were returned as the towns of the General BtatIstics Gnjrsnwal& district. All six are monicipa.lities of the 2nd class of towd8. constituted under Act XX of The members are everywhere partly elected and partly nominated, save at Kila Dldar Singh, where all are nominated. TahsiL Town. Person GujranwaIa 25,892 Gujraowala {Em'.. 5,841 Kala Did'r ~idgb._. 2,843-15,786 {w.m.. Wazu-abad Ramnagar... 6,592 AkAlgath 4.,262 The distribution by religion of the population of these towns, and the number or houses in each, are libown in Table No. XLIII, while further particulars will be found in the Censns Report in 'fables Nos. III and IV. The remainder of this Chapter consists of a detailed description of each of these and other towns, with a brief notice of its history, the increase and decr~ase of its population, its commerce, manufactures, Municipal Government, institutions and public bnildings; and 8tatistics of butbs and deaths, trade and mannfactnres, wherever figures are available. The town of Gujranwala lies in north latitnde 32!I' 3<Y', longitude 74, 14' east, and contains a popnlation of 25,892 souls. It is situated on a. slightly elevated plain with but little diversity of level. The neighbouring country for a long dist.ance is fairly well wooded, and several frnit and flower gardens surround the town. The town is co:npletely surrounded by a wall with leven gates, and four other gates which are closed for Gujrallwala t01nl.

182 170 CHAP. VI.-- TOWNS AND MUNICIPA.LITIES. [ fudj&b Gazetteer, Chapter VI. passing of goods liable to octroi. 'ro the north, less than" Towns and quarter of ~ mile from the.town, lie the civ.il ~jnel and Jlu~li& Municipalities. offices, wulle about a mile south of the City 18 the encawpldg (iujrlldwala. town. ground and supply depot for troops. To th~ noi tll and ea.st of the town lie the post office, the d&k bnngalow, and the railway station close to the town. The town is traversed by two main streets running r,f6pectively from east to west Rnd from north to south. The streets are, as a rule, well metan.,j, tho';gh many of them are narrow and crooked, as usually jg the CRse ill Punja.b cities. A sufficie-nt staff of bhibhti. aud swpf'pers, with proper silpervising agency, is permanently employed for tua pnrpose of sauitation. The principal buildings of architectural interest are the 8ar1llJdh of MahAn Singh, father of Uanjit Smgh, within the city walls, and a Mradari in Mahan 8ingh's garden, which is now used for p!lblic mpetings. Close by is a lofty cupola, covering a portion of the ashes of the great rulpr llimself. Properly speaking, the tnw!j. of Gojranwala traces its origin to a tribe call-ed Gujars. ThE'se were nomads 01" catt.le-grazers like some 'Of the present tribes in the Har. They were expelled 18 generati'ons ago by Sanei Jats, immigrants from Amritsar, wh() founded II villages in this vicinit,y. The founder of GojraDwiJa waa one Khan, who gave it the name of Khanpur, but the old nalue survived the change of owners and beca.me IItt>reotyped. The place was of little importance (lllring Mnghal ruje. It i, never mentioned in the 4in-i-Akbari, but it grew in importanc'e with the rising fol'tunes of the 81lkarchakia family. When Ranlit Singh rose to power it changed with his fortune from a village into a city. But little is known of its f'arjy history except that the to\vll j.s of modern growth, and owes its importance entirely to the father and gra.ndfather of Maharajll. Ranjit Singh, whose ('apital it was during the early period of Sikh power. Hanjit 8111gh himself was born at GDlrauwaJa. and made it his head-quarters doring the years which preceded the establishment of his E=llpremacy and his occupation Clf Lahore in A. D. ] The 8ansi Jats are still rpco,nized a8 the original proprietors of the estate-, bur. other tribes, Kbatris, Aroras, Brahmins, gradually aequired wells aroond the cit.y, Rnd are now recognizpd as owners of the area in their actual possesslon-malikan kfl1.za-without any right in the common land. 'fhe lands included in the civil station, comprising an area. of 333 acres, were formed into a separate estate at the recent settlement; of this arpa ] 60 acres is owned by Government, including tbe jail, kacheri, &0. 8evpral );u:ge dwt>llingfl, the architecture of which is essentially Sikh, substantial and some "'hat cumbrous, occur in the main streets which are five in numb~r and from ]5 to 20 feet in widtb, though the remainder of the town is a confused tlystem of narrow tortuoos lanes ending for the most part in cull d8 sac. The municipality of Gujranwala was first constituted in , and is of the 2nd class. The Committee consists of the Deputy Commissioner, as President, th~ Oivil Surgeon and. the Head Master of the Municipal Board

183 Gujra.nwala. District. J CHAP. VI.-TOWNS A~D MUNICIPALITIES. 17J School AS t:l! officio members and 15 non-official members, of whom 3 are nominated by Government and 12 are elected. Table No. XLV shows the income of the municipality for the last five years'. It i& chiefly derived from octroi. le'yiea a.t different rates, on the value of au articles and goods liable to oc.troi under the rules sanctioned by tl,e Local Government. There is 80 considerable income from street sweepings, averaging Rs. 500 per annum. The total municipal income in was Rs. 96,170, of which Rs. 76,416 was octroi and Hs. 7,874 from sweepings. The expenditure was Hs. 97,364. The Government has lately taken objection to the taxation of food-grains as excessive and has insisted on the refund system bemg mora extensively worked, and the Committee is endeavouring to arrange for the constrnction of a bonded wjt,i,t'house near the railway station to protect th-rough trl\de. G ujranwala is the chief commercial depgt in th~ district, collecting food-grains, rice, gur, from the surrounding villages. In fact, it is the great entrepot by which the surplus produce of the dirtrict is exported to other districts or the seltboard, and through which the wtt.nts of the disttict al'e supplied hy import in ~earon'l of scarcity. It is also the chief market for f.rass' and copppr vessels, which are exported to distant districts to a comiderable ext.ent. There are several well-to-do native hankers. '1'her6 are also a, good many potters who make fine earthen ve'ssels such as cups, glasses, &c. Lung's, dotahis, khes, nnd Ludhilina. cloth are manufactured by the native weavers. Phulk,;ri" and chop, and bag'" are the best specimens of needie'-work by the native Hindu women of the Bha.bra caste. An mterest,ing note on these by Mr. Steel wi)( be found in the" Selections from }'unjab Government Records," No. 22 of , pages' 64 to 67. t The principal institutions of the town are the Babbage di,, pensary, a fine bllijding. the municipal han, the police lures, tho DIstrict aud Mission Schoo.ls, and the DistrIct Jail. Therli is also a. hbrary aud reading-room named afte'\" Colonel Harington in the btiradari in Mahan Smgb's g-arde'n. A museum. is attached to this library. The remaining- public buildings and offices are the Depu~y Commissioner's COUI t and DIstrict. offices, the Trf:'asury huilding, Local Fonds office', the Sessions house, the Police office, the railway station, and the post office. To the north and west of the town, there are two old tltnks and an old sarai of large sizer opposite the Ltihori gate. The tahsil.building is between the satai and the da.k bungalow. There is also a church and cemetery close to the railway station. 'Vithin the city, there are two old es:tablished schools. ~iz, the English Middle School, managed by the Municipltl. Committee, a.nd the American Mission School which teaches up to the Entrance Standard. 'l'he Khalsa. School, which teaches up to the Entranoe. and the lsumiya School, Primary and Middle Departments, have recently been started. Chapter VI. TOWDsand Municlpahties. Gujrhwala. town.

184 172 CHAP. VI.-TOWNS AND lfuyicip.alities. [Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Chapter VI. There iq also a Zenana School maintained by the Amf'ricfln Towns and Mission, and five M l1nicipal Female Schools, viz., three for llindu,". MuniCIpalities. and two for Muhammadans, which receive a monthly grant-in-aid. Gnjr'nwllla town. A great deal has been done of recent years to improve the very defeetive sanitation of the town by carrying out an intramural and extrl1-mural drainage scheme. 'l~hi8 project, 'which up to date has cost nearly a lakh, bas been executed by the Public W vrks Department., the funds being provid d by the municipality. A large well has been constructed on a commanding site in the centre of the city from which water ill pumped into two large flushing tanks; from this i~ is distributed by means of pipes 80 as to 11ush all the main thoroughfartla and most of the bye-streets and lanes on the east side of the city, the drains of whi~h have been properly levelled and re-constrncted, where necessary, so as to fit in with the scheme. By the flushing from the central tanks, the Eewage matter from these drains is carried on into a large circular masonry drain rnnning round the city on the outside, and then by 8. simi)", but large drain into two precipitation tanks about a mile to the south of the city neal" the Sheikhupura road. From these tanka the liquid sewage can be pumped up by ihazlar. and nsed tl) irrigate the adjoining fields, while the solid matter is removell once or twice weekly and stored to be sold to agricultnrists 01' brlck.burners. The scheme is an excellent one in theory, but. many defects have come to light in its execution which are gradnally being remedied. It has been fonnd difficult to work the central well by bullocks and the Municipal Committee is now considering 8. suggestion for replacing them by a steam engine. About one-third of the city on the west side has not been included in the present scheme, and the sanitary condition of the town will not be quite satisfactory till the drainage system has been Lim1ta at enumer Yea.r of PersOIla I Males. J'elD&1e. extended to tbis. _~_~~_~ The populatiou as ascertained at the Whole town. { ~:~ ~~:m ~~m l~::: cnumer at ion of ( , , , 1875, 1881 J,{UlllClpal hmlts < ,362 and 1891 is shown 188) 22,107 11,652 JO,455 h. I ( ,893 13,699 1lI,11l3 In t e marglo. t ==.. is difficult to a.sc~rtain the precise limits within which the ennmerations of 1868 POl'I7U'lSjI" ll'own ar suburb ,\1891, ~ Gujranwala town 19,371 =,107 \ Ct. villldea 'l'l'1 893 and 1875 were taken. The deta.ils in the margin give the population of suburbs. 'I'he figures for the population within municipa.l limits, according to the census of IS68, are taken from the published tables of the ceusus of 1875, but it was noted at the time tbat their accuracy was in

185 -Gujranwala District, 1 C.H~P, VI.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES. 173 many cases doubtful. The Deputy Commissioner in the district -x:eport on the c~nsus of 1881, attnbutps the illcrea~e of' popula. tion to the opening of the railway. 'The great increase which has since taken place is due to the increasing importance of the town as a. commercial centre. The constitution of the population by rehgioll and the nnmber of occupied houses are shown in Table No. BIlTIl-aulrS. D.~l'D.JI~T.B. XLIII.. Details of sex: YJU.JI. crl crl I i will he found in 'l'able.8 No. XX of tllo Census ~ I.. i ri crl ~ Coi :;Ill,.. f lsrl. 44 2S 21 l~:& IMlj3 403 )!40 19 lsllt ; JStl6., !!~8 41' It It ~~ 21 18!! Average S.; ~ a so S sa S 2S U Pot ~,.. five years is shown in Table No. XLIV. Report of '1'be annual birth and death. ratps per mille of popu lation since 188) are given in the margin, the basis of calculation beicg in every case the figures of the most recent census The actual nnmber of births and deaths registered during the last Chapter VI. Townaand Municipalities. Gujranwaia town. Eminab:ld is a town of 5,841 inhabirants, and is situated Eminabad town. to the south-past of Gujranwala lit a di!'tance of S miles on the Gujranwala and AmritRar road. It is one of the oldest towns in th is part of the Punjab, and lias had a long and interesting history which represents in lliiniature the history of the Punjab. It is said to have been.originally fonnded b~ Salhahan (Salween), tbe famous Rajput RaJa of Slalkot. 'l'ha' old town, known as Saidpur, was destroyed by Shere Shah, Afghan, in the )6th century, and a new city, Hbergarb, the ruins of which are stlll visible, was founded about Ii miles to the south-west of the present sitp. The AfghaD garriso.n was expelled after a long siege by Emin Beg, one of HU~8yun's Generals, who, unde~ the order of Akbar. razed th~ old city and founded with the materials tho existing one which has never been destroyed in the sudspqut'ot invasions. 'J'he Nanda Khatris, from whom the well known family of Dewans that has given several successive Prime Ministers to the Kashmir Jammu State is descended, settled.bere in Mugbal times, but Saiyads, Kazis, Kakkazais, Vil'akhs, Khatris, Aroris, Sadbs settled subsequently at different times as one race or another came to the front, and these now own part of the estate.. In M ughal times Eminabad was the head-qnarters of a pargana in the La.hore Buba, bringing in a: revenue 01 9lakhs.. The Mughals were expelled about 1760 by SardarCharat Singh. Under Ranjit Singh, the estate was held in jagir by Raja. Dhy4n Singh, one of the Jammu brothers, and to this may be traced the connection of the leading families in the town with the Jammu State.!rhe chief feature of the town now is the II Rohri Sahib," a Sikh temple of considerable sanctity w.hich is connected with some

186 174 CH."tr. vr.-towns AND liunicip.\lities. [ Punja.b Gazetteer~ Cha.pter vi. of the allsteritif:'s of Guru Nana1c. He is supposfd to ljav9 Towns Rnd made his bed here on a couch of broken stones (rohri) and- Manicipahtles, some of the~e are ~hll bxhibited to the faithful on the occasion Eminabad towd. of the religious f<lira at the 'Vaillakhi (AprIl) and Dewa1i (Octoher) festivals. Th re are many fine garden., 18 or 20 in nnmher, and new onps are being a,jderlyearly. newans I.Jachhman Da~, late Prime 1\1 Jll1~ter of Jammn-Kashmir, and Atnar Nath, the present Governor of Jammu, own a. considerable part of the town and (>statp, Rnll have a i,igir uf about Hs. 462 per annnm from the assessment. Thel'e are several very fine buildings ereclell by the Dewans. A di~pensary ba'i been lately opened bere, alsl) It Telt graph offipe. Karnoke, 5 miles off, is the neart>st railwfty stat 101', bllt It IS nnder consideration to bring die town neaj"l'r to the rajlway by erectina a flag station at DJlillanwali, ouly 2 lmles off. It is the hil,th place and family residence of the late Dewans Jowfila Sahai, Anant Ram, Prime Minister to th., Mahaulja of Jammu, alld of two ez Prime Ministers Dewallil Gobind Sahai aacl Lachhman Das. ' be town has several strf'fots, a gram md.,'ket, a. police chauki, and a. school house. 'l'h(lre JS flo bungalow, constrocte'd by the late Dewan Jowsila SILba.i in retuld for the grant of a gard n rent free', lor the n~et of the district officers. The Mlluicipal' Committee comllsts of 6 members, of who.m 2 are.nominated and 4 are ele>cted. Its income for ~he last five years is shown in Table No. XLV, and is dplived chie'fiy from octl'oi; in the total income was. Us. 3,;)07. A cattle fair, to which a horse fair has been added since 18~M, is also held anoually at the Waisakhi festival during April. Th", town possesses fine ruins of Mollammadan arcll1- Jecture belongincj' to the Imperial timl's.,.,he population as nscertained at tl~ ennmerations of 1868, 1881 a.nd 1891 is shown in the margin. 'l'he Deputy Commissioner in the district Year of census. Persons. Ma.les. Females.,. rtc-port of the census of ,711 3,661 3, attributed the decrease of population to G,li86 2,928 2, ,.. 5,841 2,d83 2~8 tb~e opening of the railway. The constitution of the population by reli!rlon and the nnmber of occopied hodses are shown in 'rable No. XLIII. Details of sex will be found in 'l'able No. XX of the Census Heport of Kil& Didar Singh. Kita Didar Singh is a rural town of Borne importance owing to its sitnation 10 miles from Gnjranwala on the GnjTanWaJa.,and Ha6zabad road, which is mnch used for wheeled traffic and is now being metalled. It was founded about the u.5ddle of last century by Didar Singh, from whom it takes its name, a Sindbn f~om the Amritsar Manjha, who w,as & follower of Sarday' Cbarat Smgh, nnd got tbis land from tbe Varnicbs of Deorht, into whom he married.- Tbe Varaichs followed their 'Property into the new settlement, and tha estate is now held }lal, and half b18indhus an~ Varaicbs. Its popillatiou i& 2,843 so\l18~

187 Gujranwala District. ] CHAP. VI.-TOWNS ANIUdUNICIPALIl'JES. 175 A broad well metalled badr luns from f'rf:t 'to west. There is n. sarai and rest hollt:t>. " thana and a Middle School. The population as ascertained at the enumerat!ons of J 868, 1881 and 1891 is shown in the margin. 'l'he constitution of the Year of census. PenoD.. Male Females. population by religion and thp number of oe- 11)68 2,204 1,100 1,044 eupied housps are shown ,8:r.& 1,500 1,822 ill 'J'lIbln No. XLIII. 189~ 2,8 3 1,493 1,345 Detail. of sex will be --==- found in 'fable No.xx of the Censlls Report of 189 J. 'rhere is " municipality, consisting of thfll ljeputy CommifCsioner as official Presldeut and 5 membe'rs all nominated by Government. 'fhe municipal income in was Hs l'hf're is some trade in wopl and hides. The trade is chieoy in the hands of Jains aud Khojas. '\Vazhabad is next in importance to Gujranwala, and lies 21 miles to the north-west of Glljranwala. It colltains a population of 15,786 souls according to the census of It is f;ituated 011 the right bank of the Chenab river at a distance of 2 mile's from the river, and is skirted on the north aud west sides by" fwl" known 8S tile Palkbu litream. The Nortb-Western nailway JllId the Granfl ''frunk ROft.d from Lahore to Pt!shawar Jla~s clol:!e to it on the west side. It is now connected with Sialkot by a. bradcll railway opened on the 1st January 1884 and f'xtended to Jammu in I~ is ~urrounded by a wall with four main gates and has a. long open bazar well metalled throughout, and a fine broad bazar from east to west" Tbe other stre'eitl, 8S a rule. though narrow, are well paved. and there is a. re~ular conservancy establishme~t mnintamed for the samtatlon of the town. The town IS 'Said to have beeu founded by Wazir Khan in the time of Shah Jahan, but tha rise of the town to importanca \!l even more recent than tllat of Gnjranwala. It is first beard or in history as fal!ing into. the bands of.gl1rbakh~h Singh, Bhangi, a letainer of Oharat Smgh. at the time wben the latter extended ilis power in the northern part of this district. AllllslOn has tllready been made to the family nf Gurbakhsb Singh and the ultimate absorption of its estates by Ranjit Sinllb in During the rule of the MaMrajs. Wazirabad, wbie,", was at first subsidlrry to Sohdra. the old pargana, 5 miles off, became for a time the head-quarters of General AvitahilE', under wbose ~nrnds a completely new. town grew up. As laid out by him, 'Vazirabad is a parallelogram in shape enclosed by an irregular brick wall. Within is a broad and straigbt hazar running from end to end, and crossed at right angles by minor streets, also straight and of good wid~b; the wbole being marketl by an almost entire absence of the tortuous cuza de lac 80 general in towns of pnrely native design. Doring the various struggles for supremacy various tribes came to the front and, disappeared. and at &Ilnexatio~ those in possession. were recognized as owners Chapter VI. TOWllsand Municipalities. Kila. nldaw Singh. Wazlrabad.

