THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY"

Transcription

1 THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY

2 Gerda Henkel Stiftung In The Steps of James Harvey Gaul Volume 2 The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory Proceedings of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus, Kjustendil Blagoevgrad Serres Amphipolis, Editing: Henrieta Todorova, Mark Stefanovich and Georgi Ivanov 1. Prehistoric Europe; 2. Neolithic period Europe; 3 Europe Antiquities. 544 pp., 29 maps, 9 topograchical plans, 779 color photos, 81 b/w photos, 815 drawings, 58 tabl., 32 diagrams and simplified graphs, 10 reconstructions drawing of houses. Museum of History-Kyustendil ISBN: Sofia (2007) First published GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG MALKASTENSTRASSE 15, D DÜSSELDORF, GERMANY TELEFON +49 (0) , TELEFAX +49 (0) English texts edited by: MARK STEFANOVICH Drawings and Maps by: IVAN VAJSOV, MICHAIL GEORGIEV AND AUTHORS Photographs: KRASIMIR GEORGIEV AND AUTORS Graphic desing, layout and artistic supervisions: GEORGI IVANOV (pages I X; 1 41; ) AND IVAN VAJSOV (pages ) Cover graphic desing by: GEORGI IVANOV AND IVAN VAJSOV Cover photographs by: KRASIMIR GEORGIEV, GEOGRI IVANOV AND CHAIDO KOUKOULI-CHRYSSANTHAKI Copyright 2007 by GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG and THE AUTHORS ISBN: No part of this publication may by reproduced by any means, including photocopy, recording or other information storage retrieval system, without permission in writing from GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG and THE AUTHORS. The copyright to the illustrations are hold by the authors. Printed in Bulgaria at BULGED. Digital print. The technology of Indigo.

3 Gerda Henkel Stiftung THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY Proceedings of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus Kjustendil Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) Serres Amphipolis (Greece) Edited by Henrieta Todorova, Mark Stefanovich, Georgi Ivanov Sofia 2007

4 Table of Contents Vorwort... vii Die paleoklimatische Entwicklung in VII I Jt. vor Chr. H. Todorova... 1 Abrupt Climate Forcing Observed at Early Neolithic Sites in South-East Europe and the Near East B. Weninger, E. Alram-Stern, E. Bauer, L. Clare, U. Danzeglocke, O. Jöris, C. Kubatzki, G. Rollefson, H. Todorova, T. van Andel... 7 Social Network Analysis of Neolithic Societies E. Claßen Promachon-Topolnica. A greek-bulgarian archaeological project Ch. Koukouli-Chryssanthaki, H. Todorova, I. Aslanis, I. Vajsov, M. Valla Promachon-Topolnica. A typology of painted decorations and its use as a chronological marker I. Vajsov Tierdarstellungen und Stierkult im Neolithikum Südosteuropas und Anatoliens F. Falkenstein Where Do Children Belong? Neolithic burials in western Bulgaria K. Băčvarov Нови сведения за ранния неолит в Северозападна България Г. Ганецовски Die Entstehung und Gliederung der neolithischen Kulturen auf dem Zentralbalkan: Fallbeispiel Gălăbnik J. Pavúk Tell Gălăbnik. Architecture and Site Planning A. Bakamska Крайници раннокерамично селище от басейна на река Струма С. Чохаджиев, А. Бакъмска Л. Нинов The Early Neolithic Site at Piperkov Čiflik, Near Kjustendil (Season 2004) V. Vandova Proto-Starčevo Culture and Early Neolithic in the Struma Valley M. Bogdanović La périodisation des sites préhistoriques dans la vallée de la Strouma moyenne L. Perničeva Das Frühchalkolithikum des Strymonbereichs S. Čochadžiev Some Observations on Zoomorphic Images from Western Bulgaria S. Terzijska Ignatova Prehistoric Settlements in the Province of Kjustendil V. Genadieva Recent Researches at the Neolithic Settlement of Dikili Tash, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: an Overview P. Darcque, H. Koukouli-Chryssanthaki, D. Malamidou, R. Treuil, Z. Tsirtsoni Neolithic Societies: Recent Evidence from Northern Greece M. Pappa In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

