SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (2): POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY

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1 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (2): POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY 1. Introduction 2. Demographics: population growth and AIDS 3. Rural settlement patterns 4. Urban structures 5. Globalization and Africa: the slave trade

2 Language map of sub-saharan Africa. Francophone Anglophone Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 248.

3 Map showing extent of Islam in sub-saharan Africa. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009 p. 251.

4 Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p.241. Population density in Africa.

5 Population density in Africa. Source: MARA/ARMA.

6 Urban populations in sub-saharan Africa, selected countries. (US = 79% urban.) Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p Country Angola 40 Burkina Faso 16 Congo 60 Djibouti 82 Ethiopia 16 Ghana 44 Ivory Coast 47 Kenya 19 Percent Urban Country Percent Urban Liberia 58 Mozambique 35 Nigeria 44 Rwanda 17 Somalia 34 South Africa 53 Tanzania 23 Uganda 12 Zambia 35

7

8 Total fertility rates in sub-saharan Africa, selected countries. (US = 2.1.) Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p Country TFR Angola 6.8 Burkina Faso 6.2 Congo 5.3 Djibouti 4.2 Ethiopia 5.4 Ghana 4.4 Ivory Coast 5.0 Kenya 4.9 Country TFR Liberia 6.8 Mozambique 5.4 Nigeria 5.9 Rwanda 6.1 Somalia 6.8 South Africa 2.7 Tanzania 5.4 Uganda 6.7 Zambia 5.5

9 Rates of natural increase in sub-saharan Africa, selected countries. (US = 0.6%.) Source: Rowntree et al., Country RNI (2010) Angola 2.5 Burkina Faso 3.4 Congo 2.5 Djibouti 1.8 Ethiopia 2.7 Ghana 2.2 Ivory Coast 2.4 Kenya 2.7 Country RNI (2010) Liberia 3.3 Mozambique 2.3 Nigeria 2.4 Rwanda 2.9 Somalia 3.0 South Africa Sudan Tanzania 3.0 Uganda 3.4 Zambia 2.5

10 Population Pyramids in East Africa: Ethiopia. Source: US Census Bureau RNI = 2.4%

11 Population Pyramids in East Africa: Sudan. Source: US Census Bureau RNI = 2.8%

12 World Population Distribution by Region, (Source: United Nations Population Division, Briefing Packet, 1998 Revision of World Population Prospects.) Source: Population Reference Bureau

13 Projected Population Change, by Country Percent Population Change, Source: Population Reference Bureau, 2005 World Population Data Sheet.

14 Life expectancy in sub-saharan Africa, selected countries (US is 78). Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p Country Life exp. Angola 41 Burkina Faso 51 Congo 52 Djibouti 54 Ethiopia 49 Ghana 59 Ivory Coast 51 Kenya 53 Country Life exp. Liberia 45 Mozambique 43 Nigeria 47 Rwanda 47 Somalia 48 South Africa 51 Tanzania 50 Uganda 47 Zambia 38

15 Under age 5 mortality rates in sub-saharan Africa, selected countries (US is 11/7). Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p.268. Country Angola Burkina Faso Congo Djibouti Ethiopia Ghana Ivory Coast Kenya Country Liberia Mozambique Nigeria Rwanda Somalia South Africa Tanzania Uganda Zambia

16 WHY IS IT LIKE THIS??

17 Map of world GNI per capita, $PPP. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 40.

18 Theoretical distribution of malaria based on climatic factors. Source: MARA/ARMA

19 Other tropical diseases??

20 The demographic transition model Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 22.

21 People Living with HIV, by Region Distribution, 2007 Latin America 5% Eastern Europe and Central Asia 5% Oceania <1% East Asia 2% South and South- East Asia 12% North Africa and Middle East 1% Caribbean 1% Western and Central Europe 2% North America 4% Sub-Saharan Africa 68% Note: Total exceeds 100 percent due to rounding. Source: UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2007.

22 UNAIDS Global Report, 2008

23 Diffusion of AIDS in Africa. Source: UNAIDS/WHO.

24 HIV prevalence in sub- Saharan Africa, Source: Rowntree et al., 2009 p. 240.

25 South Africa number of deaths SOURCE: Statistics South Africa The Washington Post - October 27, 2006

26 AIDS Toll on Population Structure, South Africa Population Structure in 2020 Millions Age Males Females With AIDS Without AIDS Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision (CD-ROM Edition Extended Dataset), 2007.

27 Botswana in 2020? Source: The Economist, July 15, 2000, p. 78

28 Changes in life expectancy in selected African countries with high and low HIV prevalence: Life expectancy (years) with high HIV prevalence: Zimbabwe South Africa Botswana with low HIV prevalence: Madagascar Senegal Mali Source: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2001) World Population Prospects, the 2000 Revision (from UNAIDS)

29 Percentage of workforce lost to AIDS by 2005 and 2020, selected African countries. Source: UNAIDS % Botswana CAR Cameroon Côte d Ivoire Ethiopia Guinea Bissau Mozambique Togo Nigeria South Africa Tanzania Zimbabwe

30 HIV/AIDS in sub-saharan Africa. Source: UN AIDS, 2006.

31 Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa is improving UNAIDS Global Report, 2008

32 Rural settlement patterns: Settled or nomadic? Plantation or subsistence agriculture?

33 Tea plantation in Cameroon. Source: Photo by Andreas Buck,

34 Tea plantation in Cameroon. Source: Photo by Andreas Buck,

35 Dependence of sub-saharan Africa on agricultural exports: Country Major agricultural exports Ethiopia Coffee 80 Kenya Coffee, tea Rwanda Coffee, tea 90 Burundi Coffee, cotton, tea N/A Tanzania Coffee, cotton 80 Sudan Cotton 80 C.A.R. Cotton, coffee N/A Ghana Cocoa 60 Ivory Coast Cocoa, coffee 68 % labour force in agriculture Data sources: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 242, and CIA World Factbook, 2001.

36 Village in Zambia. Source: Photo by Zorica Nedovic-Budic, UNC-Chapel Hill,

37 West African urban structure: Accra, Ghana, colonial era. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 246.

38 West African urban structure: Accra, Ghana, post-colonial era. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 246.

39 West African urban structure: Accra, Ghana, colonial era. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 246.

40 Photos from Macalester College Geography Department. Map of Accra, Ghana. (Sources: BBC News; Perry-Castañeda Map Library, University of Texas- Austin.) European suburb.

41 West African urban structure: Accra, Ghana, post-colonial era. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 246.

42 Photos from Macalester College Geography Department. Map of Accra, Ghana. (Sources: BBC News; Perry-Castañeda Map Library, University of Texas- Austin.) Local CBD

43 Photos from Macalester College Geography Department. Map of Accra, Ghana. (Sources: BBC News; Perry-Castañeda Map Library, University of National CBD Texas- Austin.)

44 Photos from Macalester College Geography Department. Map of Accra, Ghana. (Sources: BBC News; Perry-Castañeda Map Library, University of Texas- Austin.) Upper income residential/global CBD

45 South African urban structure. Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 245.

46 View of Cape Town from Table Mountain.

47 Gugulethu township, Cape Town. Source:

48

49 Soweto (South West Township), Johannesburg. Source: photo by John Shea, Clemson University.

50 The Slave Trade, Source: Rowntree et al., 2009, p. 252.

51 Triangle trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas

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