188 Chapter VI. Towns and Municipahtle8. Wazirabad. 176 cnap. Vl.-TOWNS.AND IlUNICIPA.LITIES. [ Punja.b Gazetteer. of the estate. The present proprietary body, about 450 in number, consist mainly of Chimas, Kaz{s who claim to b. K ureshis, ArMns, together with Khatris, Brahmins and Arorlis. The houses are of brick, both kiln-burnt and sun-dried, the Jatter predomillating. There are no bwldings of peculiar size or interest, except the eastern or Sialkot gateway now converted into a tahsh, and the Sama.n Burj, once the rpsidence of Avitable. a picturesque building on the banks of the Palkhu, now occupied by Lieutenant-Colonel Raja Ata-nlla. Khan, Ja.te British envoy at Kabul. Under British rule, Wazirabad was for a tim' the head-quarters of a district which included the present districts of SiBlkot and Gujranwala, together with parts of Gurdaspur and Lahore. 1.'his district was broken up in 1852, Wazfrabad lapsed to the position of head-quarters of a. Sub-Collect fate. On the openingoftheworks for thenorthern State Railwr..J, the t-own, sitnated at one extremity of an important section of the railroad and in tile immediate neig h bourhood of the works connected with the Chenab bridge (one of the most ar4uous undertakings of the enter.. prise), again became the 111te of a. numerous European colony of Engineers and others employed upon the railway works. 'rho cantonment for troops, which once existed 6 miles to the west of Wazirabad, was deserted on account of its unhealthiness and transferred to Sialkot in J855, is quite obliterated, and cultivation is spreading over its site. 1.'he opening of the Punjab Northern State Railway and its extension to Sialkot have in.. jured the commprcial importance of Wazirabad by' doing away WIth the local trade, owmg to the facihties for through traffic; but the con!lt,rl1ction of the WazirAbad-Lyallpur RaIlway, which will eventually be carried on to Mooltan, will probably tend to revive its lost prosperity. Tbe famous Alexandra bridge acr088 the river Chenah was formerly one of the longest in India, but was considerably contracted in ] 8~2, the nnmber of spans being reduced from 61 to 28. Soon afterwards an unprecedented flood in the Chenab in August 1892 burst through the protective embankments and caused conttiderable loss of property jn and around the town. The pile bridge over the l'alkhu naia. wa.s carried away at the same time and"hm not since been renewed. The bridge-of-boats over the Chenab has been abolished by order of the Government, and a ferry train runl at present in its place. Rut a boat-ferry plies here also for the convenience of passengers and light traffic. The municipality I)f Wazirabad' 'Was first constituted in j it is now ooe of the 2nd class. The Oommittee consists of the Tah!'fldar lis ejj-o,fficio member, aod seven non-official members, of whom ode is nomina.ted by Government aud six are elected. Th~ municipal election SY8. tem here has worked less satisfactorily than in any other town' in the district, and has brought illtq prominence many feuds and jealousies. At the elections of 1894 things came to such a pabs that Government withdrew the right of election for the" time being and_ appointed Dominated persons to the vacancies." The income, which comes chiefly from ~troi, is ihown in Tabla'

189 Gujranwala District.] CHA.P. vr.-towns AND llunicipa.litjes. 1'17 No. XLV and is about, Rs. 18,966. There is a eonsiderable OhapterVI. 'trade in timber, brought down by the river, which finds extensive sale, also in country-made and English cloth, gur, grain, Itunicipalities. Town. and &c. The timber is Boated down the Chenab from Akhnur in WazU-abad. the Jammu tel'ritory, and there are large central depots here belonging to the Kashmir State and the Forest n"partme'nt4 'rhere are also excellent workmen and artizans who make boxes. dabbi8, shoel', caps of nicely coloured silk which generally attract strangers' eyes. They are sold in large quanttty. An important fair is held at Dhaunkal in the immediate neighbourhood of Wazlrabad. A t this fa.ir, which is primarily religious in its objects, a considerable amount of commercial busines's is also transacted. Ploughs manufactured in the Jammu territory are extensively sold. In other respects the trade of the town 1S not important. The smiths, too, of \Vazirabnd have a speciality for the manufacture of small articles in steel and iron, such as many-bladed knives, paper.cntters, &C'., and close by within a mile of the town is the village of ~izamabad, celebrated in the Punjab for toe excellence and finish of its fire-arms and other warlike implements. 'rhere is a dispensary, a post office: and a dak bungalow close to the tmvn on the west side', and a tha.na ~nd encamping gronnd along the line of the Grand Trunk Road, and the railway line opposite the sarai building. There are also a civil rest-house and F9rest bungalow Rnd several bungalows occupied by the railway staff. Within tlle city there is a Scotch Mission School which teaches np to the Entrance Standard Examination. There is also a. thana in the city for the accommodation of the Municipal Police, and close to it are tahsil offices, a M unsiff's court, a Sub-Registrar's office, and Honorary Magistrates' court. 'l'he population as ascertained at the enumerations of 1868, =======,;===-=- 1875, 1881 and 1891, \Year of ' isshowninthemal'gin. Luntts of enumemtl.n. l'ed8u~. PerSODt! M&les. FemaJes. It is 'difficult to as- certain the pl'ecise 181>8 15,730 8,.t M limits within which Whule town { 1~~t ~::;:;: ::~:; ~::~ the enumerations of "1"S68 ~ and ) 875 were MUD1CIpallimits t 11:! Itt,41lZ 8,71)5 7,6b7 15,3106 taken. 'fhe fignres ,786 8,282 7,51» for the popnlatipn within municipal limits according to the census of 1868 are taken from the published tables of the census of 1875, bot it was noted at the time that their accuracy was in many cases doubtful. 'l'he poplllation has decreased by nearly '700 since 1881, and is now nearly the same as in The dpcrease is attributable chiefly to the excess of deaths over births. The city, owing to its position in low gronnd Dear the river, is notorionsly unhealthy, and the Palkhu nala, which, since the construction of the railway protection works, is DOW Q stagnant pool nearly all the year round, is said to. aggravate the defective sanita.ry arrad~ement~

190 Cliapter VI. Townaand Municipalities. Wazlrabad. R&muagar. 178 CHAP. vr.-towns AND :MUNICIPALITIES lj 18t! H & 38 2l !l >1 ] il 'i 21' B i J I8\) i == t Punjab Ga.zetteer, by.fouling the atmosphere aud contaminating the water in the adjacent wells. The cojistitution of the population by religion'" and t~e number.of houses occupied are shown in 1'able No. XLIII. DetaIls of sex will be found in Table No. XX of the Census Report of 18~)J. The BIBTK RATBS. DEATK RATall. aunual birth and death-rates per Yea.r.,.;.,;.;; mille of population since 1881 ~..;.!!I >=l co., 0 ri!.. -:; '" ~ ~ a! '" ::a.. ~.. are given ill the - p p ~ margld, the basis of the calculation being in every case the most recent census. The actual number of births and deaths registered during the last five yeara is shown in ~rable No. XLIV. Ramnagar is It town with 6,592 inhabitants a.ccordi~g to the census of It lies on the Sialkot Mooltan road to the west;. of Waziraba,g. down the river at a distance of 22 miles. A good road goes from Wazirabad to Hamnagar 'Vid. Saroke where there is a rest-honse, but this is being dismantled, and the most convenient but nol; the most direct route now is by Khanke. The town has a-vernacular Middle School, dispensary, and police chauki. rrhere is also an encamping ground with a saraiwhich, being badly situated and little used, was Bold by auction a few Ye'Rrs ago. ~here is a very picturesque and well-situated bungalow (bcirailari) with a fine garden attached near the river bank, about half a. mile east of the town which is now used bv officers on tour. This was originally built by Ranjit Singh and was a favourite resort of his in the hot. weather. It lay on the old military road from Lahore to Pesha. war, and it was here that the ]\Iaharaja received the news of the defeat and death of Hari Singh by the Afghans at Jamrud. The Municipal Committee consists of six members, of whom two are nominated and four elected. Its income for the last few years is shown in Table No. XLV, and is derived m1l.inly from octroi. There is a ferry over the Chemib river which is known by the name of the town, and the income from tolls amount to R~. J,231 a year, which shows that traflic is brisk. This town, which was originally caued Rasulnagar, was founded, about 160 years ago, by Nur M.uhammad, the Chattah chieftain, of whom Bome account has been already given. Under this. family, Rasulnagar flourished and rapidly grew in importance. It was finally stormed in 1799 by Ranjit Singh after a gallant resistance made by GhuIam Muhammad, who then represented the family, and, passing into the hands of the Sikh roler, received its new name of Ramnagar. Under British rule the population ha.s con eiderably decreased. By the census of 1655 it amounted to

191 Gujra.nwala. District. ] CHAP. VI.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES ,102, the decrease being over 2,000; in tite interval that elapsed.. before the census of The ennmerations of 1881 and 1891 sho'llt'ed a further grndual decrease. The town is declining not only in popnlation but also in prosperity., The falling off of the river-borne trade and the diversion of the salt trade by the construction of the Sind-S'gar Railway have had a disastrous effect on it. There is some local trade in food-grains, gur, cloth, bnt there is a want of enterprise aud capital, as those of the inhabitants who have one or the other have migrat.ed to the larger commercial centres, such as Jhelum, RAwalpindi and Sialkot, to better their fortunes. The construction of the 'Vazirabad.. Lyallpur Railway, though it will bring the towll into easier communication with the outer world, will probably deal a blow at the little trade that exists, as it will attract the trade to the railway station at.a kalgarh, 5 miles off. The towd. enjoys a reputation for the manufacture of kupa, or vessels of hide, ul:led for the conveyance of ghi, oil and graiu ; but otherwise it is of no commercial importance. A considerable fair is held here on the Baisakhi in every year, at which the attendance has been estimated as amounting to 25,000 persons. Several nne buildings erected in the time of the Chattah supremacy are still to be seen. The population as ascertained at the Year or ced81l PersoDs. Males : Females enumeratious of 1868, 1881, and J891 is sbown in tbe margin. The constitution of the population by rtlligion and the number of occupied bouses are shown in Ta.ble No. XLIII. Details of sex will be found in Table No. XX of the Census Report of 189J. It was on the banks of tbe Chenab in the vicinity of Ramna~ar that Lord Gough's army of the Punjab first came into collision with the Sikh Forces under Shere Singh in November The Sikhs were strongly entrenched on both sides of the river, prepared to dispute the passage with Lord Gough's army marching north from La~ore. Their position was attacked on the morninel' of the 22nd November by the cavalry division a.nd three troops of Horse Artillery under General Cureton. The Sikbs fell bacle to tbe bank of the river hotly pursued by the cavalry and the guns. The latter misjudged the difficult nature of the ground. Some of the gulls got stnck in the sandy flam, nnd fell into tbe hands of \b& Sikhs. A brilliant.. charge made by Colonel Havelock of the 14th Light Dragoons to brldg the guns away was ineffectual, and the regiment had to retrea.t With the loss of its gallant commander. General Cureton was also killed in this charge anti tbe total!oss w~s 26 killed aod 59 wonnded. The officers who fell m 1hlS action are buried in the garden of the Mradari. The attempt to cross at R6.mnagar having failed, half of the army Chapur VI TOWlllancl Kunicip&htiea. Ram)lagar.

192 180 OHAP, Vr.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES, [ Punjab Gazetteer, Chapter "'II. Towns And J(wllicipr.litiel. ROIDnagrr, under General Thackwell was detached to effect n. passage up the river at Wazirabad and take the Sikbs on the oortlf bank on the flank. This mc'vement caused tho Sikhs to fall 'Lack towards the Jhe}um. Lord Gough crossod the" Chenah 00 31'd December,-formed a junction with 'l'hackwell and {0110w6.1 up the Sikhs who had taken up a strong position at Chillianwu,la in the Gujrat district, where the bloody but indecisive battle was fought on)3th January Sohdu. Sohdra. is an ancient town with 4,978 inhabitants, about 6ve miles to the east of Wazirabad, and lies on tho Chen{Lb rivoi', It was founded by Ayb, fit favourite of Mahmt1d of G bazni, and. takes its name from having once had 100 gates (soudara). After Ayaz's tlme it fell into deca.y, but was refounded nnder Shah Jahan by the Mughal Governor Nawab Ali Marduo,,vllo constructed a. splendid garden, dug a canal from the river and called the place lbrahimgarh after his son. The garden was called Naulakha. from the amount said to have been spent on it. Traces of itare still to be Sgen. It was demolished about 12 yoars ago when the Wazirabad-Sialkot Railway was constructed, the materials being taken by Government for ballast and tae land made over to the zamindars. Under Mugblll rule Sohdra. was n. flourishing city and the head.qua.rters of a parganna with Dr revenue of twelve lakhs:~ There are many ruios of Mughal architecture to be seen. On the decay of Mug-hal power Sohdra was captured by Sahib Singh, Bhangi, of Gujrat. In 1790 Mahan Singh tried to wrest it from him by force and fraud but failed; vexation at his failure it! supposed to have hastened his death. Ranjit Singlrwas however more successful. Under him the town and adjoining tract of country was beld in jagir by n. Dewan family of Brahmins from Gujrnt. The jag irs were resumed at annexation and pensions given in lieg, some of which they still hold. The proprietary body codsists chiefly of Chima. Jats and Arains. 'rhere are many influential Khatris of tbe Chopra. got who are in the servioe of the llritish Government or of the Jammu State, There are also several respectable Kaizi families, many of whom are in the Government service. The tradiog class is represented chiefly by Kakkazais-said to be Muhammadan Kala18, who on their conversion gave np distijling for trade. 'fhese are very enterprising traders. They pnrchase collntrlmade and imported cloth at Delhi, Bombay, &0., and'retail it In Hindustan J Bengal and the Native States of Ceotral India, some what after the same fashion as the Patban hawkers. They have made much money in this way and Bome of them are now beginning to acquire land. Bricks are fouod in large numbers whioh attest the ancient magnitude of this town. It stands on Dr slightly elevated site and has a well paved hazar from north to south. There is a Middle School. There are two good ga.rdens, the proferty of the Sodhra. Dewans. A ferry known by the namo 0 this town is in charge of the Depnty Commissioner of

193 Gujranwala District. ] CIIAP. Vl.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES. 181 Siilkot. The municipality of Sohdra was abolished in -1886, but the town was declared a notified area in 1894 nnder Chapter XI of the Municipal.Act j the management being vested in the 'l'ahsildar anti three of the leading residents subject to the control of the Deputy Commissioner. A small income is raised from octroi on a few' of the more important articles of human nse and consnmption and from the sale of street sweepings, Year of census. Persolls. Males. Females. and this is spent on sanitation and watch and 18GS ,743 4, ,410 2,202 2,401 2,333 2, ward. The population as ascertained at the enumerations of 1868, 1881 and 1891 is shown in the margin. The constitution of the population by religion and the number of occupied ho.nses are shown in Table No. XLIII. DetaIls of sex: will be found in 'l'able No. XX of the Census Report of Akalgarh is a well built town having a population of 4,262. It is especially noted as being the native place of many famous Khatris of the Chopra gut, among whom were Dewan Sawan Mall the most successfnl SIkh Governor, his sou Dewan M61raj, the author of the SIkh rebelhon, and Dewan Ram Chand. It lies to the west of \Vazirabad at a distance of 23 miles. It cannot boast of any commercial Importance. It has several fine houses and gardens the property of the Dewans. Its main streets are well paved, and there are many buildings of $igantic size. 'I'here is an Anglo-Vernacular Middle School, a thana and a. resthouse for District officers. The Municipal Committee consists of six members, of whom two are nominated by Government and four are elected. Its income for the last few years is shown in Table No. XLV and is chiefly derived from octroi. This town was founded 140 years ago by Ali ~luhammad, son of. the Ghulam Muhammad, Chattah, who founded Ramnagar. It was originally called Alipur after the founder. On the defeat of the Chattahs by Mahan Singh, the town Wall granteq by him to Sardar Dal Singh, brother-in-law to Charrat SlDgb, under whom it was renamed.aka.lgarh. At first Dal Singh had great influence with Ranj(t Singh, but they quarrelled and in 1800 Ranjit Singh. havmg imprisoned Dal 81Ogh, marched against Akalgarh. 'fhe attack, however, failed, and was abandoned after a siege of three months; nor did Ranjit Singh gain possession of the town until Dal Singh's death which happened in Under Ranjit Singh the family of Sawan Mal, who was Governor of Mooltan, rose to positions of grfat trust and emolument, from which they were rudely hurled after his son Mulraj raised the standard of rebellion at Mooltan, which led up to the conquest and annexation of the Punjab. At annexation. thejligir aud property of Dewan Mulraj a.nd his brothers were confiscated, but the property amounting to saverallakhs of rupees was subsequently released. At the first settlement the original Chapter VI. Townlend ltnnicipalitie.. Sohdra. AUlgarh.

194 Chapter VI. Towns and Municipalities. Akalgarh. Pindi Bbll.ttian. 182 CHAP. Vt.-TOW~S AllD :MUNICIPALITIES. [ Punja.b Gazetteer, Chatta owners having declined to engage for the arsessment, those in possession got the ownership of the cultivated land Yal their occupancy, but in 1856 th& Cha.ttas sued for afld got a decree for all the waste land, whinh is considerable. Though there is little income from trade, ma.ny of the Khatri families are very wealthy, still possessing the treasure accumulated in Sikh times. Many of them are now in the service of Government, includin~ Dewan Hari Singh, Extra Assistant Commissioner, Bon of Dewan Mulraj. The Year of C~DSU8. Persons. Males. Females. 18G8 5,038 2,GOS 2, ,812 2,157 2,155 18D1.. 4,263 2,151 2,111 popu la.tion as ascertained at the enumerations of 1868, 1881 and 1891 is shown in the margin. The constitution of the population by religion and the number of occupied honses are shown in Ta.ble No. XLIII. Details of selt will be found in Table No. XX of the Census. Report of The construction of the \Vazirabad-Lyallpur Ra.ilway, which will have Do station here, will probably lead to a considerable influx: of trade into the town. Pindi Bhattittn is a t'~wn of some commercial importance in the extreme west of the Hafizabad tahsil on the road from Labore to Shah pur and Bannu, about 70 miles from Lahore and 57 from Gujrauwala.. Its population is 3,674. It lies near the Uhenab about seveu miles from the limit of the Shah pur district. It bas a. good bazar running from east to west. The neighbouring villages receive tbeit" supplies from the town. 'I'bere is a dispensary, a. thana, Do sarai with encamping ground and a Vernaculur Middle School. The town derives its name from the same tribe that gave its name to the tract of Bhattiana. It is the head-quarters of the Bbatti clan, and is said to have been founded in Akbar's time by J alai Bhatti -from Bhatner in Rajputana the other Bhatti villages' in the vicinity, over 80 in number, are offshoots from it. The descendants of Jalal held,t;lndisturbed possession for over six' generations and were lords of a large tract of country extending as far south east as Gajiana. At the end of last century Hanjit Singh, in his struggle against the Muhammadan tribes of the district, came into collision with them. They made a long and brave resist. anoe~ Ranjft Singh first captured Jalalpur, the second Bhatti stronghold, and in 1802 laid siege to Pindi. After some severe fighting the Bhatti chiefs were overoome and had to take refoge with the Syals of Jhang. After many years Rahmat Khan, Bhatti, was taken into tbe Maharaja's service. In the first and second Sikh wars he and his tribesmen gave material assist. ance to the English, and b~lped to capture Guru Mahraj Singb, took part in the fighting at Ramnagar, Chillianwala and Gojrat, and on annexation the family was r~initated not on11 in PIDdi,.