5 Linguistische Angaben über die Namen der Flüsse Axios, Strymon, Nestos I. Duridanov Prehistorical Sites in the Middle Struma River Valley Between the End of the VII th mill. BC and the Beginning of the I st mill. BC M. Grębska-Kulowa, I. Kulow Kryoneri: a Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Settlement in the Lower Strymon Valley D. Malamidou Absolute Chronology of the Neolithic and Eneolithic Cultures in the Valley of Struma J. Bojadžiev Decline of the Painted Pottery in Eastern Macedonia and North Aegean at the End of the Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic Period S. Papadopoulos On the Late Stages of the Krivodol-Sălcuţa Culture P. Georgieva The Ethno-Cultural Affiliation of the North Anatolian Early Bronze Age J. Yakar Dating the Donja Brnjica Culture Based on Metal Finds K. Luci A Late Bronze Age Cemetery in Faia Petra, East of the Middle Strymon Valley M. Valla The Late Bronze Age Necropolis in the Тown of Sandanski, Southwest Bulgaria S. Alexandrov, V. Petkov, G. Ivanov Krsto Pokrovnik Excavations at a Late Bronze Age Site in the Middle Struma River Valley, Southwest Bulgaria. Preliminary results 2004 season M. Stefanovich, I. Kulov Tradition and Innovation in the Bronze Age Pottery of the Thessaloniki Toumba. Food and drink consumption and tableware ceramics S. Andreou, K. Psaraki Bronzezeitliche Goldornate aus Süddeutschland und ihre donauländisch-balkanischen Beziehungen W. David The Beginning of the Iron Age in Macedonia D. Mitrevski Assiros Toumba. A brief history of the settlement K.A. Wardle, D. Wardle Troy VIIB2 Revisited. The date of the transition from Bronze to Iron Age in the Northern Aegean K.A. Wardle, M. Newton, P.I. Kuniholm Palaeobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria Tz. Popova, E. Marinova Промахон-Тополница. Компаративно изследване на дивите и домашни животни от сектор Тополница Н. Илиев, Н. Спасов Agriculture and Use of Space at Promachon/Topolnica. Preliminary observations on the archaeobotanical material S.M. Valamoti Palaeoecological Evidence of the Main Postglacial Vegetation and Climate Changes in Southwestern Bulgaria from the Neolithic to Modern Times E. Božilova, S. Tonkov The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

6 vi Участниците в конференцията пред Археологическия музей на Серес, 1 октомври 2004 г. Οι συμμετέχοντες στο συνέδριο μπροστά από το Αρχαιολογικό μουσείο στις Σέρρες, 1 Οκτωβρίου The participants of the conference in front of the Archaeological Museum of Serres, 1st of October Henrieta Todorova Bernhard Weninger Erich Claßen Chaido Koukouli-Chryssanthaki Ioanis Aslanis Ivan Vajsov Frank Falkanstein Krum Bačvarov Georges Ganetzovski Juraj Pavuk Aneta Bakamska Stefan Čochadžiev Veselina Vandova Liljana Perničeva Stoilka Terzijska Ignatova Veneta Genadieva Pascal Darcque René Treuil Zoï Tsirtsoni Maria Papa Malgorzata Grębska-Kulowa Ilija Kulow Dimitra Malamidou Javor Bojadžiev In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2 Stratis Papadopoulos Petya Georgieva Jak Yakar Kemjal Luci Magdalene Valla Stefan Alexandrov Georgi Ivanov Mark Stefanovich Stelios Andreou Wolfgang David Dragi Mitrevski Ken Wardle Diana Wardle Maryanne Newton P.I. Kuniholm Tzvetana Popova Nikolaj Spasov Elisaveta Božilova Spassimir Tonkov Sultana Maria Valamoti Irena Nasteva Petar Zidarov Biserka Gaydarska Valentin Debochichki

