Who Sprawls the Most?

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1 SPRAWL AMERICAN STYLE Who Sprawls the Most? Jackie Cutsinger Research Assistant, Center for Urban Studies Wayne State University

2 Measuring Sprawl in Major Metros Regionally stratified, nationally representative random sample of 50 of 100 largest US metros Data Sources: 1990 Census data on housing units NLCDB data on land use types 1990 Census Transportation Planning Package (CTPP) data on employment

3 U. S. Census Regions

4 Northeast Region (11 metros) Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY Allentown/Bethlehem/Easton, PA Boston, MA Buffalo/Niagara Falls, NY New Haven/Meriden, CT Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA Providence/Fall River/Warwick, RI Rochester, NY Syracuse, NY Worcester, MA

5 Midwest Region (11 metros) Cincinnati, OH Columbus, OH Detroit, MI Fort Wayne, IN Grand Rapids/Muskegon/Holland, MI Indianapolis, IN Milwaukee/Waukesha, WI Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN Omaha, NE St. Louis, MO Youngstown/Warren, OH

6 Southern Region (16 metros) Atlanta, GA Baltimore, MD Baton Rouge, LA Charlotte/Gastonia/Rock Hill, NC Dallas, TX El Paso, TX Houston/Galveston/Brazoria, TX Jacksonville, FL Miami, FL Mobile, AL New Orleans, LA Raleigh/Durham/Chapel Hill, NC San Antonio, TX Tulsa, OK Washington, DC Wilmington/Newark, DE

7 Western Region (12 metros) Denver, CO Fresno, CA Las Vegas, NV Los Angeles/San Bernardino/Riverside, CA Phoenix/Mesa, AZ Portland/Vancouver, OR Salt Lake City/Ogden, UT San Diego, CA San Jose, CA Seattle/Bellevue/Everett, WA Stockton/Lodi, CA Tacoma, WA

8 Appropriate Measurement Area Extended Urban Area The U.S Census Bureau defined urbanized area, plus any additional outlying census tracts in the MSA that has 60 or more residential units and from which at least 30% of its workers commutes to the urbanized area. Developable Land The net land actually available for development in the EUA (excludes bodies of water, wetlands, government protected parklands, unstable soils, and steep slopes).

9 Ranking EUAs by Sprawl 7 measures of land use are calculated for each EUA: Density/Continuity Housing Proximity Job Distribution Mixed Use Housing Centrality Nuclearity Housing Concentration EUAs are scored on each measure (using z-scores) All 7 scores are summed, resulting in a composite sprawl score for each EUA EUAs are then ranked according to these overall sprawl scores

10 Hyper-Sprawled Metros [top 10 overall and in 3 of 7 dimensions] Raleigh-Durham, NC Atlanta, GA Charlotte, NC Baton Rouge, LA Allentown-Bethlehem, PA

11 Severely Sprawled Metros [top 10 overall and in 2 of 7 dimensions] Youngstown, OH Mobile, AL Worcester, MA Detroit, MI Cincinnati, OH

12 Least Sprawled Metros [bottom 10 overall and in 3 dimensions] Las Vegas, NV New Orleans, LA Fresno, CA Miami, FL

13 Conclusions Sprawl is a multi-dimensional phenomenon Dimensions can be measured realistically Metro areas vary greatly in degree to which they sprawl on many dimensions

14 Conclusions Some metros are hypersprawled, with extremely sprawled values on several dimensions Other metros are not sprawled, with extremely non-sprawled values on several dimensions

15 SPRAWL AMERICAN STYLE Sprawl Syndromes Jackie Cutsinger Research Assistant, Center for Urban Studies Wayne State University

16 Our Research Question Can EUAs be classified into smaller, more homogeneous groupings based on their values of sprawl dimensions?

17 The Four Sprawl Syndromes: Leapfrog Dense, Undifferentiated Compact, Core- Dominant Garden Variety

18 Leapfrog Metros high job concentration, BUT: low housing & job density, continuity, housing centrality, housing concentration, housing & housing to job proximity & low mixed use Includes: Allentown, Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Charlotte, Grand Rapids, Mobile, New Haven, Pittsburgh, Raleigh-Durham, Tacoma, Worcester, & Youngstown

19 Dense, Undifferentiated Metros high housing & job density, continuity high mix of jobs & housing; BUT: low nuclearity, job proximity, housing & job concentration Includes: Boston, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Omaha, Providence, San Diego, & San Jose

20 Compact, Core-Dominant Metros high nuclearity, housing & job centrality, housing & job concentration, job proximity, housing to job proximity Includes: Fresno, Las Vegas, New Orleans, Rochester, Syracuse, Tulsa, & Washington, DC

21 Garden Variety Metros All dimensions near sample mean Includes: Albany, Baltimore, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dallas, El Paso, Fort Wayne, Houston, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Milwaukee, Phoenix, Portland, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Seattle, Stockton, & Wilmington

22 Atlanta Housing Map (leapfrog)

23 Miami Housing Map (dense, undifferentiated)

24 Las Vegas Housing Map (core-dominant)

25 What About Detroit? Classified as Dense, Undifferentiated. But Why? Even distribution of jobs and housing throughout the metro area (most square-miles throughout EUA look alike). Although some leapfrogging does occur on the fringe, Detroit scores highly on job and housing continuity and density and low on job proximity and nuclearity.

26 Detroit Housing Map (dense/undifferentiated)

27 Detroit Jobs Map (dense/undifferentiated)

28 Conclusions There are 4 sprawl syndromes: Leapfrog Dense, Undifferentiated Compact, Core-Dominant Garden Variety These syndromes are distinct types of sprawl, American style What this all means will be the subject of the next session.

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