195 Gujranwala District. 1 enap. VI.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIlS. 183 ~hattian and Jalalpur, but in most of the other villages they had foundod. In the mntiny Rahmat Khan add bis relatives assisted in putting down the disturbance in Gugera. and received rewards and jag f's. The town was formerly a municipality, hut the Municipal Committee wa.s abolished in 1890, the balance to its credit vesting in the District Board. There is some trade in ghi, thread, grain and Afghan fruits, and the Mochls here make excellent native saddles and camel packs. 'I'here is a strong commercial and money-lending commnnity of Aroras, one or two of whom are among the wea1thiest men in the district. The trade ha.s made considerable stride3 since the colonization of the adjoining Government waste bas increased tbe amount of loca.l production. The Year of censns. PersoDs. Males. Females. population as ascertained at the enumerations of 1868, 1881 and 1891 is 1868,.. 4,281 2~ shown in themargin The ,788 1,740 18~1 3,674 1,918 1,756 consti'tntion of the population by religion and the number of occllpied houses are shown in table No. XLIII. Detail8 of sex will be found in Tabla No. XX of the Census Report of Hafizabad is a rural town with 3,076 inhabitants. The town is important as being the head-quarters of a TahsHdar and Mnnsiff and a non-official Sub-Registrar. It was founded by Hafiz, a favourite of the Emperor Akbar. He settled Khatris of the Kaptir and Chopra got8 from Lahore who obtained the proprietary right. The town was deserted in the Afghan invasions, the owners taking refuge in adjoiuing villages or founding separate esbtes which they 8tiIJ hold to the number of 9 or 10. The principal owners are now Kapur Khatris. ~he popjllation has increased rapidly since 1868, and since the eltension of canal irrigation the town which taps a large part of the newly irrigated area has become very prosperous. There are over 200 people from here in Government service, whose income is computed to exceed Rs. 60,000 per annum. The construction oftbe 'Vazirabad-Lyallpar Railway, which will have a lstation here, will immensely increase the importance of the town, and already new buildings aro springing np on all sides. An imperial tele~aph office has lately been opened here. There is a narrow pav~d bazar running from north to south with a good slope for drainage. There is a sarai with encamping ground, a thana and Vernacular Middle School. There is a good rest-house attached to the sarai. The main channel of the Chenab Canal runs east of Hafizabad at a distance of 2l miles. The municipality here was abl)lished in 1884, bnt in November 1894the town was constituted a. " notified area." nnder Act XX of 1891, and a Committee, consisting of a TahsHdar and two of the leading inhabitants, was a.ppointed to look a.fter sanitation, &0. As in Sohdra, Chapter VI. Townaand Municipahties. Pindi Bhattian. Hafizabad.

196 Chapter VI. TOWBland )[unieipalitiel. Ha6zabad. Jalalpur. Sbeikhnpura. i84 18GS 2, , ,076 CRAP. vt-towns AND MUNICIPALITIES. Males. Females ,228 1,06.J. 1,299 1,154 1,652 1,424 1 Pun) a.b Ga.zetteer, a. few of the principal articles of human use and consumption have been made liable to octroi to raise an income sufficient ~ pay the cost of watch and ward and sanitation. Ha6zabad is an ancient town, being mentioned in the..4in-i-~",uari. Yea.r of census. Persous. The population as ascertained at the enumerations of 1868, 1881 and 1891 is shown in the margin The constitution of tho population by religion and the number of occnpied houses are shown in Table No. XLIIT. Details of sex will bo found in Table No. XX of the Census Report of Jahilpnr is a. rural town, 18 miles north-west of Hafizabad, having a population of 3,273. It has a sarai with encamping ground, a, police chauki aud a Primary School. There is a Jarge wan running round it with rather a ihie' gateway j but tbls, whick is nazul property, is now.in a ruinous state of disrepair, and a proposal has been made to dismantle it and sell the materials and site. It bas a well laved bazar running from east to west. The town is not note for anything except that the neighbouring yillages.. derive their supplies from It. 'l'be municipality bere has been abolished siqce The ruins of the old!own lie some two miles!o the west. It was formerly a. place of more importance than at present. The present town was founded by" Bhattis, from Pindi Bbattian, close to the roins of the old city-jallilpur Kobna-and named Kot Muhammadpur after the follnder. When the Bhnttis were expelled from here and Pindi Bhattian by the Sikhs in 1802, Adins and Khatris took and held pop session. At nnnexation the good services of the Bhatti chiefs, already referred to, were so far recognized that they were told by Mr. Cocks, Assistant to the Resident, that they might regain pjssession if they could. They were rcsisted by the Khatris, but after a. few of the latter had been killed they gave way and the Bhattis recoveled possession. Many of the Khatris from here are in Government service. There is some trade in grain and clot/;, and there is a colony of Kbojas dealing in hides and bones which are sent to the seaboard for export to ===============-" Europe. 'l'he popula.tion I Year of census. Persons. j Males. ll'emales. as ascertained at tho enumerations of 1868, and ] 891 is sbown in the ,583 1,568 1, ,453 1,2ll9 1, ,373 2,098 1,27;) margin. The constitution of tbe. popnlation by religion and tho namber of occupied honses are shown in Table No. XLIlI. Details of -sel: will be founds in Table No. XX of the Census Report of The village of Sheikhupura. was not cla.ssed as a town at the census of 1891, the population being below 5~OOO and there being

197 Gujra.nwala. District. ] CHAP. Vr.-TOWNS AND MU~ICIPALITIES. 185 no municipa.lity. It is the head-quarters of a })olice th'na. a.nd is' situated in Khangah Dogran tahsil, on the road from Lahore to Banuu, 22 miles from the former place. 'rhe population is now 2,432 and has increased by 25 per cent. since It is a town of some antiquity, and conta.ins a ruined fort built by the Emperor Jabangir. Prince Dara Shikoh, grandson of JahanO'{r, from whom it derives its name, is said to have connected the town by a cut with the Aik naddi. There is said to have been an old Hindu city here, called Kanthurpur, and.supposed to have been the capital of Raja Kanthur who lived at the time of the Mahabharat, and there are E'xtenslve ruins of what must have been once a considerable city in the VIcinIty. Stone pillars of great size ha'9'e Leon found which Indicate a higher state of civilization than that at present.!j:t the time of Ranjft Singh the town was for many years the residence of one of his queens, Uani Raj Kaur, better known as Rani. Nakayan, whose palace, a cumbrous brick erection, is the most conspicuous object in the locality. She held a jagir of Ii lakhs in this nelghboul hood" and did much to. develope cultivation in the Bar. At annexation, for a short time, Sheikhupura was the head-quarters of this district. Since the extension of the Chenab Canal and the progress of colonisation IU the Bar it has grown in impol tance, as i.t is on the mam highway to Lahore; and the road, which has now been metalled between Lahore and Sheikhapara, is much used by colonists from Lahore and the districts south of the Rbi. Its principal attraction iq that ItS neighbourhood abounds with deer and other games, WhlCh render it desirable quarters for a sportsman. It is to this fact, proba.bll" that it owed the attentions of Jahangir and Dara Shikob. It is now the residence of Raja Harbans Singh, adopted son of Raja. 'l'eja SlDgll, who holds a large }agtr of about Rs. 80,000 in the nelo'hbourhood and har criminal and civil jurisdiction in 160 vill~ges comprised in the jdgir. lie resides in the old fqr,t. There is a hunting lodge, a large masonry tank covering 13 acres, and a tower with 99 steps for spying game, at a place called Ra.kl:. Haran Munara, 2i miles from Shelkhupura, on the roa.d to Ha6zabad. These date from the days of the })!ugha]s and are visible evidences of the magnitude and solidity of their work. A canal was commenced to bring water from the old. Aik nala to this tank but by Dswan Sawan Mal (and not by Sikhs). Owing to the death of Sawan Mal this canal was never completed, bllt there are very distinct traces of it, and many greybeards are still alive who worked at it. It is shown in Major Thullier's :Map of 'l'~ere w~s a~so!ormerly a small canal fr?m ~he Deg river, enterldg this district at Kayampar and termmatmg at Bhikki. This has been a:itowed to silt up. but there is a project on foot to clear it out again. Water still runs in the upper portion of it in the rainy season. This cut was madq by Rani Nakayan from the Deg at Plndi Rattan Singh in the Lahore district. It is. of little benefit to Shelkhupura. and the villages of this distri~t. It was cleared out some years ago l the Chapter VI. Towns and Municlpahtiee:~ SklUkhupura.

198 186 CIlAP. vr.-towns A~D MUNICIPALITIES. [ Punja.b Ga.zetteer, Oha.pter VI. District Board of Gujranwala. paying two-fifths of the cost, the Towns and Lahore district three-fifths; but the Lahore zamindars hav-b Municipalities. intercepted all the supply by putting up dams. Khangab Dograll. The village of Kli.1ugah Dogran, wllich lies four marches out from Lahore on the,high road to ~hahpur and Bannu, in the heart of the Bar, was till recently a place of little importance. It W.. UJ famous only for the shrines or tombs. of departed 8aint~, who have hved here since the time of Akbar, and were }Jeld 10 high repute by the Musalman trihs ()f the Bar. 'l'h~\ eshto, which was originally named Khangah Masrur, was founded about 350 years ago by one Masrnl." Dogal, whose brotlter Asrur is supposed to have founded the naighbouring village of Khangah Asrur or Millon Ali, also a "hrine of some sanctity. 'l'he daughter of 1r1asrur married Haji Dewau, a famous Dogar saint froiq Sinde, from whom the prese'rtt owners are descended. 'l'here are,a Dumber of solid and strjl~ing-lookidg- tombs (1'ozaR) Luilt from genera.tion to generation in men,vry of upparted s::ints, and eaoh receives the offenngs of the bithful at the religious fair: he1a.. herein the month of Hal'. 'l'he most prominent is that of Hajir Dewan, which also leceives the largest offerings. The effect of this mass of f;ohd architecture in tho heart of the Bur, where it stands out in bold rehef, is very picturesque. In October 1893 Kangah DogratI~ was made the head. quarters of tho new tahsil to which it gives its name, and as it is in the centre of the canal-irrigated tract and close to the new colony, It is rapidly rising in importance. 'l'here is a tahsil, thana and Sub-Registrar's office, but the present accommodation is most defective. There is an encamping ground but DO rest-house or even sarai. The old sarai has been partly dismantled and' sites for a new town on the old encampldg ground have beon marked out and allotted. As there has been a considerable influx of shopkeepers, artizans, traders, &0.,_ these sites have been eagerly taken up at rates fixed by Government. Khangah Dograa has a prosperous future before it, lying ad vantageously at the head or the new colony wlth direct communication with Lahore and Guj ran wala.. The new rail\\'ay will pass wlthin seven or eightmiies of it. The population, which between 1881 and 1891 had increased from 871 to ],646. is now about 2,500. Sha.hkot. Shabkot was formerly within the Jh&.ng district, bug was tramferred to Gujrinwtila in 1892 when the boundary was l'evised and the new tahsil started. Prior to the opening up of the ''Bar it was one of the few fixed!j.abitations in that tract. Here, as at Khangah Dogra-n and Mia-n Ali, the nucleus was a uhammadan shrine, and the old inhabitants were the Majawars or attendants of the shrine. They had no proprietary fights in the land, but owned large herds of cattle and were allowed grazing rights free in the surrounding Gonrnment waste. The old village lay at the base of the Shahkot hill, a rocky emi nence of a quartz formation similar to the hill at Sangl&. Shahkot rose into importance when the colonisation work began in 1892, as it was made the head-quarters of the

199 Gujra.nwa.la. District. ] CHAP. VJ.-TOWNS AND MUNICIPALITIES. 187 Colonization Officer, being the only place in the Government w:tsta where there was anything approaching Dr settled village. Since then it has developed rapidly. A new town known as Pophamabad, after Lieutenant Popham Young, the Colonization Officer, haa now been laid out on a suitable site half a milo to the east of the old village. Regular streets have been marked out, sites allotted, traders 8r!l.d shopkeepers have been attracted, many shops and houses have a.lready beed built, and there are all the iudications of the place becoming ail important commercial centre. At Shahkot thera is 8r tb,ana, a commodious bungalow, and a sarai, the latter-two hav& been recently construct. ed. A dispensary has also been opened which is maintained by tho District Boards of Jhang and Guiranwala in equal shares. A suitable building has yet to be constructed. The new railway will run about 10 miles t() the west of Shahkot. Chapter VI. Towns and l'41urlci pahties. Shahkot.

200 STATISTICAL TABLES.lPflNDBD TO 'fbji GAZETTEER GUJRANWALA DISTRIC'T. -0- (INDEX ON BEVERSE.)

201 (Punja.b Ga.zetteer, STATISTICAL TABLES. I.-Lea.ding statistics II.-Development III.-ATlnual rainfall IIIA.-Ramfall at head qnarters liib.- " at TabsiIs V.-Distribution of population VI.-Migration VII.-Iteligion Rnd Sex VIII.-Language IX.-MaJor castes and tribes IXA.-Minor " X.-Civll condition " XI.-Births and deaths XIA.-'Monthly deaths from alica uses XIB.- " " XII.-Infirmities XI1I.-Education from fever XIV.-Surveyed and assessed area. XV.-Tenures from Government XV I.-Cultivating occupancy of la.nds XVll.-Government lands XIX.-Land aoquired by Government XX.-Crop areas XXl.-Rent rates and yield Page. front.ispiece. hi iv v,b. vi vii,b. vui ix -x ib. xi' ib. ib. ib. xiii xiv xv ~vi,b. xvii xviii.. ~ XXII.-Liv8 Stock XXIlI.-OccupatioDI!l XXIV.-}{anufactlll'cs XXVI.-Reta.il prices XXVII.-Price of labour XXVIII.-Revenue colleotion. XXIX.-La.Bd revenue XXX.-Assigned re1,enue Page. xix xx tb. nl 1J.ui,. XXIV xn: XXXI.-Balances, remissions, &c. xxvi XXXII.-Saies and mortgages of 1a.nd xxvii XXXIII.-St&mps and registration XXXIIIA.-Registlation XXXIV.-Income tax. XXX V.-Excise XXXVI.-District funda XXXVII.-Schools XXXVII I.-Dispensaries xxviii I'. XW XIX XIxi uxli xxxiij xxxiv XXXIX.-Civil and revenue liligat.ioll xxxvii XL.-Criminal trials.. XLI.-Police inquiries xxxvhi nxix XLII.-Gaola.. XLUI.-Popnlation of towds xli XLlV.-Births and deaths (towns) xlii xlv.-yunicipal income xliii XL VI.-Po]ymetrical 'able xliv

202 Gujra.nwa.la. District. ] Table No; II,-sliowing DEVELOPMENT iii 1, 3, I I 6 'I Q, 'd; z~ ~= r2ll'j!~ ~o DUA.lL. IX> :n S %-86, ~s ', ~; 'd; 0 fd-'? &:~ := 5:"' o~o),::i"''''' ~s ~s ftl gaj~ PopulatlOn , , , , ,169 Cultl vated acrea '&, , , ,882 I 006,81~ 855,79' 868,721 IrrIgated acres ,~5 827, , , ,30J 487, ,175. from Government worka.cc.. 128, ,570 " AssetlSed land revenue, Us.. 5,11,896 5,83,04.0 5,08, ,071 6-i7,629 7,53,751 8,37,270 Revenue from land, Rs ,66,983 40,55, S,39' 520,428 7,41,8!)? 7,20,4.63 i1ros8 revenne, Rs. 5,73,978 5,03,349 en,5u 6,~778 10,25,503 10,25, ~nmber of kine :1, , , ,170., ,297.. Sheep and goa.ta..,.. 21, , , , , ,m " C&ftlola, ,008 40,177 %, ,435 2,301 lhles of n:etalled roa.ds } 46 f :: nnmetalled roads.. 1,055 1,078 1,132 1,127, 1,127 " r&llway., , I. - - Pollee staff ~ 59! Pnsoners ('onvlcted 1,251 1,442 1I,854t 3, Oivil IUlts, number.. 1,On 40,531 S,n3 9,392 11,731 11,833 12, Value 10 rupees..,... 98,771 1,76,616 3,66,246 4, ,21,991 10,02, ,428 ~ Municlpa.htles, number.... 4ft Iooome in rupees M.. 11,796 37,9.&8 49, ,1" ,970 I DlSpollsanes, llumber of.. n,.. a 5 I> 8 'I p&tlonta.. 9,~ 17, , ,302 91,633 1'-'1,823 Sehoole, -nnmher of, sch01o.rs - n. 1,783 3,816 f,729 6,7340 6,4001 8,566 J.....

203 Table No. III,-showing RAINFALL.. ~ 1 A.NNUAL RAINFALL IN TENTHS OF A.N INCH. Rain Gange Sta.tion f.j ~;. if. ~ ~ ~.; ~ ~ ~ ~ E! g. i &j~~1i~ri~~gss!~i! l8 ~ 18 l'! r:: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ al~~~~~&;~~8c:s!2~ co CD (I) CD ao 00.. (J:) ell CI) co LO co aj::;oooooci)cx)ooooq)lx)cx)ooz c "'"' I""C.. ",...c P"4 "'"".. Sadal: Ka.eheri. Gnlranwala ' n n ~ ~9 Wallraba.d. ~ JiB!liZ i z.'i~ ' ) '" JUftzabad III \ , Shelthupurlo oi' zu, , r-1 lumu,*u ,. = I 1 "'\ "1'''' "'I'" '"..

204 Gujranwala District. ] Table No. IIIA,-showing RAINFALL at HEAD.QUARTERS. - ~, 1 J 3 I ANNUA.L AVERAGES. I " v - MONTH. Nnmber of rainy Rainfall in Rainfall in day. In each tenths of an inch tenths of an inch month to 1R each montb, in each month, to to January Febl'Ual'y.. a J March.. 4, April Z May June July AnguB!; September, October... 1 Ii 3 November December lilt October to lst January , 1st January t? lst April,.., lst April to lst October Whole year p 4 Table No. IIIB,-showing RAINFALL at TAHSIL STATIONS. 1 2 I 3 I " I 5 TAHSIL STATIONS. AV.&:BAGI FALL IN TENTHs OJ!' AN INCH FROll to , Ist. October to 1st January to lst Apru to lst January lst April. lst Ootober. Whole year.., - Wazirabad... 5 ~ H6.6zabad.. ' TAHSIL STATIONS. 6 I '1 I 8 I 9 - I Whole year. AVltBAGlII FALL IN' TENTHS OF AN INCH nom 1879 TO let October to 1st January to I 1st April to lst January. lst April. 1st Ootober Waz!rabad Hafizabad.,. 1 I 27 I I

205 vi [Punjab Gazetteer, Ta.ble No. V,-showing the DISTRIBUTION of POPULATION., i 1 ; 2 3 f r " I G, I i TABSIL8 DI TAlLED. Detail..!S..0 'GIl 11\ ~ It ~ 1,:..2 = <II.. 'f.!:i.. ~.. u:i A Cl 1:: "" ~ - -, CI III - -.a Total square miles....u 2, IJ~13 Cultivated square millls , Culturable square mil.es , ';0 Square miles under c;ops (average ) 1,0' Total population ,,.. 690, , ,606 23';,397 Urban 11,., ,109 35,469 26,640 Rural...~,.. 628, , , ,397 u... Total population pe1:' square mile Rural It.., ". Over 10,000 souls ,000 to 10,000., ,000 to 5, oo ,000 to 3,000." -, , 1,000 to 2, '" lioo to 1, Under 'OO Occupied houses, Total 1, ftowua, ~ 11,056 0,'756 5,300 Villages 25,827 29,789,,.... {JO,111 34,501 {TOWns 14,384 7,'133 6, ,809 48,67'1 30,671 Resident. families Villages 49,461 -;-- I