7 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova The archeobotanics of Southwestern Bulgaria is less investigated, than the Thracian plain. Here the development of the prehistoric cultures, and mainly on the valley of Struma/Strimon, has special importance for the prehistory of the Balkans. The Struma valley is one of the roads connecting Anatolia and Northern Aegean with Balkans. The investigated settlements existed from the Neolithic Period to the Late Bronze Age. Most of them are located along the valley of Struma and the feeders. The attempt was made to draw general conclusions from some sites Slatino, Vaksevo, Topolnica, Kamenska Čuka, Kovačevo, Bălgarčevo, Gălăbnik, Drenkovo-Ploshteko and compare together with the data, obtained from other research workers of the area. The hulled wheat is mainly cultivated (Triticum monococcum - einkorn, Triticum dicoccum - emmer). The wide spread of einkorn wheat is due to adaptation to different ecology environment. The emmer is presented in large amounts, followed by barley, mostly hulled (Hordeum vulgare var.vulgare), but naked occurred too H.vulgare var. nudum. Pulses are the next group of cultivated plants grown in the area, most abundant and numerous of them were lentils and bitter vetch. The finds from chick pea from Gălăbnik are particularly interesting. Similar ones were found in the Early Neolithic settlement Orlica near the town of Kirkovo, Eastern Rhodope Mountains, and in Kapitan Dimitrievo too. This plant is almost unknown from paleobotanical data from this period. Its present in these settlements as well as in Chalcolithic layers of the Yunacite tell demonstrates that it came together with the whole Anatolian complex of cultivated plants in the territory of Bulgaria. The Neolithic settlements from Southwestern Bulgaria are rich in archaeobotanical material. The presence of these species in the investigated settlements from the territory of Bulgaria is similar with the results from other settlements in the Balkans. Палеоетноботанични данни в района на Югозападна България Цветана Попова, Елена Маринова Югозападна България е един слабо изследван в палеоботанично отношение район. Тук развитието на праисторическите култури, главно по течението на р. Струма, е от особено значение за Балканската праистория, тъй като р. Струма е един от пътищата, свързващ Анатолия и Северна Егея с Балканите. Изследваните селища обхващат с отделни прекъсвания периода от ранния неолит до късната бронзова епоха. В по-голямата си част те са разположени по долината на р. Струма и по нейните притоци. Направен е опит да се обобщят резултатите от палеоботаническите изследвания от няколко обекта: Слатино, Ваксево, Тополница, Каменска чука, Ковачево, Българчево, Гълъбник, Дренково-Площеко както и да се сравнят с данните, получени от други изследователи на обекти от района. Анализът показа, че в района са били отглеждани предимно плевестите пшеници (Triticum monococcum еднозърнеста пшеница, Triticum dicoccum двузърнеста пшеница). Широкото разпространение на еднозърнестта пшеница се дължи на приспособимостта й към различните екологични условия. Двузърнесттата пшеница също е представена в големи количества, следва ечемикът, предимно плевест (Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare), но се е срещал и голозърнест H.vulgare var. nudum. Бобовите растения са втората група отглеждани земеделска култури. Основно са се отглеждали уровът и лещата. Интерес представляват находките от нахут от Гълъбник. Подобни са открити и в раннонеолитното селище Орлица, до гр. Кирково в Източните Родопи, и в Капитан-Димитриево (Тракия). Растението бе почти непознато досега по палеоботанични данни от този период. Присъствието му в неолитните селища доказва, че то е донесено заедно с целия анатолийски арсенал от културни растения на територията на страната в рамките на неолитизационните процеси. Неолитните селища от Югозападна България са богати на археоботанични материали. Присъствие на изброените видове е констатирано и в други неолитни селища от територията на България, което е в унисон с резултатите от палеоботаническите изследвания от останалата част на Балканския полуостров. The South-Western region of Bulgaria is one of the less studied with respect to the paleobotanic regions of Bulgaria compared with some other parts of the country. In the last years the archeological excavations in this area have increased in number. Most of the studied sites (settlements) are located alongside the main stream and the feeders of the river of Struma. The river of Struma is one of the most significant rivers in Bulgaria. For is length 290 km measured from its sources till the state frontier with Greece it stands 4 th in the country after the rivers of Iskar, Tundja and Maritza; and as for the size of its water catching ent of sq. The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

8 500 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Fig. 1. Map of the considered sites. 1 Gălăbnik 2 Kovačevo 3 Čavdar 4 Slatina 5 Vaxevo 6 Kapitan Dimitrievo 7 Rakitovo 8 Kremenik 9 Bălgarčevo 10 Drenkovo 11 Slatino 12 Topolnica 13 Kamenska čuka 14 Koprivlen 15 Arkadikos 16 Dikili Tash km. it stands second after the river of Maritza. The rivers of Struma and Mesta are included in the district falling under the influence of the Mediterranean a fact that is essential for the structure of the water balance. This region is distinguished for the highest rainfalls compared to the surrounding regions. The most often to be found in the region are the maroon forest soils and the most significant characteristics of the soil tegument here is the heavy erosion. The alluvium and delluvium soils alongside the river beds are shallow (ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982). In the period about 8000 ВР according to climatic reconstructions based on precipitation of sapropel in the Mediterranean lands (DAVIS et al 2003) presumably there has been an increase in humidity in South-Eastern Europe. The palynological data from Pirin Mts. point to warmer and humid conditions in the period about BP. In this time the temperate decidous trees reached higher altitudes than today. According to the palaeoecological investigations in Pirin Montains around 6000 BP a change of the seasonality of the climate took place, when summers became significant cooler and winters warmer (STEFANOVA/AMMAN 2003). The vegetation in the Struma valley westward of the town of Simitly, in the Tundja valley south of Belitza, Slavjanka and the East Rhodopes is described as one with superiority of the Mediterranean vegetable life. Characteristic species for the region are: Quecus coccifera, Pistacia sp., dendriform and red juniper, wild jasmine. A considerable place in the structure of the vegetation take the hairy oak tree In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