206 Glljranwala District.] Table No. VI,-showing MIGRATION. vii 1.Blan:.ucas. I 2 I 3 I, 6 I 6 I 7 I1Un6a.lllTe. Ens 8.I.l!IT8 TotaJ.. Malee. Yemales. Total. Males. Females » HiSs&!,. - M 69!S Rolltalt.w {I 3 Gorgaon : B N' ' Ii Kamal.. M' Si Z Umb&1l ~ HII' 2M nn1&.-, , 26 U Kangr& SO HORlu&rpor.., M' !02-11' 88 Jullundor -. w.. M4 40i UO Ludluana.. 8"..6 1l4j 84 7j iii JrJ Feroaepore Moolt.an M ,603 1,038 Jhang.... 6,091 8,368 2, ,326 l,4io "'" MontgOmery.-. 1, , &hore. _. 4,104 3,46Ii MIl 29,1H8 U,648 15,301l Amrltsar....".- I,IId2 1, ,122 1,099 1,023 Gurdaspur - 9M M3 Ul kot,... 32,710 n,2ij 20,467 19,69lo 6,Ul 13,850 GnJrat ,984. ~t746 9,.169 3,229 6,130 Shahpnr..., ,oil2 1,293 2,129 8,962 1,917 2,()Jo Jbelum....,.. - 1,028 6<l9 329 :r,om ~ 4-18 RawalpmdJ ,478 2,737 Nl Hazara I Pes ba wu ':: , Kohat _....., , 7.a Bannn 6! ~, 284 Dera IIom&1l nail S9 11 ~J6 312 l4 Den &balll Khao 199 ];8 41 lluza1farprh B5 76\ :'>2 95 Total Punjab States 370 ~~~ B Total other ProvInces III Incha 1,4.38 1,020 JIB GIl.l.D Ton" ro.362 -;;;; ss:;u Table No. VII,-snowing RELIGION and SEX.,.;:6631 ~:()4.'i 38,617,# I 3 I, 5 I DascaIPTto - DISTaIC'l'. TA.H8ILS Villages. Towns.. Persons. I Males. 'Females Gujrin. Wazlr. Haftz wala. sbad. abad , , ,Oft( 62, PenJOna ,lflg. Males , , , , ,38 311,650 J'emales.. N' h' 311,1&1 123, ,872 ", ~ Hlndu8 'M 1iO,81~ U6,J4-:; - 16G,27S 9t,22? 7" ,097 I SIkh.s ,513 18,800 M,fi23 8,173 U,62C 41,911 3,D Jain 868 ~ ~ M ,891 "'=1 Mus&1man... '75,4dH ,99': 168, ,!Si 171,91J 17,4-18 Chnatlan , l,w g.&i 1, , Others J ~

207 - viii ci Z "Cil I:: 00 '" /) 6 'I JO 211 [Punja.b Gazetteer, Table ~o. VllI,-showing LANGUAGES. LA.1I'61U,&III!. District. DUl'MlIllOTlOzr Jlr TA.IfSlL! HlndustAni.... 2,769 ~H - M." ~ Ii m Bogre PUTlJ"bl -. w Dcgn '".".. Pa.b"rt.. n Tlbet& Pasbtll OM - Benp;6.Ii ".,.... GoanE'1ie Gnjrnti.N OM M Ka.shm{ri Dakbni -,~ (Ma.bra.tt i).,.- 'M NlpaII 'M,.. - Slndbl 'M 'N Madras1..,. - (TamIl) w/o.. 'M Abra.blo.., Persian ho '" EngUsh on." French.. Tot1l.1 District 686,3:'9 % ,'1.:J - 13.M " JOI 'M... '1 1.. a 11 log f , ,166 GlljranwaIa. Waz rabad. Uaflzabad.,;' I g7, 1,:!OI ,07) 26 4 I ,.. I J J...' ,..." fj ~- 1. I83,1J06. 1-&", J - ;, I \

208 Gujranwala District.] Table No. IX,-showing MAJOR CASTES a.nd TRIBES.. Caste or TnLe.. I TOUL I 9' N1TXUII. DIITAlI.8 BY RKr.IGIOJl'. ~ 0 ~ :; Q, 0 - A,; 0..; = r,g ~., j "'" a ~ Ii ~ 'Of.,.a Ci..; <II ~ 0 III.d 0; a.;:., :0- 'Of "" R. ~ ::s co CD.Q.e II: Po.!:IiI IioI Iii 0!:IiI -' ~ :il "". 0 ~ ] C> 1 Total populauon , ,O:U 311, ,278 46, , ,41» 2 Diloch.. 3,556 1,906 1,652 3 Ja.t Hindu.. 6;; N' '".. 3,556 n MusabLin N 6 RaJputHmdu , l1w!almlin I U7 2 N'.. f Ariln.. 24,002 12,802 11, ,002 8 SheJkh.., 7,296 4,056 3, ,%95 0 Brahman '" 18,409 10,130 8,279 18,059 M 3 10 Sayad.. 6,662 3,62' 3, , Clm. 7,913 4,156 3, ,.. 7, Faqfra.., 6,997 3, G I;.., ;', 6, Nil ,237 B,I43 7,096 1, ,136 U Mlr ,108 6,W 161..,... 13, Khatri.. 23,2l8 12,971 10,245 ZO,OO3 3, Arora.. 33,892 18,080 16,812 2B,56i 6,251 '17 ' 3.Bi8 '" 18 Kashmui 22,320 11,691 10,'l , KholU 3,876 1,974 1, SIUJ8J 3,028 1,676 1,352 2, on Chum 65,702 35,no 29,002 44, Mochi.- lu,291 13,101 11, t, Ju11&ha 27,650 15,024 12,626 4 N... 27,SiS 23 Jhmwar.. N' U MAchlu - 18,265 9, ,2i7 lis LobAr.., 13.36' , l2.9tl 6,657 3,n7 2,9-AO , Tell - 10,850 6, Tarkh& ,192 IS,BU 13,368 f,hi 6,015 JO.036 2'1 KumhAr.., 29,231 16,088 13,145 2, !6,5011 lib Dhobi.. 4, , ,081.- 'M -.- NO SIl1l&l' N' 1,1J9 a,8n 3,250 6,013 I,m.- 7SA - 31 Barwata.. 6,WO "188 2,750, 1 'N ". 6,934 -

209 x (Punjab GazetteeT, Ta.ble No. IXA,-showing MINOR CASTES and TRIBES. = I <3 Z cras te 01' TrJ b e. Por801l1l, Males. Fomalea, ~ t: fd "' I Pathin 1,'28.79 ~ 2 GUJl\r 1,799 l,ofl Awlin 1,1170 1,076 7!16 4 "lllulloh IJ.'>IJ 6 j\11i;lml 1.1'1110 6H4t 4Alf 6 (JIl""b 1,1'>78 1,2110 1,277 7 \1,,11"11 II~ ",1&1 I,"". 6\!5 7Oj7 0 \ }uulg'tr ,1M 1.V!IZ 10 I.II~'I 2,853 1,2"" 1, }JI,utIYu. 1,068 1\69 U 1Ilulbll\ 779 '17 ''''' Sill 13 li,uagar ;11} 14 Gogra ' C1urubo. 3,661 1,940 1, Dll.lzl 2,177 li'i7 l,uo 17 JO~L 2,0114 l,1li0 112<' 18 Kuarrnl II,,,,", 8,069 2, NatLve LJhrlaLlanll 2,2~8 1.3<WJ 000 2Q Eura81all8.., 3' Table No. X,,-showing.-CIVIL CONDITION. 1 II 8.. '-- UJUUIIII!lID. l,r.ii.illd.. W,DOWID.. Dn.l.xr Ma.lee, Fema.les. Males.. Fema.le., Malee. Female Ail. religions 20', ,21' 153,750 1M,5M 22,886 88,417..,.. ~ IIlllduiI..,.. M, ,927 85,936 86,4.30 1S,U6 9,701 '" fill. Sikhs.., ,817 6,j,29 10,'76 10, ,263 ~ ""GJ Ja.ms.., 201! l 89..:1 co" Musa.lw&ILB 136,4a 85,' , ,322 15, W4a t~.....q Chritltlan S ~ Other. 1..! All agel,,., , S~~50 ~,IiM 22,886 3a,it ,610 4li.:!tJ , 6-9,.. 1> ,2S ' 18 liii " t>" ', 81l,SOZ 20,Il!III 2,76S 8,169 $9 W7 GI~ ,6~9 14, ' 6a3 763 ",<I 2O-A40, 12,4.i3 MAl 2'1,12& , "5 "'I , ,71ifi 21,400 J, a, '.... 2,84IS ,421). )6,201 J, 'S ,218 IiO 10,Il18 17,296 2,818 ',548 -III ;;'i 40-40'.., 1, J.~8 ' , ,064 9,2&0 8,OJ2 11,133 ~i ,.., i,8!!3 8.11>& 1,300 2.L10 M-fiO 1, (1, >6 ', , alld over , r,up 1,126 6,3Ot 7;JJJl ~ -, -_.. I -.. = :1;',- :;; =..,. J~..~---

210 Gl1jranwala District. J Table No. XI,-showing BIRTHS and DEATHS. ~ -- I I I I I I I ===- 1 I 3, Ii 8 ' T01'.lL BIaTB8 RB6IJ8TBBBD. TOTAL DBATB8 BBelATBsIlD. TotAL DBATBS 1'1I0K xi YUlUI. I Bowel MlIles. Females. Persona. llalea. Females Person.. Cholera Bme.ll pol FeveT. com plald~., ~ 18i!8.. lii,ls20 13,1.30!S,95() 11,700 10,4.'"2 22,173 1, ,~7 4-U ,483 13,500 29,073 lli,ll10 11,4711 U,687.., M 20, _. '" U,6tO 12,828 27,438 27,691 2S,3-iO 63, ,169 ill '" 12,670 11,2ll'J 23,892 12,182 9,729 21,911 :6i 3 17,939 lsi ,001 16,107 32,108 17,899 15,715 33,613 1, , 1M ,.., 12,108-10,591 22,697 11,635 9,232 20, ,666 22i IBM.. 18, ~1 35,209 13,711 11,922 25, , Table No. XIA,-showing MONTHLY DEATHS from ALL CAUSES. I' , Ii l0lfTBB M..' January.... 1,68'2 3,OM S,UD 3,488 1,438 2,461 3,199 February..,... 1,088 1,318 1,711 1,740 1,056 1,69! I,M! llareh... 9i2 l,ut 1,660 1,261 1,054 1,238 1,561 Apnl..,.., 7" 1,139 1,609 1,22t 925 9U 1,689 1,478 1,306. 1,729 1,407 1,596 1,804 2,159 May.., - 'N JlIl1S 1,8U I,m 1,8M 1,695 2,416 1,4540 1,7S8 - :July.. 1,799 1,663 1,933 4, ,385 1,659 Angus'..,..,.. 3,5Ii1 l,'i9 J,l!14 2,005 1,825 1,446 1,808 September.. ~ 1,939 3,197 8,798 1,537 4,67' 1,589 2,302 Ootober a,tn 16,110 1,'IJ 8,655 2,197 3,923 November.....n 2,650 4,3.53 r,23f l,mo 4,?i'O 2,299 2,468 Dfloember M',..,.. J,ll7J 3,038 6,08a ],483 2,996 2,51i8 3, Total.. 23,173 24,687 53,031 Zl,9i1 119,613 llo,867 JS,~ =..

211 xii [ Punjab Gazetteer, Table No. XIB,- sbowing MONTHLY DEATHS from FEVER. -- I 2 3, 6 8 'I 8 - MOIIITJI , ~ ---~ January.... 1,289 1, ,148 1,0715 1,919 2,504 Fehruary ,008 1,297 1, ,219 1,4fID March.oo , ,19 1.OM Apnl.. 60S 789 I,ll«) ' :t Ma.y oo,.oo. 1, ,141 1,000 1,242 1,6211 June , M m July...oo ,232 1,4.11 8, 'iO 1,1715 August.... 1,442 1,022 1,728 1,627 J,OIl'1 1,121 1,203,. oo. September OO' '".. October.. oo.." November.....oo December., 'oo. 1,177 l,7ro ',060 1,219 1,1166.oo 2,260 3,278 15,1193 1,062 8,068 1,673 1I.2~.. I. 2,211'1 8,840 6,854 1,076, l' 1, ,950 2,662 4,691 1,097 2,4069 2,002 1,69' Total 15,427 20,098 47,169 17,939 26,194 1&,868 18,926 Table No. XII.-showing INFIRMITIES. 1 2 I 8, I 8 I, 8 D. I IlfBUB. BLIliD. DBU.um lltjtli, LIn Males. Females. MaIN; Females. \ Females. Males. MU:f Total census, 1881.oo.. DlttO, 1891.oo.. A 11 rehglona Em dus oo EI ikh J ain M usalman C bnstlan o ther8.., ,930 1, , oo 136 '7 1,366 1,15' Table No. XIII.--showing EDUCATION 1 2 I 8, { oo.oo n...oo.oo to.,.... 'oo.oo '".., H. ~.S. 1. II I 8. MALES. FEMALBS. MALU Ali» FItIUL1Is.... <IlI'I 'tss 1'1. P -- 5,772 8, , = I C ~ =.. 'l:i.s '" 'l:i 'l:i 'l:i 0 'l:i ~tp gj.; 'l:i s:i ~d E!i <IlI'I '1::10, 'l:i;i ic~ ~~ =:3 ~~ =...ij 0.p p , Dlltlllls for Tahsli~- 3, ' 207 GUlranwala oo -.. 8,137.,179 4., Wazirabad ot '1,827 t, Hafillabad oo 1,045 5, DetlUls for tahsil. DO~ avlulable, - Total 6,009 2Z,119

212 Ta.ble No. XIV,-showing DETAIL of SURVEYED a.nd ASSESSED AREA. 1 J I 3 ' I I 5 0 I 7 I 8 \ 9 10 y. If'"gated.. CULTIVATED. UBCULTIVA'I:SD. Total Umrl'l. cultivate Cultur Uncul Total un Foreats. By Gov gated. able. turable. culuvated. By private ed. ernment. mwvlduals works.. Total area IIoIIsessed d' 334, , , , ,'128 1,078,062 1,562,7.J , , , , ,879 1,026,74.3 1,599, ',,.. 389, , , , ,588 I,088,74.l 1,640, , ,916 Oll,8sa 379, , ,356 1,04.3,813 1,655, ,.,.. 'lll,893 IM, , ,491 3M, ,086 1,079,800 1,686,la , , , ,4003 2~, , ,139 1,180,847 1,898, ".. 83, , , ,322 ~, , ,139 1,180,847 1,845, "..,.,. 35, , , , , , ,709 1,147,479 1,824, ,672 34,j, , ,71' 222, , ,684 1,118,130 1,717,84,j , ,605.:I51,99j 851,169 22,956 84,j,2i9 132, ,855 1,821, , 128,068 3S9, ,256 7~,477 1,806 8U, , ,4068 1,721,M5 NAME OF TAHSIL. TAHSIL DETAILS FOR " GI'088 -went..!f! ~~ =0 ~ g-s.. ~eli "".Q 0::" 2~. "" """'''' ~~S ~ , , ,OSj 152, ,971 IM,527 00, , , , ,121 11, ,059 19, ,809 11, ,751 26, ,270 5,208 Gujr'nwa.la.....,..,,.... lu, , ,934. 2, ,893 32,950) 17', ,736, Wall1ra.bad ,347 50, ,390 1,721 79, , ,9U 203,111 luftzabad ,1G6 67, , ,795 1, ,860 87, , ,916 Xh&ncah Dogr&n ,762 18,777 66, ,050 17, ,299 17, , , ,363 [, 76! 231, , ,528. H.

213 . Table No..xV.-VARIETIES of TENURE held direct from GOVERNMENT during the YEAR ending RABI , Desonption of Villages a.oeording to revenue I:IC.. - I,<:I f:l.. <> 0 ci!.!l '" g. 0 a ai '" III,J <II.,.. '" ~ ~ G) '"..,... '" ri eo eos 0 ","0 0 cd ci! -'='il ;; as: CD..~ ",4 '" a:t ~ ~ "'-" s:s.;l 1>:tJ.. "''''!., z z z.oj.oj pud by them. Tenure. ~ ~. -SJ! j;'. " Pattfdan and BhayaoMra. H9 3,928 3,628 5,208 1 Za.mfndan Villft.ges paying Rs to Rs. 50,000 { a , 1 1 { 1 Zamlndan ". a" '195 %87,130 1,622 m Villages paying RB. 100 to Rs, 5, Pattidiri and Bhayaclulra., "" ".. 1,088 1, ,540, 'f 1 Za.m{nd!ri "'6 3ll! { ,607 GO Ville.ges paying less than Rs.loo 2. Pattfd&rl and BhayachAra.., '1. 11, eo. Leases from Government wlthollt nght. of ownerslnp ', Total ,323 55,162 1,851, '" ---- ~41a ADDENDA. A.-BoldlDg \i included m the above held wholly or partially free of revenue, "' l , I. In perpetmty free of conditions.. b O,liOC 108, DItto subject to confutjona ,., -- 1,197 25,27D 13,J90 8. For life or lives....,.. 81a 20, ,~ At pleasure of Govenunent M II. Up to ilie tune of Settlement m 27' Total of these holdmga." ---=:.--=:--,. l,on li06.e"5 - U t----'--- B.-La.nda Included in the above of which the ownershlp ill encum~d by nsufrn('tuary mortgages." 7,8U 1II0,n t : ft... :H.q

214 Table No. XVI.-RETURN showing the CULTIVATING OCCUPANCY of LA;ND for the YEAR ending BALI ~ c; 1 I 18 '16 el'l e/ ~-----I-----~-----I-----~-----I----~-----I TABAIL GI7".ABW.n "C ~g:,.8~ 9el T.BRIL KB'.&~B lioguli'. ;:.. I.. ~~! DIIIT.lor. 1l4..: ~ ' Total cultlv&ted area M... '7,2.~5 806,368 '1, , , ,720 30,195,159, ,210 8/111,721 Are. cultivated by owners.. 29,l1li6 139,901 15,603 72,667 16,8"1 102,901i 7,2116 ~,06S 6!;,H ,MI DItto by tenant. free of rent or &t nominal rent 6,7740 6,416 J,lM 1,466 6!16 9&1 61) ,115 9, ,5112 2,220 Witb right of {paying at revenue rates, wlthol' without M4llk4nll 1,870 2,029 11, ,4111 8,02'1 PaYing other cuh rent /, 6JJ Of,2 ooonpa.ncy. l'aywg ill kind, WIth or without an add.!tion in cash Ib4 \I>j l,l.! ) With011ll rigbt{p&yinll' &t revenue r&tes, with or without Mdlt1c4na.. 6,176 17,S,0 4,177 11,472 4, ,1100 1,R11 4,RRS lli,1i1'1 - lir,485 Pa.ying other cash rent.. 12,:i08 4pj,636 5,1I() ,4U, 47,174 16,009 7H,77i 4O, l,212 ofoooupa.ncy. l'a.ying in kind, with or without &n addition in oash '.. 1t1,1III3 79,OS9 12, ,657 56,607 4,l!lO U,054 6Z.05J 1118, Total b~ld by::::-::::t--=- 411:: ~6~ ~,~ -88,S971 ~:;- ~,827 -;:; ~10,13' -:,~-:'411 A. ABIt ABIA. AB , ' DatAIL's...; Nail ai,i N..; ~..; i 1 :. 1, _I _E L_.E J._! t_1 1 i! {I, Zabtl rent. I :I ~ 2. Half produce or more 2, ~9. lu 8,489 7.l2 D 8. Two-fifth. and Ie.. tha.n ba.lf.. ],501 1, '110 J5.. 1, hS 1..:1::3 Benta In klnd '" One thlrd and 10MH tba.n two-fifths 6,l11i 3, ,797 8,4110 en ,01'16 184i2..!~ 6. Le.. than one-third ,6~1) 7,748 12,87':1 9,2.18 4(',679 21,745!!., 8. By fixed amount of produce 2O,711f1 1, "" (J,lln 7 ~4Il I]!!~&l are&unde~~~.:_:;..::.:.._= )----- a~ '1,_10_3 _3_9,_111_' _:~ -2~ ~~ ~~ 60:682 'S r::t s ~ a {I, Total paying at revenue rate., witb or without I S M41,kdna.. 18,047 11,008 11,140 2, ,960 8,MO l,ilr9 li,87' 44,045 1" 440 S Caehreuta,.. 9. Tot,&lplyingotbercasbrentll 86,:158 1.!,378 2J,1I1:l 3,017 3J,71;8 l~,~bfl la,on 24,7J2 147,0119 bj,li18 a o. Total oallb. ~nt. pald OJlarea entered 1Jl 9 ~i2i~7-99--" i3:m-' '---Tz;oo-r 69~mJ '---m,~!: t::1 t; rto ::to g. LI

215 xvi ( Punja.b Gazetteer. Table No. XVII,-showing GOVERNMENT LANDS. I 1 I I ~-- ACRES HELD e? ~ 'ONDER CULTIVAT' REM,uN1NG.lCBEI. JNG LBASEs. ~,.; <D ",..!. s!.i "'111 di G) 0 ~ 0011.~ C1)~d ~ ~ ~. Gil "'" ""'g. ~ l- 0 "' 8 g ~. 'd t~l S 0'" ", s:s A)l 1:: ~.to': 8 0 -;; I:l CD g"" CI) g CI ~ 0 p p ~ a p. CIS p ~a - " d O~ too4 Tahsil GUFanwala. 3, »SC 2, " Wazllabad 2, , " Hafiubad.. 235,O5 46,239 ls4,87f 21,457 9,655 2,829 6,810 Total DisLrict 240,847 46,567/155,432 ~ 25,719, Ra. 9,655-3.(741--;;; Ta.ble No. XIX,-showing LAND ACQUIRED by GOVERNMENT \ Compensation Reduction of Purpose for which acquired. Acres acquired. paid, in rupees. revenue, in rupees., Ba. Roads ,657 9, Rs. Oa.nals ,657 1,26,898 1,'100 State Ra.ilway '" n.... 3,'l48 43, Guaranteed Railway " Misoellaueotll. I ,1'1' 163 -, -. Total J 13,747 1,91,584. 3,615 -

216 Table No XX,-showing ACRES UNDER CROPS U 187! '19 1 Bi9..ao 188Ml ' 1 YI!ABS M GOlrinwiJa Wufrabad IWlu.bad.., ,.., AX. O. TAHSIL....., 'N.... Total '" ,.., 3 J 8 'I Ii I Sogar- Vega- Total. fuce. Wheat. Jawar. B&Jr&. Makal. Jau. Gram. :Moth. Poppy, rrobacco Cotton. lndtgo. cane. tables , ,482 17,3SS 169,178 48,408 ',8M 13,513 11,059 %5,2M 68, ,921 3',728 l!3,3u 2ll ,596 11, , ,607 4,010 12,313 68,559 99, ,933 U4 5,168 38,OU. 21,583 41,9n 567,426 7, ,01li 45,330 6,558 10,961 62,615 17,570 56, , ,161 25,766 66, ,494 9,925 l!o3,'745 ",296 5,OM 16,535 64,082 31,682 ", ,259 33,976 26,625 56, ,OM , ,967 86,184 41,893 l,l!o ,563 39,347 19,278 18, ,822 10,U7 216,981 22,811 1,480 16, ,374 7,008 42, ,430 37, , ,SSO 10, ,683 55,398 2,205 21,020 [0,468 13,170 33,7M 105 1,662 32, ,184 17, ,501 13, ,961 47,129 4,672 19, ,819 17,8M 43, ,530 28,504 20,773 35, ,132 14, ,696 63,249 3,413 23,471 86,810 22,770 43, ,967 32, ,9M 83, ,395 16, ,321 66,676 7,733 19,7M 65,967 62,619 20, ,900 26, ,948 1, ,308 21, ,085 82,269 7,700 22,044, 56,590 47,426 38, ,761 39, %,205 1, ,856 24, ,620 68,618 10,292 20,439 77,965 53,520 50, ,188 31, ,809 1,167 &440,498 13,070 ~,975 49,495 4,Sa 23,31S 4'.896 &0,483 :13,106 ' :(3, ,219 1,379 83S,776 27,433 llu, , ,799 21,980 68,044 75,837 54, J,958 30, ,850 2,03' 851,169 Sll,9UI Z61,4f02 63,979 12,361 :17,106 I 49,702 68,738 36, ,530 53,820 " 89 17,015 1, TAHSIL UK.AQIIB IIOB THII I'IV. YBAB8. II.OK ro ,798 4,847 8l,018 81,400 a& 9,622 19,830 22,105 18, M5 10,M3.. r, ,4%2 5,678 81,'176 12, , ,375 '1, '1,001 5, ,187 13,390 12,61:11 83,841 8,48:11 6,146 18,111 18,'718 12,978 Z6 91:11 16,: ,SOl , ,941 76,916 9,893 "22,76,7 59,5U 59,308 39, ll,191 39, ,020 1,585,z3,; ,

217 Ta.ble ~~. X~,-PrevailiDg RENTS DVRING the YEAR ENDING RABI J 8 1 ~ I 6 I 6 I 7 I 8 I e I 10 I,, BENTS COMMONLY 'PAID BY TENANTS AT WILL. 11 I 11 H ~., :::: j 1'0' t.ajrd 1.. IG""l'BD B'I' 1'0. LAn IBBIIU.'l'KD B'I' FOB LA!I'D DBI&A'IlID B'I',. 1I'liILL8 9J1Llr. WBLLS -'!I'D C.urALS.. C.lJI'AL8 OIl'LT FOB U.LVvur. un FOB LAlfD DlilPlIIlfDlIIft 0.. BAllf. 'l'ajlsuo. I DiriBiOn of Tahsil., Kindren' ICindrent Xtndrent f Kmdrent Cash rent. percent. of Cash rents percent. of Cash rents percent. of Cash rents percent. of pel' acre. gross proa per acre. gross =pro- per acre. grobspro pel' acre. gross pro duce. dace. duce. duce. I Gulrinwila.., "l BAngar f r Charkhari Ita. A. P. Ba. A. P. Bs.A.. P. Bs. A. P o 0 83 andu ,,.... Bir,.. I , r Charkbari CO.... ~ Wulrt.b&d Chen'b CO and It DADgar J 8 0 CO and 83 J 0 0 IS,..-, Chenib J 0 83 I 0 0 IS J B&4zabad B6ngar I 0 83 and and IS 1 0 fl :1 :1 II Bk I 0 83 andll6.. S3 and , -, Kind rent Cash rent. per cent. of pel' acre. in?88 produee. Ita.A.. P. J and IS IS o 0 IS o 0 IS,

218 1 2 I 3 I :-1 Ii Table No. XXlI,- showing NUMBER of STOCK. I, 6 '1 8 I I 9 1'0 WUOL HarRIeT rob Tllllll'BABS. TAHSILI rob TD. TUB ,, KIND or StOCK '13.'14. 18' Aujd,Jlwala.. Wa.zira.bad. nafizabad. KUoga.h DOgraD I Cows and bullocks 243, , , ,037 4'12, ,145 82, ,852 9O,26G liorses '1,221 11,899 8,442 2,~S3 3,208 2,498 1'onial.. 1,162 1,25' 757 J Donkeys.. t '1,540 8,649 4,000 15,196 16,138 5,876 3,409 6,020 2,833 Sheep and goats.. 21,820 5'1,550 41, , , ,401 18,177 51,781 29,629 Pigl ,..... Camels.. 4,lSlSa I 4,177 2,681 8,270 2, l,as' lca.rti \52 1,864 2, l,s08 "1']ODg9J 56,848, ,563 70,931-81,167 29,972 16,230 18,810 16,1C5.! Boatl \ ' J ~.

219 :xx [ Punjab Gazetteer, Ta.ble No. UIII,-showing OCCUPATIONS of MALES. - _ !,1_4--"I_li l l! l I 1_3_1_'-:.I_I5.::;.e NAture of occupations. MUES AIOVI Iii YlIABS OB AGE. MAul nov. 15 nu. O.A&I. 1 Total population.. 2 Occu patlon specified 3 AgrJeu ltural, whether 111m p10 or combmed. 4 CIvil AdmmJliltratlon.. /; Army... 8 Reltglon.., 7 Barbers " 8 Otber professlons. 9 Money-lenders, general traders, pedlar", &c. 10 Dealers III gram and flour 11 Corn-grinders, parcbers, &c 12 Confectioners, green-gro- ('ers, &c. 13 Carners and boatmen H Landowners " 16 Tenants 18 Jomt cultlvators 2.'i, , , , , ,107 81,871 84, , ,465 1M 857 2, ,O4(} 2,979 1,677 1,3!>9 5, ,205 2,567 74(} 81,005 1, ,654, , ,989 3,289 2,100 2,026 7, ,169 3,772 32, , Agncultun.l1a.bourera Pastoral.. Cooks and other serv&ljt8 Water-carrlers.. Sweepel'll and scavengers Workers ld reed, cane, lea.ves, straw, &c. 23 Worker! III leather 24 Boot makers Workers in wool a.nd paehm l!6. silk.. 27 Of.. cotton 28. wood 29 Potters 30 Workers and dealers In gold and sliver. Workers In Iron,~ GeneraJ. labourers Beggars, faqus, and the like ~t 127 1,006 ~lo 886 MO , ,81l(l ,lI70 1, ,868 11,00! , ,565 4,1Wd 4,,," 1, /, &9 1.47ft ,'187' 737 4,93e " ".1I~8 4,t\09 1,4t;9 1,916 3,970 11, _2\ NOTll.-These figures are ta.ken from Ta.ble No. IDA of tbe Census Repor.. of Ta.ble No. XXIV.-sho~ing MANUFACTURES. a 4 I. ~ ~ ~,; I 6 ~I~ - - II I 10 I al--- CJ >0 ""~.r '0: 1:1 ~_Q ~.~ Ii ~;-.=.,; -,,; Q) ::di Ilo : j :!8 ~';;"S 'S ~ lie ~ til (5 ~ ~ II:j II:j ~",a ~ Number of mllli and large factones.. - ~..,... '830 Number of tlrlvate looms or smaj1 16 9,617 29' :767 1, em works. Number of workmen { Male..." ld large works. FelllaJ.e.. Number of workmen in small works 23 9: ,M8 1, '001 or indef:ndent artlz&lje. VaJ.ne ~ nti In large works EstlmA annual outturn of all 6,870 8s;i03 1:560 I ~!5,os;QM 2,117,086 1,08,783 2,02,470 43,060 works 111 1'1lpees. -- J , l~7;6SO I I I 19 I S"" Ills!! ti.!i t..!r b 8f'f h~.e~,e; :i. ~ ~ti,,;. ~.,., III. alii!~ <P.J ~ "I:I~ ~lig 111>0 'ti'1:lt-. ~ ~ IlII ;S~.e ts~ o~~ E-I 13 IS I 1. III, ! ~a~ ~l Number of mills a.nd large factonee Number of pritate looms or Ima.1l 1, Me works..n. i~80 '''683 "'930 19,71» Number of workmen {Male...n.. m large works. FemaJe Number of workmen in small works 1;295 2,184 '196 9 JO I SU ~ or mdependent a.rtilans. lue O~lan' m large worke Estlma.t annual outturn of au 8,15;680 I 89, J 972 "S80 wotks In rupees. - 'i,"l l,0'6:SOO 81;"39 17,59;6-11

220 Table No. XXVI,-showing RETAIL PRICES. ~ E. ~============~====~====~~==~==~====~====~==~=====r~~~==~=====t========~r====~ 1 2 S ' I I ~ Yu Wheat. Barle,.. Gram Indian corn. Jow'r n ti 86 II 27 SO IB6,'J a U, /lo !i) ~ II II " J J8 10 Ijj U & ' IIf~ , () "' &0 181'-7& t3 II Itl as l'j ft ] : ' :n 411 I/{) , 8i ' '< 86 11l " ') 86 Maize: ' II!Il a 3 lq8' l'1aa-'l9 19 S l19 oo III " ft IS9() 9l U ~1.92 It.. 21 IS )' '" ]6 16 io IIlI/J 9' 21 ~ / 32.. NUIlBIi. Olr alib8.wd CIlI'I'Tu:a PEa BurBB-. Bajra. RIce (fine). Urd dal. Potatoes. --- Cotton Su~ar (cleaned). (refined). B. Ch. S. C11. S. 1c11. a. I Ch. S. Ch. S. Ch. S. Ch. S. ~h. S. Ch. S. Ch. - ~I~ ~ " /) 1'1 4 " a II ,.. a ' ' :I 12 6 U /) 9 18 " II li " U a II J H '" , II 8 :! , , 3 3 " 28 8 _ & Blce. Unoleaned Gur 17 " , 8 '1 8 til ]0.. 9 Iii " III ]0 14, ' S 4> 10.. \1 ".. 1 Ghi (cow'.)., Fll'ewood S. Cbo S. Ch., I II 2 J '1'1 'I 1 13, J 1 'I 83 JIJ J 1'f e S & I ' , > " '1 85 1, 100 Tobacco. S. Ch a 9 II 'I 'I /) II 9 ' /) & S " II ) Salt, (I4hon). B. Cll II II II 9 Ii , n 1 IS 1 ] /I 13 I ~ _. ~ lid, r+. o ~. H ~.

221 Table No. XXVII,-showing PRICE of LA:J30UR. ~ I 3, 41 I 5 6 I 'I I 8 I 9 'fila. WAQBS 0. LABOVB PER DAY. CA.ETS PBE DAY_ CAKIILS PlIR DAY., 8htletl. li n8hltetl.. Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest. - Highest. Lowest. Highest. Lowest as.a.p. Rs. a.p. Rs.a. P. Rs. a.p. Rs. a. p, Rs.a.p. Rs.a.p ,ft o 8 0 o Ii '0 0 S o 'I 0 l!17s-'19.., IJ 0 0 i 6 S e e 0., I 0 0 S e 2 o o e l88o-81 no I e , Ii , (; ,, ".. 0 e a e I s 0 0 I 0.J G S 0 0 s S S II s I 0 a S ' II I 0 J It 0 II 0 0 II 0 0 I 0 J II It e J 8 II 0 0 Ott , I I e ou , & e 0 I 0 0 I e ' oS " f S- o 0 II 0 () I ,It, 0 0 a e f I 11 Dol'[ ][EYS PEa BeODB PBR D&Y. Highest. Lowest Rs. a. p '" ," IS 0 II a 0, I I 0, 0 0 I I III li13 0 It 13 0 III , 0 I I I 13 BOATB PBE DAY. Highest, Lowest Rs. a' p G a , 0 8.,

222 - 1 - Table No. XXVIII,-showing REVENUE COLLECTED, I 3 6 I \ E~c].IIlI, T&u. Fluctuat.,tDg FIxed and ) Land Local Total Iao80118 Trjb~te. rar.ell. Stamp RevjlI1ue. COlJootlOIUl. Laud Revenue, SpU'lta. llrugs. BB"Bn !11J8.81 ".. 1/ ~ H. H } ' , -.", _ ~76.,..,.. )876-76,,.,, " , , so,..,.. 1~iIO ,,.".. 11<lfl2-H-'., "... Itl84-86 h " '". Itlf , 181!l1l 90 d' -..oo 1~ ,..., lmll2-os,.. JIi93.~ -= Ba. RII. Rs. Rs. Bs. RB. -- Ita. 4,07,46l 77,39'1 ". 11,889 7,64.7 '9,293 6,63,887 4,42,193 ~I, ,619 8, ~,611 6,36,ll23 4,42,986 9,.i9J,. 12,763 8,799 66,669 6,29,608 4,4.i,602 1,896 3], ,963 10,730 67,'-33 &,67,709 4,45,687 33,019 87,639 12,6<rJ 10,774 64,723 6,04,244 4,49,867 2,376 37,122 12,lISi 8,006 61,0040 6,70,306 ',61,097 1, ,&63 13,866 11,337 66,71lS 6,81,491 ',61,684 l,8m, ,298 8,206 68,423 6,!!I2,876 4,56,828 1,977 37,'i7U 16,1)('9 9,702 69,8J9 6,\IO,1.i4 4,67,7408 3,629 87,807 18, ,231 87,762 6,14,608 4,BS,illt 8,706 63,094 13,4<10 8,~9 86,643 6,62,6~ 4,1!l9,415 4,908,.. ~,869 14,968 8,'i80 9'J,&3l 6,60,061 4,91,891 13, ,1l&3 18,401 7,6t34 1,08,151; 6,82,991 4,92,9-W 12,'''1/6.. 48,003 19,6S3 8,666 1,06,030 6,87,1132 6,04,613 7,042 M, 6&,429 2l!,689 9,070 1,09,667 7,06,600 6,11,734 6,628 ~,/)77 25,710 11,486 1,08, ,221 6,11,181 6,997 70,27~ li6,u3 10,956 1,17,180 '1,40,7111 6,04,243 '1,a18.., 69,665 23,266 10,6tll 1,12,26 '1,27,316 6,09,6116 8,1101.., 69,497 :",163 1I,4J7 1,12, ,817 6,2~,01J4 14,4oIi1.. 70,197 90,.!O6 10,710 1,23,050 7,7d,7.' 6,16,211 14,108 '111,250 84,187 9,629 1,&0,910 7,76,295 6,18,557 9, ,J68 84,163 10,288 1,29,997 7,70,818 6,21,201 12, tl7,..!!!1 39,171l 11,934 1,'J~,242 7,87,!53 6,22,&19 4,88, ,624 10,ll26 1,63,367 12,86,1~9 6,24,725 2,16, ,633 46,108 10,6Jl 1,61,183 11),26,603 6,03,906 I,U, ,412 61,022 10,614, 1,44,784 10,26,118 H H. -.

223 Table No. XXIX,-showing REVENUE DERIVED from LAND '" '" ~:. PIa YB.as. 't!~ j= 'tf:a ~~ ~ Total of Ii yeara- 1861Wl9 to 11: Total of 6 yeara " to & ss2-a , 1BS6-8S _ ' ! G ". IS9lWl ,.. 189S." DJltnct :J!igvn,. n. f.',., I '.., ~ o,... "11,B.s. lil,98,s78 22,72,~ ',89,206 '-89.2" ~91,1I83 4,9.1,814 &,06,787 6,1l1,7SS &,12,910 &,13,3.'17 6,13,733 &,15.i48 6,16,100& 6,JO,l29 5,21,MO II,SS,!3t 1I,!8,87' 8,011,980 3 RII. 1,43,098 11,1407 8,608 ',781 1:1,738 Il1,301 6,650 &,213 &,900 7,171 8,116 13,~ IO,S!l 8,065 ',H) ',87,833 1,1&,123, l,u,533 RII , sa 78 =1 5 RI. 1,96'1 1, ~ &7' Ii86 63Ii all! 803 m M RI. RI MXSCItLLAlfBOUI RIIVBlfUB. a... 6'-az'ng dru.. ~ 3 ~ s= lad :. ~ ; cd ~ s:1 0 =ig d o~ ~~ ~~ -;. ~: ~ e =~ ~! o~ ~ g,: ~.. =.!~ ~ ";t ; >,0" c k 7!- ~ ~ III III Eo< ---""------, Bb. RI. Bs. III. Bs. BB. 68,691 9,827 3,4078 ',619 3,237 ',823 3,025 U,8B8 18 9,MB 7,206 3,154 t ',401 1, ',501 7,'78 3,825 1,188 3,883 II li,m, 1,797 3,678 3,158 1,526 II '-013, - 3,516 1,696 6,600 3,926 1,785 S7 9,838 3, ,101 4,676 3,n7 3,031 li,iu 5,650.., ll,355 ',81,873 Nurell 80,M5 80,410 2,6&0 ',821 1, j

224 Table No. XXX,-showing LAND REVENUE ASSIGNMENTS for the AGRICULTURAL YEAR ending RABI I 3 I 40 I 5, Village. DISTJUC"r. G I '1, TOTAJi AREA "YD REVENUE,l88JGNED. 8 I 9 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 - Dl6TIUBCl'ION OF ABitA A:SD JAJU. Fractional portio" 01 Village. of C07ld.ttOflS. 3f!ct to co'ft,d,ttons..a co ci ci ci ci os CIS ~ os ~ as.. os.plots. Total. r. """",,,V r-i r.,..,p. ", n".; ci.,j co ci a Q) Q) a a <II 13 Q) 2:; e a d ~.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~..q.., -< ~ ~.., " Aores. Rs. Acres. Rs. Acres. Rs. Acres. P 1 4 Us. Acree Us. "" Gojrinwal&.., 249,346 1,05,594-42,922 26,48'1 14,20'7 11, ,475 1,43, ,5040 1,08, ,279 13,290 DISTRICT. -- = - l' I 15 I 16 I 17 I 18 f 19 I 20 I I 23 I 24 I 25 I 26 I 27 DISTBIBUTION 011' ABEA AND J,uII.-concld. NUMBER OF HOLDERS ~ - (.j t:. a:. 0 "ft pleasure of Wor t~rm of Bettle- Peftduig orders o( 11> 0 ~ For hie or Ziv", <D Government. ment. Gov8rftmsnt. E c Q). f P CIJ 18.. ai ow.. '" Q. OJ 1>-.. I>-.s:I 0 ~ ~ ~ - o Q).~ s:i 6~ : c::i 0 '". ~ 08 :1~ S 0 "iz S Q Q) 1:1 :lq) Q..~ Poo Q). tio'".. 't:l ':: I Q) S s:l Q) ". <II 't:lo - ~ 1:1"'". CII ~a ~o, -. '",0 Q) 0.. " I " Q co.i ci cs.; ci eli ~ Q) 1:1 ~ "ae -1:1 - ~ ~ I 1 - Acres. Us Acre;g RI. Acres. Rs. Acres. Us., - ;. CII a Q) a 11> Q) a a PoO Q..O ~ os os Q 0 ~ ~ ~..q t!!..q ~.. ~ -< ~ Po. Gajraowala. 20,349 21, ,197 tl I -

225 Table No. XXXI,-showing BALANCES, RE1rlISSIONS and TAKAVI. BALANCES OF LAND REVE~OE IN RUPEES. I 'YUR. Fixed revenue. Reductions of fixed demand 'Iak8.vi on accoun to! advances in Fluctuating and bad seasons, REIIUlU miscella.neous deterioration, rupees. revenue. &0., in rupeelj. - ; ,. 1, ,. ',650, , , \... 3, ,.. 9,170 '57.., 8, ,923 1,4065.oo 10, ,888 8, , ,...,.. Of 910 1,909 4, ,..., 1,653 8, '" 1,184 1,217 oo 1, ,...t' 873 ",331 6, ,.. 2,105 19, , ,.. 2, ,401 \ ,323 :::z:z:: ::::::x:=, -

226 Table No. XXXII,-showing SALES and MORTGAGES of LAND. 1.2 I 3, 40 I 5 6 I '1 I 8 I 9 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 TEAL II o., SALES. ltobtgages. RltDEMPTION 01' MORTGAGES. Are/J In AcrH. Area in Acre I, Area '" Acre sa :).,; iii ~.,; II) II) CI) II) ---'"- a g :i 0 = :I 0 0 a = 0 rod rod 0 0 rod QI II) OIl 0 II)..,..,!lO.. ~ II) II) c til co CI),Q "CI.;.!: J! 8 ci.~ tld,q ci.!:.; S S -.., S 'i3. 'i3 ~. Q c:s 0 c c:s 0 c:s 0 0 Z Eo< 0 ~ Z Eo< 0 ::;! Z Eo< 0 '" ro Ra. RII. Rs ,0140 3,998 80,lSi 548 7,540 5,7'11 97, ,433 1,078 11, '1,377 4,,810 94,943 1,063 13,274 11,016 1,70, ,227 2,088 20,18'1 ' ,248 13,089 1,64,088 1,410 22,874 16,269 2,35, '1,616 6,873 51, ,048 13,702 9,619 2,33,439 2,270 21,558 18,714 3,69, ,860 '1,120 85, ,667 4,266 1,31, ,270 7,343 1,64, ,654 3,879 5', , ,859 7,~6 2,11,004 1, ,069 11,699 2,37, ,602 0,549 f)6, R.., , 1,066 13,452 7,838 2,34,414 1,834 26,722 15,601 2,56, ,507 7,784 1,29, ,686 6,759 1,83, '0,111 6,793 1,19, ,353 15,362 48, '1,660 4,661 2,18,903 1,129 8, ~.. a.:. 0,0-11 1,02, Total 6,203 91,665 62,466 15,52,122 11, ,228/ 100,362 '-::,055 6,396 ~6,595 44,774 0,99,4:;3,

227 1 Table No. XXXIII.-showing SALE of STAMPS and REGISTRATION of DEEDS. " I 8 I, I 5 Ii I f / 8 I II I 10 I 11 I 12 I 13 H H :t. I.COIIB WIlt>II BALB o. BTAIIP!. OP ATIOJrS O. TUB RBQIftBATIOJr DIIPAII'tIlBJrT. y.. J -J877 fs J9. h' U on le , 1881).00.., , 1891 " ~ , 1893-K , Ree"'1't. BupeM. Ii et ""COIIIe I" B"flBM. 6".6sr of tled. Ng.. ~. y.z of prope-rt,.lfeeted. i" BUfIB ~ ~ i- '" rt...e i- III,III ~ ~ = iii '" j;>. 0.. ~ '" e '" -'iii.' S S 9 j;>. Po..... ai.,iii e 0 :3. i Z ~ ;.,!!.' os 110;'- ~~ ~ ~ :;; 01 :a 4> 0 ai 'iii ai :s '" r:s sa ~8. I>a 'S ;. ~ ~ I>a a.. <3.,cPo g.,e.,0 II> 'iii.. 4> :a g ;a OJ g!i. = I'l ~ gpo ~.. r:s.:! 0 ~ 0 0 z Z Eo< Eo< ::;a Eo< ::;a ::;a Eo< ft 61,932 %2,7" 61,081 22,011 1,480 1" 198 l,ea 8,27,862 9,562 62,268 8,99, ,769 26,688 50,686 25,663 1, I,,".8,10,605 1,62, ,656 6,13, , ,789 63,945 30,641 1, ,4M 3,406, ,107 3,".8st... flt,8m ",808 1, fo ,98,700 2,609 18,880 1,20,179 71,272 83,768 82, , ,216 3,00,099 2,700.M,4.01 8,88,000 7l,~ 37,103 63,209 35,387 1, ,178 ',06,669 2,391 10,3411 4,18,4.OIi ,28". U, J, '342 ',97,65' ,513 1,232 8 ',362 6,02,95tr.- I ol,673 62,643 39,686 1,"U ,680 5,27,496 6,869 '"U8 1,35,780.., 70,580 38,361 81,746 36,487 1, ,391 5,M.016 1,280 8,Z711 5,08,5Iii.., 82,368 42,903 78, ,913 1, , ,43,628 1,697 l,&iii 8,50, , ,746 83, ,76fo l,8n 8,06,033 1,030 6,677 8,10,639 66,28Z ta,7ls 8.1,391 ' , , ,148 1,040 11,101 8,01, " ,610 '1,875 2, l35 8,60,615 2,1" 10,011 8,a, ,937 &.l,-&30 97,155 5O,7M 3,U S,J90 13,OIi,98j 1!,0Ii0 13,873 13,31,90' ,00,026 IIZ,51~ 86,139 50,506 8, ,%63 17,39,935 4,097 11,083 17,87,_ l,04,oofo 4.0,' , , ,US 11,«,929.,091 13,3611 1l,N,381..;

228 Table No. XXXIIIA,-showing REGISTRATION I I I I I 7 I I 8 9 f 10 Number of Deeds regtstered , I Compul- Optional. Total. Compul- OptIOnal. Total CompuI sory. BOry Bory Optiollal. Total llegiatrar, Gnjranwala... S 1 4 1' Bub.Registrar, G njranwala. 1, ,385 1,524 1,096 2,G20 92J 628 1,551 Do. do. Tehall Do. Wazirabad ,086 1,287 2, ,573 Do. do. tahsll Do. do. Tahsil Do. liafizabad ' ' ,2~ ' Do. lth&ngah DograD, \ Total.. 2, ,117 3,648 2,422 6,070 2,354 1,621 3,975 1

229 ~able No.-XXXIV,-showing INCOME TAX COLLECTIONS. 1 11_2-1_3 ~1 4 _1_5~1 _6_1_7 _, _8_1_!l INCOME.TAX COLLICTIO\S YE,U ~~ ~ Part I. J. 011) a> '" a, a>..c'" SiB =.. Z Part II _ Si' 14 2';a =. o -" 1:3 CI o ~ Part III. "" 01. o... '" a> <Il a>..c.,. E ~ = <II Z Pwt IV.. o '"...c S CI Q ,284 16,55' , :::I I 1I 157, ,9H3 H' {l85 17,071 J,oo'1 17, ,(; '1,934.., 1,148 22,'i8G 1,171 23,30'1 I J = "'1 I j I J,292 1,129 23,227 1,15' 1,203 2G,42~ l,2:!6 26, ,588 1,318 20, ::.=-.==--.;;::

230 Table No. XXXV,-showing EXCISE STATISTICS. 1 ~ I, 3 I I /I 6 'I 1 I I I I 8 II I I 1ll 13 I U 15 FBBKElfTED LIQuoR8. IlfTOXlo.lTIlfG Dauos. ExclsB RfVElu,a.OK..; I lyumbtr qf reta,l Con,"rnrt'OIJ '" }la",bet' of retail 01 bop oullrnu. lictll,',. C'vn8u"'pf,Oll,II.. aundl. -S "5 :;3.., -.. '" y..a "" :I ~ ~ f 01 0 I'l., co S u :E g 5....; $ '" 110 "0.. t:i. '" >!.. "" ~ e "".,, ci OJ.., t;-.. t;-.. 1;; t>i: 11 "" a I:i ~.. <ti ~ "".. >l.. ~ 110 ~ Jl :; ci '" e.; is :;,., '" S-.., E,Q,Q '" ""' 25 0 z 0 i"q p:: U II:l r.. ~ Eo< A verage of to lti S 3f. Ii 125 3, Q 16,OtiS 1:1,256 25, , ::3,520 11,0<;5 44,605 t 1 SSo.9O , ' , ", r 7, S ,116 n.03f. 51,112, 1, 801 OS.. 1 Iii I i 8,'01 I ,62f. I 1811'l-9S M fu r- I 1 67, 207 IS,GS soo.d6 ' '" I "I 10,826/ 63,460 '" 43,1»6 10,652 lh, , ,667

231 xxxii [ Punjab Gazetteer, Table No. XXXVI,-showing DISTRICT FUNDS. ====1==~-==2~I=s==I~~'~=G~I==8~!=f~I==8~I=o~~,===10=-=1 =11=. Anltual ".com,!" t'.tpee ~---f----~--~ ~~--~--~ M,llS 3,354 4,182 9,202 38, 8,187 15,809 36, ,216 2, ,417 8, ,409 70,6& , ,024 11, , ,304 3,404 13,&i2 4,OiQ ,560 41, ,773 8,30S ,910 4,380 8& 11,141 82,.w ,081 3,009 59,500 3, ,277 4,726 8i H,1l2!! 85,8lIO 188Q.81 65,023 3,900 59,913 3, ,Bb 'l,6tl2 88, ,458 7,878 64,836 3,208 1,844 12, ,893 42,3\J1l 18& ,825 4,!lO8 61,433 3,148 13,128 7,612 1,002 lli,096 40, i 85 56,201 2,048 50,239 1,879 13,858 '1, ,406 ~, ,241 9,H2 61,383 ',03i 2,07..& 9, , ,427 6,524 69,051 3,472 6,404 16,415 8,737 9, ,297 67, ,060 8,089 jll,049 1,617 6,S39 17,U9 8,406 17,603 M,481 1& ,557 8,818 60,870 3,200 8, ,629 80,072 01, , 63,280 10,653 63,938 2,870 2,822 17,885 7,878 2,66i 8, , ,077 14, ne 3,202 2,8n 18,MO '1,7SS ,880 62, S III, ,954 64,847 3,889 a,ok 20,369 8,828 21,265 83, ,500 11, ,416 8,578 6,019 21,110 9, M 28,270 80, ,..., ,989 79, I ,056 20,350 U,729 77,4.37

232 Table No. XXXVII,-showing GOVERNMENT and AIDED SCHOOLS. - 1 l! I 8 I 4 I Ii I 8 I 7 1/ 8 } 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 I IS II U /IS I (18 l I lit YIIU. nigh SCHOOLB. :MIDDLE SCHOOLB. PRIMARY SCHOOLB. - ElfGLIHB. VIIIIIUCULA EJfGLlSK. VIIIIJf.lCUL.lII. EJfGLIS1l. VIIB1UCULA" Goc~r"l/fent A.de4. GOfJU""..nt Go".r"III".t Albd. GO"",,fII,nf G_r"fII~"t A.,ud. 'IoGooern_nf I Aatkd. "nd Board. and JJoard. "JIll Board. ""d Board. alld Board. ""d Board. 1T:-.-.; J ul...!!l.. f! ~.a ol '"....!! - as iii <II :ii "8 ~ ~ ~ j "8 ~ '8 I i i '0 '0 0 '0 '0.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I.<I,::I.,.,.<I <>.,., -e -e., 1i il il ~ '", " rll u al al 'al W al I7l W W al Ul Ul Ul rt.i al al al rt.i rt.i to I ] FIGURES FOR BOYS. I I j.; f ol i I fj93.9' _. 2 1,015.., 2 ' , II II S 4080." J II Ii..., ) '.' : S IS , l! 285 I 8H , FIGURES FOR GIRLS lfi9o.fll j I i.., N ''' I I.. I... I I.... I "Aid ed... _ (.. I.... I I... II 1M ~ 8 lis1 I I.. lsi ~ H tj.

233 Table No. XXXVIII,-showing tne WORKING of the DISPENSARIES of the GUJRANWAI"A DISTRICT for the YEARS 1aas to I ' I & I 6 I 7 I 8 I " I 10 I 11 I 11 I 18 I 16 I 1& I 16 Name of Dispensary. Nl1 ZI1 Olr PATIBns TIIEATlID. Men , 1893, ' L ,-----1' ] , i---1_ 'Gnjrinwila. Wazira.bad Jha.bbar PUlIll :Bha.ttiAu :Butala _. Gnjrinwila Cit1 :Brauch Akilgarh Sha.hkoli Shelkbnpnra Xhinga.h Dogrin.ED;mabad Total lst class. 2ndclu8 3rd c1ul Do. Do. Do. Do. "' Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. 6,701 6,616 11,429 14,136 12, , ,661 8,973 \ 9,4>'8, ,, ' ',868 10,05Z &,388 9,R88 &,703 9,189 4,808 8,3M 6,074 2,798 2,423 4,237 2,336 4,701 2,817' 6,Ut ,407 ',680 4/1240 '-608 ii,li3 \ 5,Ga1 l,{oo ,609 1,778 2,180 2,873 4,098 8,663 4,116 3,800 2, ,282 3, >' 2,968 8,44.6 8,669 8,881 8,784 1.Uoj l,on 1,03' 1,36' 413 ',14.0 ' , , ,023 &,622 0,273 7, l 2,W 8,221 8,879 6,036 ',77' 2,681 ',676 1, ,384 1,673 1,610 1,7'52 1,640 1,2-43 1,17'7 1,4061 1~89 1.sos 172 1,666 l,5fl.i I.U1' 1,816 1,259 4,295 1,007 2,227 1,29l ~.. ~-~~~ "'I'~" ~~I~~~~-=~ 23.~!9,iG8 38,350 ",8-&9 ",8M 68,566 76,001 13, U 2O,2SS r!2,9ss 21,605 26,l!81 28,063 i.f. t'd ~ E I '';

234 Table No. XXXVIII,-showing the WORKING of the DISPENSARIES of the GUJBANWALA DISTRICT for the YEARS 1888 to 1894-contlnued., 20 I 21 I 2i I 23 u I 25 I 26 I 27 I 28 I 29 I Name of Dispenaary. Clan of DlSpeIlMry., 17 I 18 I 19 I NUlIJlBB OJ' P-"TIIINT8 TBII4T.D-«Jlt'"11~4. - Cluldt'l1n., Totd PatlBlib I Gujrinw&la.... 1st clasl!l.... 6,618 7,616 10,88' 11,265 9,996 11,778 10,136 17,417 19,891 31,286 84,819 30,~ 84.,893.. f'4(}.j M76 6,255 6,996 11,491 6,628 4,941'1 10,919 18,063 2O,SSO 22,191 19,951 19,492 Wa.zfla.bad 2nd cla.rii n-... luqldagal'.. 8rd c1aba.. *,818 2,577 2I,32ll 2,816 3,138 li,664. 3,IM 9,130 9,188 9,608 10,618 11,42! 9,610 lim1.mba ,.. Do...." 1,64.0 1,175 1,61)6 1,682 1,970 1,965 2,'*0 6,988 7,911 7,984 7,484. 8,149 8,698.;r~bbar.. Do. '".. 1,052 I l'in4i BhattlAn..,.. Do... 1,917 l,w 1,362 1,462 1,634. 1,165 1,667 8,226 6,458 5,31l' 6,262 6,496 6,723 I l,om 1,787 1,222 1,794. 1,612 1,:61 ',127 ',898 7,36' 6,167 7,'98 6,951 llutala Do no 1,184. 1,251 1,321 1,898 '" 755 6,890 7,133 8,5U GujrmwAla Citr Branch Do ,220 8,15' ,4.30 AkAlgarh Do S 3, ,013 Shahko Do., , ,~ Sbeikhupura - Do..., lowigah Dogrin Do Eminabad.. Do. '" N, 'M Total M!) 19,931 M,478 28,627 26,174 31,008 30,238 5i,755 65,403 83,111 9',461 91,833 1l8,785 I ,003 17,235 10,002 9,2111 5,373 8,9U 8,628 22,870 11,008 P, S,W 8,~1 14.2,_

235 Table No. XXXVIII,-showing the WORKING of the DISPENSARIES of the GUJRANWALA DISTRICT for the YEARS 1888 to 1894-concluded. 31 I 82 I 33 I 34 I 35 I w I u I M I ~ I, ~, Name of Dispensary. Cla.ss of DUlpensary. NUI4BBB 011' P. TlENTS TBIIATIID-concZIldcd I E.rpwdlt ""C 111 rupu' ~~ _ GQjranw~a,., Wazfrlloba.d ~a.ga.r luflzabad 3habba.l' l'1ndi Bhattian :Butala, Gujranwala Clty Branch Akalgarh.. Sha.hko~ Sheikhupnra Xhanga.h Dogrin Eminabad 1st class,.. 2nd cla.ss...,. Srdclass Do. Do. Do, Do. ".. Do. Do. Do, Do. Do. Do, i i ~ I I 827 3S" ,"70 4,037 6,320 ',169 7,713 6,710 ',S li " li III sa , S lu 1,6J'> 1,107 1, ,00S 2,O!lS 1,061 1,445 1,012 1,006 2,112 1,633 1, JO 2,101 1,403 I,liS 9S6 1, ,006 1,0-13 1,1~S i-i7 1,061 51& 2,482 1,5!7 1,593 1,326 1,539 I,O~ I 2,621 1,330 1, l,3io 1) ,226 1,62$ 10 Total

236 - Table No. XXXIK,-showing CIVIL and REVENUE LITIGATION f a I, I II I I Nu_1Ier of owil "'It, concernin, t [ og 0 i II j Valu, i,. rupee. qf.",f. tortenirg 1'1 II) ~ g - Tn 1'1.. JI 011.,a f ~.. ~. '1:3 0. t'~,3 ~:a a ~.g, ]o!i -;;.,; til ~&.. ~.: ~Q 1 o!i ~ ~ 'oo......,.. 0 Eo< I 8, ,197 29,145 ',11,060 4,60,905 ',131 / 18'19.. 8, ,378 31,673 6,01,351 6,33,Ollt,, '".. 8,M9 ISS ,765 3,Sj,U7 ' '1, 'oo..,.. 'oo 8,740 1:16 86i 9,730 89,463 4,SI.'178 6,71.UO..697, ,.oo '".. 9,816 17' ,462 60, ,940 ii,lo,mii 6,8.a ,., 9,1J.&3 1,1015 ll,m8 1,16,467 11, ,682 S,OOS.. 9,39: ,007 1,'17,66S 6,67,146 8,",SU 1..88, , n... 9,83' 1, , ,84,646 42,80,146 ', ,.. \ ,132 12, ,744 13,67,623 13,82, m 10, ,624 11, ,&08 7,25.95' 10,02,413 3,m 1898 N.. '" n '" ,332 13,970 2, ,91,836 6,01,426 4,783, ISH,.,,.. '" " ' - 1,146 12,379 1,44,898 7,30, ,1118 ' ,.. - N' i i I

237 Table No. XL,-shllwing CRIMINAL TRIALS. - " ' DETAILS Discharged - 2,821 2,876 2,729 2,639 Brought to trial ,703 4,000 5,122 =. "' I ~~ Acquitted h '190 l"- Convioted 2,739 1,654 1,431 1,679 Committed or referred 'i oil; Sammon rgularj... 1,297 1,246 1,353 1, \ 3 '1 :;0'.. r summary) m~ Warran case. regular) 1, ,.0 It summary). opo Total oases disposed of 2,506 2,318 2,296 2, Death Transportation for life 14 Z\ 10 4 " for a. term Pena.l servitnde.... Fine under Rs. 10 1, too 60 rupees I' III 3240,37< '" ". A.. 50 to '1 10 i,. 100 to 500 " :!I It 500 to 1, ".. 0 Over 1,000 rupees, "t! ,- ID ~!.\ Imprisonment under 6 month,...., " Uo "0 It 6 months to 2 Yfllars over :a. years l f' S WhipPing '17 85 ~ Find suratiae of the peace Recognizanoe to keep the peaoe.. 6 ' Give 8ureties for good behaviour ' I ,091 3, , , , , , W sa ' ,5]9 6,248 2,601 2, ,161 1,809 2, ,251 1,77' ,205 1,447 6 '1 2,523. 3, '198 1, ! :5 M :: ~.,,

238 Table No. XLI,-showing: POLICE INQUIRIES. ~======================~~==r=~~==~~~~~==~~==~~==~=t==~=t==r=~~==~ l j---i-~-\ _' 6~1 6~ NUMBa. op CUlI8 UIQl1IBED IIlTO 7 8 t~--10~r--l1-- 1_3 o 2. 1_3~I_l~~~ l-6---l-7~1- l~ 19 ~ %1 U ~ NUllBB. OP PIt.BOIlI A.1I1I1l8T.ED oa NUMB&. OP.aIl80 co.notad. ~ IllllllOIlED. ~ ~ I--~~~ ~~---~ lb9' l ~ !""'" Bloting or unlawful alll<embly Bol ' ~. In ::!. """ ~ a.-.!lurder anll attempt. to murder u , 1otal.eriolll offences against the person ) ' AbductIon of marned women 3, " ". 'rotal Beriona offence. against property >0 313 M4 41'\ 3.JU ) M 'rotal minor offences against the person CaUlelheft 'rotal minor offeaees againat propertl 'l'otal cognizable offence. -B1-Qt-IlI-g-U-U-}a-W-f-W II ~ I,, 2' Ii 128 /; 10 8 :1 Ii ". '" '" m '".",.. "" 12' "'I '" '" " <1 II. _ ~ m ~ rn ~ J ~ ~ ~ m m ~U~ ~ m ~ J w ru ~ ~.. '.'19.., '" ", """I ~W 1."'\ '" ". 1,-:",,. 1. '" '" '" '" '.'",~".. sembl,.'-.-aff-r-s-,.--,,--:- -=- ~ :--'---1 -~ ~ ~ --3 -:'-: 2 ~ --: --, --, -6 ~ --:1-: OJronce. relatiug to III&I'rlage Oft 6 6 7t1 81 ~2 :07 37( 12b &1 8, 9' & 'r_o_tal_JIO_n.oc_o.. gn1_z.a_b.le.o._ff_".n.ce.s.".i-_'".-: ~ ~ 1.'" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. '. 52 :':' 1..: ~ ~ 0. """'..-'" "" ':"" ''''', ~"... ''''.... '.'".. '."'1, '.'" 1.'" '. "'1'."1"" '. '. ~.

239 Table No. XLII,-showing CONVICTS in JAIL, GUJRANWALA. w - 1 YEAR. 2 \ 3 4 I 5 6 J 7 I 8 9 \ \ \1' i [24 25 I 26.,; II) ";;j --::a o o o _ Ril Ra. a. p. :.. c: CJ t a 8 o LENGTH OF SENTENCE OF CONVICTS.,;.. II) '" I>. o Ii:.. o ~ Q) I>. II) c ai CJ C NUMBER IN NUMBER IM- GAOL AT BE- PRISONED RELIGION OJ!' PREVIOUS.OCCUPATION OF GI:\NING 01' DURING THE CO~VICTt;. MALE CONVICTS. THE TEAR. YEAR. l'rev1- Ol'BLY CONVICT FD PECUNIARY RESULTs. ~ I c <!) c.;; e.. o ~ ';34 2' ~ I> ,963 1, ' I> 1 '; 'Is '1 9~ ,209, 3, , 'i 19,706 3, , , 'i 6<:10.. I ' lw , 2,\ 525 2U. 13 I> as>; 1' If! "'Ill \ ,.. f) J ~ 2 '~ 3 2 1(' :H,261 3, r-t "'e P '1 I> l!l 21,899' 3,2!) ' ~ Q'J764 6, [ 1 ~. -; , I 4, ::-

Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan

Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan How did geography affect early settlement in Egypt, Kush, and Canaan? Section 7.1 - Introduction RF/NASA//Corbis This satellite photograph

More information

REGULATIONS FOR DECLARATION AND DISPOSAL OF UNCLAIMED ITEMS OF THE PIRAEUS CONTAINER TERMINAL S.A. IN THE PIRAEUS FREE ZONE

REGULATIONS FOR DECLARATION AND DISPOSAL OF UNCLAIMED ITEMS OF THE PIRAEUS CONTAINER TERMINAL S.A. IN THE PIRAEUS FREE ZONE REGULATIONS FOR DECLARATION AND DISPOSAL OF UNCLAIMED ITEMS OF THE PIRAEUS CONTAINER TERMINAL S.A. IN THE PIRAEUS FREE ZONE Article 1 Goods declared unclaimed deadlines Goods unloaded and received by the

More information

Chapter 20. The Physical Geography of Africa South of the Sahara

Chapter 20. The Physical Geography of Africa South of the Sahara Chapter 20 The Physical Geography of Africa South of the Sahara Chapter Objectives Identify the major landforms, water systems, and natural resources of Africa south of the Sahara. Describe the relationship

More information

North Africa. Chapter 25. Chapter 25, Section

North Africa. Chapter 25. Chapter 25, Section Chapter 25, Section World Geography Chapter 25 North Africa Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 25, Section World

More information

Chapter 7. Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan

Chapter 7. Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan How did geography affect early in Egypt Kush, and Canaan?

More information

HYDROLOGY OF GLACIAL LAKES, FORT SISSETON AREA

HYDROLOGY OF GLACIAL LAKES, FORT SISSETON AREA PROC. S.D. ACAD. SCI., VOL. 77 (1998) 59 HYDROLOGY OF GLACIAL LAKES, FORT SISSETON AREA Perry H. Rahn Department of Geology & Geological Engineering South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Rapid City,

More information

Chapter Five. Schedule 0.21: Particulars of Slum

Chapter Five. Schedule 0.21: Particulars of Slum Schedule 0.21: Particulars of Slum 5.0 Introduction: The first nationwide survey on the economic condition of slum dwellers in urban cities was conducted by the NSSO in its 31 st round (July 1976 - June

More information

Chapter 7: The Geography and Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan

Chapter 7: The Geography and Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Chapter 7: The Geography and Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Learning Target: I can explain how geography affected early settlement in Egypt, Kush, and Canaan. Ancient Egypt and the Middle East Can

More information

Visual and Sensory Aspect

Visual and Sensory Aspect Updated All Wales LANDMAP Statistics 2017 Visual and Sensory Aspect Final Report for Natural Resources Wales February 2018 Tel: 029 2043 7841 Email: sw@whiteconsultants.co.uk Web: www.whiteconsultants.co.uk

More information

Ancient Egypt and the Near East

Ancient Egypt and the Near East *O*»f ' i ft Ancient Egypt and the Near East Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan The Ancient Egyptian P h a r a o h s Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

More information

GLACIER STUDIES OF THE McCALL GLACIER, ALASKA

GLACIER STUDIES OF THE McCALL GLACIER, ALASKA GLACIER STUDIES OF THE McCALL GLACIER, ALASKA T John E. Sater* HE McCall Glacier is a long thin body of ice shaped roughly like a crescent. Its overall length is approximately 8 km. and its average width

More information

Bayview Escarpment. Interim Management Statement

Bayview Escarpment. Interim Management Statement Bayview Escarpment Interim Management Statement Bayview Escarpment Provincial Nature Reserve Interim Management Statement January 15, 1995 REGIONAL DIRECTOR'S APPROVAL STATEMENT This Interim Management

More information

Ancient River Valley Civilizations Egypt

Ancient River Valley Civilizations Egypt Ancient River Valley Civilizations Egypt Geography of Egypt The first civilization in Africa developed along the Nile River, in a place called Egypt. These humans were at first nomadic, also known as hunter-gatherers.

More information

Alternative Highest & Best Use Analysis Boutique Hotel

Alternative Highest & Best Use Analysis Boutique Hotel Alternative Highest & Best Use Analysis In response to numerous comments received from the public, as well as issues raised by the CCC in the Appeal Staff Report Substantial Issue Determination, the following

More information

A: Pre-reading Vocabulary

A: Pre-reading Vocabulary - 1 - In this text you are going to read about Egypt and the Egyptian people. There are some words in this text that you won t see very often when you are reading but are important for this text. These

More information

This section of the Plan provides a general overview of the Smoky Mountain Region. It consists of the following four subsections:

This section of the Plan provides a general overview of the Smoky Mountain Region. It consists of the following four subsections: SECTION 3 COMMUNITY PROFILE This section of the Plan provides a general overview of the Smoky Mountain Region. It consists of the following four subsections: 3.1 Geography and the Environment 3.2 Population

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

Spanish Missions History and Purpose

Spanish Missions History and Purpose Spanish Missions History and Purpose Columbus's voyage of discovery opened a new world of possibilities for the Spanish. In the Americas, Spain soon began to use its soldiers to increase the size of its

More information

The Geological Pacific Northwest. Wednesday February 6, 2012 Pacific Northwest History Mr. Rice

The Geological Pacific Northwest. Wednesday February 6, 2012 Pacific Northwest History Mr. Rice The Geological Pacific Northwest Wednesday February 6, 2012 Pacific Northwest History Mr. Rice 1 Free Response #2 Please do not simply list the items for this response. Full sentences!!! Minimum of 3-5

More information

SUTTER COUNTY. General Plan Update Technical Background Report

SUTTER COUNTY. General Plan Update Technical Background Report SUTTER COUNTY General Plan Update Technical Background Report February 2008 SUTTER COUNTY GENERAL PLAN UPDATE TECHNICAL BACKGROUND REPORT PREPARED FOR: SUTTER COUNTY PREPARED BY: PBS&J IN PARTNERSHIP

More information

CRAZY HORSE TRAIL GUIDE

CRAZY HORSE TRAIL GUIDE CRAZY HORSE TRAIL GUIDE Abridged Version: July 2016 This is a short form of our interpretive trail guide for the Crazy Horse Trail. The full version of the guide has a more detailed description of the

More information

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt By USHistory.org, adapted by Newsela staff on 03.07.17 Word Count 786 Level 950L TOP: This photo, taken around 1915, shows the flooding of the Nile

More information

Roduner Ranch FOR SALE. 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land. Merced County, California. Offices Serving The Central Valley

Roduner Ranch FOR SALE. 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land. Merced County, California. Offices Serving The Central Valley FOR SALE 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land Merced County, California Offices Serving The Central Valley F R E S N O V I S A L I A B A K E R S F I E L D 7480 N. Palm Ave, Ste 101 3447 S. Demaree Street

More information

INDEPENDENT STATE OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA. CHAPTER No Unclaimed Moneys. GENERAL ANNOTATION.

INDEPENDENT STATE OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA. CHAPTER No Unclaimed Moneys. GENERAL ANNOTATION. INDEPENDENT STATE OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA. CHAPTER No. 326. Unclaimed Moneys. () ADMINISTRATION. GENERAL ANNOTATION. As at 13 February 1976 (the date of gazettal of the most comprehensive allocation of responsibilities

More information

SIAVONGA DISTRICT

SIAVONGA DISTRICT SIAVONGA DISTRICT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.0 Physical Environment Siavonga District is characterized by an escarpment

More information

General Regulations Governing sawmill, lumber, mining and construction camps

General Regulations Governing sawmill, lumber, mining and construction camps SAWMILL, LUMBER, MINING AND 1 General Regulations Governing sawmill, lumber, mining and construction camps Repealed by Chapter P-37.1 Reg 10 (effective December 5, 2002). Formerly Saskatchewan Regulations

More information

HEATHROW COMMUNITY NOISE FORUM

HEATHROW COMMUNITY NOISE FORUM HEATHROW COMMUNITY NOISE FORUM 3Villages flight path analysis report January 216 1 Contents 1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 3. Evolution of traffic from 25 to 215 4. Easterly departures 5. Westerly

More information

HOTFIRE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT MODEL A CASE STUDY

HOTFIRE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT MODEL A CASE STUDY 1 HOTFIRE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT MODEL A CASE STUDY Sub-theme: Economics / business venture, livelihood strategies Format: Poster Bruce Fletcher Hotfire Hunting and Fishing Safaris P O Box 11 Cathcart 5310

More information

Just how big is Africa?

Just how big is Africa? The United States China India The United Kingdom Portugal Spain France Belgium Germany The Netherlands Switzerland Italy Eastern Europe Japan 11.7 million sq. miles Just how big is Africa? Chapter 18 Section

More information

GREECE AND HER FINANCES

GREECE AND HER FINANCES GREECE AND HER FINANCES O M. S. EULAMBIO I N the seventh day of April, 1921, Greece celebrated the first centennial of the Greek Revolution. In those times, Turkey was a great military Power. The Turks

More information

WALKER SWAMP INFORMATION DAY Saturday 23 rd June 2018

WALKER SWAMP INFORMATION DAY Saturday 23 rd June 2018 WALKER SWAMP INFORMATION DAY Saturday 23 rd June 2018 Introduction to the Upper Wannon River Floodplain wetlands and the new Walker Swamp Restoration Reserve Mark Bachmann and Greg Kerr, Nature Glenelg

More information

Study on Problems And Countermeasures of Low & Medium Star Grade Tourist Hotels in Dujiangyan City. Denghuo Cai 1, Yang Liu 1

Study on Problems And Countermeasures of Low & Medium Star Grade Tourist Hotels in Dujiangyan City. Denghuo Cai 1, Yang Liu 1 3rd International Conference on Science and Social Research (ICSSR 2014) Study on Problems And Countermeasures of Low & Medium Star Grade Tourist Hotels in Dujiangyan City Denghuo Cai 1, Yang Liu 1 1 Sichuan

More information

SECTION 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER BASIN

SECTION 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER BASIN SECTION 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER BASIN SECTION 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE RIVER BASIN River basin description. A general description of the river basin or subbasin, as appropriate, in which

More information

2.0 Physical Characteristics

2.0 Physical Characteristics _ 2.0 Physical Characteristics 2.1 Existing Land Use for the Project The site is comprised of approximately 114 acres bounded by Highway 101 to the north, the existing town of Los Alamos to the east, State

More information

Spirit Airlines Reports First Quarter 2017 Results

Spirit Airlines Reports First Quarter 2017 Results Spirit Airlines Reports First Quarter 2017 Results MIRAMAR, Fla., April 28, 2017 - Spirit Airlines, Inc. (NASDAQ: SAVE) today reported first quarter 2017 financial results. GAAP net income for the first

More information

Lesson 1: The Lifeline of the Nile

Lesson 1: The Lifeline of the Nile Lesson 1 Summary Lesson 1: The Lifeline of the Nile Use with pages 78 81. Vocabulary delta a triangular-shaped area of soil at the mouth of a river silt a mixture of soil and small rocks papyrus a plant

More information

Knowledge of homemakers regarding base materials used for cooking utensils

Knowledge of homemakers regarding base materials used for cooking utensils RESEARCH ARTICLE ADVANCE RESEARCH JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE Volume 5 Issue 2 December, 2014 175-179 e ISSN 2231 6418 DOI: 10.15740/HAS/ARJSS/5.2/175-179 Visit us : www.researchjournal.co.in Knowledge of

More information

Request for Proposal National Tropical Botanical Garden Lower Limahuli Preserve Emergency Stream Debris Removal

Request for Proposal National Tropical Botanical Garden Lower Limahuli Preserve Emergency Stream Debris Removal Request for Proposal National Tropical Botanical Garden Lower Limahuli Preserve Emergency Stream Debris Removal I. Summary of Work Bids are solicited for the emergency removal of debris deposited in the

More information

CHAPTER IV OVERVIEW. Indonesia. The capital is Dompu. Dompu Regency has an area of 2, km².

CHAPTER IV OVERVIEW. Indonesia. The capital is Dompu. Dompu Regency has an area of 2, km². CHAPTER IV OVERVIEW A. General Description of the Research Sites Dompu Regency, is a district in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. The capital is Dompu. Dompu Regency has an area of 2,321.55 km².

More information

CENTER PIVOT TRACK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

CENTER PIVOT TRACK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS Proceedings of the 28th Annual Central Plains Irrigation Conference, Kearney, Nebraska, February 23-24, 2016 Available from CPIA, 760 N. Thompson, Colby, Kansas CENTER PIVOT TRACK MANAGEMENT OPTIONS Steven

More information

MIRAMAR, Fla., April 29, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Spirit Airlines, Inc. (Nasdaq:SAVE) today reported first quarter 2015 financial results.

MIRAMAR, Fla., April 29, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Spirit Airlines, Inc. (Nasdaq:SAVE) today reported first quarter 2015 financial results. April 29, 2015 Spirit Airlines Announces First Quarter 2015 Results; Adjusted Net Income Increases 87.1 Percent to $70.7 Million and Pre-Tax Margin Increases 900 Basis Points to 22.7 Percent MIRAMAR, Fla.,

More information

STANSTED AIRPORT LIMITED REGULATORY ACCOUNTS PERFORMANCE REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 MARCH Financial Review...1. Performance Report...

STANSTED AIRPORT LIMITED REGULATORY ACCOUNTS PERFORMANCE REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 MARCH Financial Review...1. Performance Report... PERFORMANCE REPORT CONTENTS Page Financial Review...1 Performance Report...3 Notes to the Performance Report...4 Stansted Regulatory Accounts PERFORMANCE REPORT Financial Review General overview Stansted

More information

Babylon. Ancient Cities by the River Lesson 5 page 1 of 6. Code of Hammurabi monument. E u p h. T i g r i s. r a t e s. Babylon, Mesopotamia

Babylon. Ancient Cities by the River Lesson 5 page 1 of 6. Code of Hammurabi monument. E u p h. T i g r i s. r a t e s. Babylon, Mesopotamia Ancient Cities by the iver Lesson 5 page 1 of 6 1700s BCE, and established the importance of the city for the region He was responsible for a code of laws/decrees to reestablish justice in the land His

More information

Byelorussian Battlefields

Byelorussian Battlefields Byelorussian Battlefields All Flames Of War battles need terrain! Battles in the Second World War were rarely fought over open plains with unobstructed lines of sight. In Flames Of War, wide open tables

More information

Town of Oakfield Agricultural and Farmland Protection Plan

Town of Oakfield Agricultural and Farmland Protection Plan SECTION III COMMUNITY OVERVIEW A. Regional Setting / Location The Town of Oakfield is located in the northwestern portion of Genesee County. Located west of New York's Finger Lakes, the Town is uniquely

More information

Limestone Road Industrial Area Brandon Manitoba ~141 Acres Rail Accessible, Ready for Development

Limestone Road Industrial Area Brandon Manitoba ~141 Acres Rail Accessible, Ready for Development Limestone Road Industrial Area Brandon Manitoba ~141 Acres Rail Accessible, Ready for Development Dan Fontaine Business Development Specialist 204.729.2133 or 1.866.729.2132 D.Fontaine@brandon.ca EconomicDevelopmentBrandon.com

More information

THE ICs INTERNATIONAL BRISBANE AREA AQUA PARK PROPOSAL

THE ICs INTERNATIONAL BRISBANE AREA AQUA PARK PROPOSAL Contacts: Mr Evan Pryor, Ph 38702756, evanpryor2002@yahoo.com.au Mr Bob Beatty, Ph 32883101, BobBeatty@BOSMIN.com Web Address: http://www.bosmin.com/ics/icharter.htm Postal Address: GPO Box 2927, Brisbane,

More information

Region 1 Piney Woods

Region 1 Piney Woods Region 1 Piney Woods Piney Woods 1. This ecoregion is found in East Texas. 2. Climate: average annual rainfall of 36 to 50 inches is fairly uniformly distributed throughout the year, and humidity and temperatures

More information

The Maltese Islands: Geography

The Maltese Islands: Geography The Maltese Islands: Geography The Maltese Archipelago comprises a group of small low islands aligned in a NW-SE direction. At their extreme points the Maltese Islands fall within the following points:

More information

Unit 9 The Middle East SG 1 - Physical Geography, Population & Demographics

Unit 9 The Middle East SG 1 - Physical Geography, Population & Demographics Unit 9 The Middle East SG 1 - Physical Geography, Population & Demographics I. Physical Geography A. The Middle East includes southwestern Asia and North Africa. 1. The name is Eurocentric. Middle East

More information

IAS Prelims Exam: Ancient History NCERT Questions: The Harappan Civilisation Set II

IAS Prelims Exam: Ancient History NCERT Questions: The Harappan Civilisation Set II IAS Prelims Exam: Ancient History NCERT Questions: The Harappan Civilisation Set II Questions asked from Ancient Indian History section in IAS Prelims Exam are quite easy but the candidates need to memorise

More information

DD FORM 3009, FEB 2016 REPLACES DA FORM 1247, WHICH IS OBSOLETE. Page 1 of 6 Pages Adobe Professional X

DD FORM 3009, FEB 2016 REPLACES DA FORM 1247, WHICH IS OBSOLETE. Page 1 of 6 Pages Adobe Professional X ROUTE CLASSIFICATION For use of this form, see ATP 3-34.81/MCWP 3-17.4; the proponent agency is TRADOC. SECTION I 1. SERIAL NUMBER 2. TO 3. FOR INFORMATION 4. DATE/TIME GROUP 5. NUMBER OF SHEETS OR ENCLOSURES

More information

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt By USHistory.org on 03.07.17 Word Count 1,108 Level MAX TOP: This photo, taken around 1915, shows the flooding of the Nile River, which happens each

More information

FILE NO. ANMICALGIC-1

FILE NO. ANMICALGIC-1 MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT BOARD FILE NO. ANMICALGIC-1 IN TEE MATTER OF THE "Municipal Government Act" AND IN THE MATTER OF an application by the City of Calgary, in the Province of Alberta, to annex certain

More information

Alternatives Study of Alignment

Alternatives Study of Alignment Project: 4-lanning of Barhi Rajauli Section of NH-31 Sheet: 1 of 6 Alternatives Study of Alignment 1 Objectives The following objectives were kept in view while locating the alternative bypass alignments:

More information

1. Purpose and scope. a) the necessity to limit flight duty periods with the aim of preventing both kinds of fatigue;

1. Purpose and scope. a) the necessity to limit flight duty periods with the aim of preventing both kinds of fatigue; ATTACHMENT A. GUIDANCE MATERIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCRIPTIVE FATIGUE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS Supplementary to Chapter 4, 4.2.10.2, Chapter 9, 9.6 and Chapter 12, 12.5 1. Purpose and scope 1.1 Flight

More information

HEADQUARTERS WEST LTD. PHOENIX - TUCSON - SONOITA - COTTONWOOD - ST. JOHNS

HEADQUARTERS WEST LTD. PHOENIX - TUCSON - SONOITA - COTTONWOOD - ST. JOHNS Offered for sale exclusively by: Walter Lane Headquarters West, Ltd. PO BOX 37018 Tucson, AZ 85740 Phone (520) 792-2652 info@headquarterswest.com www.headquarterswest.com General Area Description The Crown

More information

The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long. It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long. It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea Lower Egypt is at the Nile s mouth near the Mediterranean Sea. It is in Northern Egypt

More information

WAGE RATES IN RURAL INDIA

WAGE RATES IN RURAL INDIA lr;eso t;rs WAGE RATES IN RURAL INDIA (2008-09) Hkkjr ljdkj GOVERNMENT OF INDIA Je,oa jkstxkj ea=ky; MINISTRY OF LABOUR & EMPLOYMENT Je C;wjks LABOUR BUREAU f'keyk@pumhx

More information

De luchtvaart in het EU-emissiehandelssysteem. Summary

De luchtvaart in het EU-emissiehandelssysteem. Summary Summary On 1 January 2012 the aviation industry was brought within the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and must now purchase emission allowances for some of its CO 2 emissions. At a price of

More information

Kagoshima Prefecture consists of about 600

Kagoshima Prefecture consists of about 600 Kawai, K., Terada, R. and Kuwahara, S. (eds): The Islands of Kagoshima Kagoshima University Research Center for the Pacific Islands, 15 March 213 Chapter 16 Sugarcane Cultivation in the Islands of Kagoshima

More information

Chapter 3 PHYSICAL FEATURES

Chapter 3 PHYSICAL FEATURES 44 CHAPTER 3 PHYSICAL FEATURES 45 Chapter 3 PHYSICAL FEATURES T his chapter provides background information on the land characteristics, hydrology, water quality, and climate of the profile area, which

More information

Evaluation Report 569

Evaluation Report 569 Printed: March 1988 Tested at: Lethbridge ISSN 0383-3445 Group Evaluation Report 569 Vern Seed Boot and Banding Knife A Co-operative Program Between ALBERTA FARM MACHINERY RESEARCH CENTRE PAMI PRAIRIE

More information

CARVER S FALLS. Cumberland County s Natural Beauty. What s Included In This Information Packette

CARVER S FALLS. Cumberland County s Natural Beauty. What s Included In This Information Packette Cumberland County s Natural Beauty What s Included In This Information Packette History of the Falls Boy Scouts have acquired Right of Use Guidelines for Usage Application Check-out Report HISTORY AND

More information

Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus,

Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus, Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus, Palestine Brief Description of Northern the West Bank

More information

UNIT 5 AFRICA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY SG 1 - PART II

UNIT 5 AFRICA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY SG 1 - PART II UNIT 5 AFRICA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY SG 1 - PART II III. CLIMATE & VEGETATION A. The four main climate zones are tropical wet, tropical wet/dry (split into monsoon & savanna), semiarid, and arid. Other climate

More information

Section 61 Recreational Vehicle Park / Campground (Bylaw No. 2012/10)

Section 61 Recreational Vehicle Park / Campground (Bylaw No. 2012/10) Part 7 General Regulations Section 61 Recreational Vehicle Park / Campground (Bylaw No. 2012/10) 61.1 A comprehensive site plan shall be provided to the satisfaction of the Development Authority that shows

More information

What Is An Ecoregion?

What Is An Ecoregion? Ecoregions of Texas What Is An Ecoregion? Ecoregion a major ecosystem with distinctive geography, characteristic plants and animals, and ecosystems that receives uniform solar radiation and moisture Sometimes

More information

There are actually six geographic sub-regions, three in both the uplands and the lowlands.

There are actually six geographic sub-regions, three in both the uplands and the lowlands. 6 Regions of AR Although Arkansas is most easily divided into two distinct geographical regions, the northwestern uplands and the southeastern lowlands, this description does not accurately portray the

More information

THE 2006 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TRAVEL & TOURISM IN INDIANA

THE 2006 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TRAVEL & TOURISM IN INDIANA THE 2006 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TRAVEL & TOURISM IN INDIANA A Comprehensive Analysis Prepared by: In Partnership with: PREPARED FOR: Carrie Lambert Marketing Director Indiana Office of Tourism Development

More information

The Economic Impact of Tourism on Galveston Island, Texas Analysis

The Economic Impact of Tourism on Galveston Island, Texas Analysis The Economic Impact of Tourism on Galveston Island, Texas 2012 Analysis Headline Results Headline results Tourism is a significant contributor to business sales, employment, and taxes on Galveston Island.

More information

(Short Listing) DUPUYER ACREAGE, ROCKY MOUNTAN FRONT

(Short Listing) DUPUYER ACREAGE, ROCKY MOUNTAN FRONT (Short Listing) DUPUYER ACREAGE, ROCKY MOUNTAN FRONT This unique property is located 8½ miles northwest of Dupuyer, Montana and approximately thirty 30 miles northwest of Choteau, Montana. Great Falls

More information

600 Aviation Avenue & 100 Agnew Drive Brandon Manitoba ~ 5 Acres Land For Sale SUBJECT PROPERTIES

600 Aviation Avenue & 100 Agnew Drive Brandon Manitoba ~ 5 Acres Land For Sale SUBJECT PROPERTIES 600 Aviation Avenue & 100 Agnew Drive Brandon Manitoba ~ 5 Acres Land For Sale SUBJECT PROPERTIES Dan Fontaine Business Development Specialist 204.729.2133 or 1.866.729.2132 d.fontaine@brandon.ca EconomicDevelopmentBrandon.com

More information

2. Introduction to Kurunegala Area : 2.1 Location and History : 2.2 Regional Aspects :

2. Introduction to Kurunegala Area : 2.1 Location and History : 2.2 Regional Aspects : 2. Introduction to Kurunegala Area : 2.1 Location and History : Kurunegala town is the capital of Kurunegala district as well as the capital of North Western Province (Fig 2.1). It has been administered

More information

Chapter 21: EAST AFRICA

Chapter 21: EAST AFRICA Chapter 21: EAST AFRICA Physical Geography of East Africa Landforms East Africa is a diverse landscape of different plains, volcanic mountains, and plateaus cut by a large valley and marked by many rivers

More information

Physical characteristics and biomes:

Physical characteristics and biomes: Physical characteristics and biomes: Sahel region, bordering Sahara Characteristics Area suffers from lack of rainfall, over grazing, which causes loss of vegetation and loss of inhabitable areas causing

More information

DRAFT GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN AND SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION PLAN MIDDLETON MUNICIPAL AIRPORT MOREY FIELD. Revised 12/12/03

DRAFT GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN AND SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION PLAN MIDDLETON MUNICIPAL AIRPORT MOREY FIELD. Revised 12/12/03 DRAFT GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN AND SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION PLAN MIDDLETON MUNICIPAL AIRPORT MOREY FIELD Revised 12/12/03 As recommended for approval by the Plan Commission General Project Description

More information

DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING SEMESTER: III SUBJECT CODE / Name: CE2303/ Railway, Airport and Harbors Engineering 2 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING SEMESTER: III SUBJECT CODE / Name: CE2303/ Railway, Airport and Harbors Engineering 2 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS DEPARTMENT: CIVIL ENGINEERING SEMESTER: III SUBJECT CODE / Name: CE2303/ Railway, Airport and Harbors Engineering 2 MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1.Define wind Coverage (AUC NOV/DEC 2010),(AUC NOV/DEC 2011)

More information

List of Figures List of Tables. List of Abbreviations. 1 Introduction 1

List of Figures List of Tables. List of Abbreviations. 1 Introduction 1 Contents List of Tables Preface List of Abbreviations page x xv xvii xix 1 Introduction 1 part i. the caribbean in the age of free trade: from the napoleonic wars to 1900 2 The Core and the Caribbean 21

More information

Following the initial soil strip archaeology is sprayed up prior to planning and excavation

Following the initial soil strip archaeology is sprayed up prior to planning and excavation Barton Quarry & Archaeology Over the past half century quarries have been increasingly highlighted as important sources of information for geologists, palaeontologists and archaeologists, both through

More information

LIMESTONE ROAD BRANDON, MANITOBA INDUSTRIAL FOR SALE / FOR LEASE

LIMESTONE ROAD BRANDON, MANITOBA INDUSTRIAL FOR SALE / FOR LEASE 59 LIMESTONE ROAD BRANDON, MANITOBA INDUSTRIAL FOR SALE / FOR LEASE Partnership. Performance. Managing Director, Broker Senior Associate Avison Young Commercial Real Estate has been appointed by the owner

More information

Mexico. Chapter 10. Chapter 10, Section

Mexico. Chapter 10. Chapter 10, Section Chapter 10, Section World Geography Chapter 10 Mexico Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 10, Section World Geography

More information

UGANDA S URBAN DEVELOPMENT; A SCRUTINY OF TRANSPORT PLANNING AND MOBILITY IN TOWNS AND CITIES

UGANDA S URBAN DEVELOPMENT; A SCRUTINY OF TRANSPORT PLANNING AND MOBILITY IN TOWNS AND CITIES UGANDA S URBAN DEVELOPMENT; A SCRUTINY OF TRANSPORT PLANNING AND MOBILITY IN TOWNS AND CITIES BY Mutabazi Sam Stewart Executive Director Uganda Road Sector Support Initiative (URSSI) P.O Box 11110 Kampala,

More information

Business Plan INTRODUCTION AIRPORT ENTERPRISE FUND OVERVIEW. Master Plan Guiding Principles

Business Plan INTRODUCTION AIRPORT ENTERPRISE FUND OVERVIEW. Master Plan Guiding Principles 5 Business Plan INTRODUCTION Just as previous chapters have outlined plans for the airport s physical development, this chapter outlines a plan for the airport s financial development. More specifically,

More information

Kabul Journal by Guy Fipps

Kabul Journal by Guy Fipps Kabul Journal by Guy Fipps Chapter 13 The Logar Forward Operating Base April 12, 2006 The Gardez PRT headquarters is in the town of Gardez, the capital of Paktya Province. This PRT is responsible for two

More information

Lake Erie Commerce Center Traffic Analysis

Lake Erie Commerce Center Traffic Analysis LOCATION: East of NYS Route 5 at Bayview Road Town of Hamburg Erie County, New York PREPARED BY: Wendel Companies 140 John James Audubon Parkway Suite 200 Amherst, New York 14228 January 2012 i ii Table

More information

1 INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS

1 INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS 1 INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS 1.1 BACKGROUND 2 1.2 WHAT IS THE DISTRICT PLAN 3 1.3 DISTRICT PLAN STRUCTURE 4 1.4 HOW TO USE THE DISTRICT PLAN 5 1.5 STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK 6 Whanganui District Plan (15 January

More information

Rule Governing the Designation and Establishment of All-Terrain Vehicle Use Trails on State Land

Rule Governing the Designation and Establishment of All-Terrain Vehicle Use Trails on State Land Rule Governing the Designation and Establishment of All-Terrain Vehicle Use Trails on State Land 1.0 Authority 1.1 This rule is promulgated pursuant to 23 V.S.A. 3506. Section 3506 (b)(4) states that an

More information

Chapter 14. The Physical Geography of Russia

Chapter 14. The Physical Geography of Russia Chapter 14 The Physical Geography of Russia Chapter Objectives Identify the physical features and natural resources of Russia. Discuss the effects of Russia s climate and vegetation on life in the region.

More information

SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location.

SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location. SS8G1ab Standards SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location. a. Locate Georgia in relation to the region, nation, continent, and hemispheres. b. Describe the

More information

Great Portland Estates Trading Update Strong Operational Performance

Great Portland Estates Trading Update Strong Operational Performance Press Release 6 July 2017 Great Portland Estates Trading Update Strong Operational Performance Great Portland Estates plc ( GPE ) today publishes its trading update for the quarter to 30 June 2017. Continued

More information

Terms and Conditions of the Carrier

Terms and Conditions of the Carrier Terms and Conditions of the Carrier Article 1 - Definitions The below Conditions of Carriage has the meaning expressed respectively assigned to them where the Carrier reserves the rights to maintain and

More information

Chapter 4.0 Alternatives Analysis

Chapter 4.0 Alternatives Analysis Chapter 4.0 Alternatives Analysis Chapter 1 accumulated the baseline of existing airport data, Chapter 2 presented the outlook for the future in terms of operational activity, Chapter 3 defined the facilities

More information

National Standard for Tonnage Measurement and Calculation of the Vessels Engaged on International Voyages General Definitions 2.

National Standard for Tonnage Measurement and Calculation of the Vessels Engaged on International Voyages General Definitions 2. National Standard for Tonnage Measurement and Calculation of the Vessels Engaged on International Voyages General 1. (1) The tonnage of a ship shall consist of gross tonnage and net tonnage. (2) The gross

More information

Nakina Moraine Provincial Park. Interim Management Statement. Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources

Nakina Moraine Provincial Park. Interim Management Statement. Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources Nakina Moraine Provincial Park Interim Management Statement Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 1999, Queen's Printer for Ontario Printed in Ontario, Canada Additional copies of this publication can

More information

AP US History: An Essential Coursebook (2nd Ed)

AP US History: An Essential Coursebook (2nd Ed) Unit One: Early Native and Colonial Societies (1491-1754) Chapter One: Pre-Columbian Societies AP US History: An Essential Coursebook (2nd Ed) Environment and Geography How did physical features affect

More information

THE ALBERTA GAZETTE, SEPTEMBER

THE ALBERTA GAZETTE, SEPTEMBER VILLAGE OF CEREAL Order No. 16915 IN THE MATTER OF THE "Municipal Government Act": File No. 241(A)3 AND IN THE MATTER OF an application by the Council of the Village of Cereal, in the Province of Alberta,

More information

Ancient Egypt. Land of the Pharaohs

Ancient Egypt. Land of the Pharaohs Ancient Egypt Land of the Pharaohs CHAPTER 4 EGYPT SECTION 1: GEOGRAPHY AND EARLY EGYPT BIG IDEA The water, fertile soils, and protected setting of the Nile Valley allowed a great civilization to arise

More information

Mauritius Official name Population Form of governmen Total area Urban-rural population Head of state Life expectancy Head of government

Mauritius Official name Population Form of governmen Total area Urban-rural population Head of state Life expectancy Head of government Mauritius Official name :Republic of Mauritius Form of government: Republic with one legislative house (National Assembly [691]) Head of state: President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim Head of government :Prime Minister:

More information

Geoscape Toronto The Oak Ridges Moraine Activity 2 - Page 1 of 10 Information Bulletin

Geoscape Toronto The Oak Ridges Moraine Activity 2 - Page 1 of 10 Information Bulletin About 13,000 years ago as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted, glacial meltwater accumulated between the ice sheet and the Niagara Escarpment. This formed a lake basin into which gravel and sand were deposited.

More information