9 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 501 (Quercus), Quercus frainetto, mangy horn-beam (joke-elm), water horn-beam ostria. Many south kinds of vegetation are also represented as: the red juniper, Pistacia sp., the wild jassemine, the Coronilla emerus, the Artemisia campestre etc. (ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982 ) After L. Pernicheva (1999) the development of prehistoric cultures in south-western Bulgaria, and particularly along the Struma valley, is a key question in Balkan prehistory. The direct territorial connection of this region with the northern Aegeen coast, and from there with Anatolia, conditioned specific dynamics of development through all prehistoric periods. (PERNICHEVA 1999). After V. Nikolov today the Struma valley is considered the prime route for the Neolithization of the Balkan peninsula. (НИКОЛОВ 1999). The studied settlements comprise the period Early Neolith late Bronze Age and, in its major part they are located alongside the main stream and the feeders of the Struma river (Fig. 1). In the recent study an attempt has been made to summarize the results of the studied by the authors several sites (settlements) Kovačevo, Gălă bnik, Balgarčevo, Drenkovo-Ploshteko, Slatino, Vaxevo, Topolnica, Kamenska Čuka, as well as to compare the data with that of some other scholars who have studied sites in the region (Fig.1). Dating of the studied sites (settlements) Vaxevo The prehistoric settlement in the place Studena voda is located on the first non-inlet ledge of the left waterside of Eleshnitza river. The terrain represents vast, East slopping terrace of altitude. Differenciated are 3 basic strata, comprising 7 horizons (levels). The first stratum comprises the 1 st and 2 nd horizons of the Early Neolith, characterised by whitepainted ceramics (pottery). The second stratum comprises the 3 rd and the 4 th horizons belonging to the final period of the Early Neolith, characterised by brown painted ceramics as we as the 4 th of the Middle Neolith. The third stratum comprises 3 horizons (levels) one from the Late Eneolith, one from the Post Eneolith and one from the Early Bronze Age (ЧОХАДЖИЕВ 2001). Sites Data Autors Kovačevo early neolithic LICHARDUS 2000 Gălăbnik early neolithic ČOCHADJIEV 1998 Topolnica late neolithic TОДОРОВА/ВАЙСОВ1993 Vaxevo Balgarčevo Drenkovo- Poshteko final early neolithic final early neolithic late neolithic ČOCHADJIEV 2001 PERNICHEVA1995 GREBSKA-KULOVA, in press Slatino early eneolithic COCHADJIEV1986 Kamenska čuka late bronze age Tab.1. Dating of the studied sites. STEFANOVICH et al.1998 The charred vegetal remains are found in: granary of the 1 st construction horizon, in a pit, together with white-painted pottery. The contents is about 150 grams. The dominant quantity is of hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare var.vugare). In the mixture there have been found grains of: einkorn ( Triticum monococcum 51), emmer, (Triticum dicoccum 7 ), ryе (Secale cereale 5), Triticum aesivo/durum 1 (ПОПОВА 2001). The presence of the accompanying grains could be explained by the fact that they have been previously into the grain store and subsequently they have mixed with the barley. The studied grains are sized under the norm and fractured which leads us to think that the conditions in the region have not been suitable enough. Having in mind that the settlement is located in a mildly hilly district with infertile soil the only land suitable to sow has been alongside the river, it is obvious that those factors have influenced the degree of development of the crops. Kovačevo The settlement is located on one of the terraces of Pirinska Bistritza river at a distance of 20 km to the East from the outflow of Struma river. It is dated from the earliest phase of the European Neolith according to the explorers making the excavations (LICHARDUS 2000). The latest period is dated by means of 14 С: ВР., and by means of paleomagnetism in-between: BC. The analysis of the archeobotanic material done by Popova The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

10 % Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum T.aestivo/durum H.vulgare v.nudum H.vulgare v.vulgare Panicum milliaceum Lens culinaris Vicia ervilia Lathirus sativus Pisum stivum Cicer arietinum Linum usitatissimum Cornus mas Prunus sp. Pistacia terebinthus Vitis vinifera ssp. sylv. Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra Fig. 2. The Ubiquity of the cultivated and collected plants in the considered Neolithic sites. (1992) has shown a dominating presence of the einkorn Triticum monococcum, followed by emmer Triticum dicoccum, as well as presence of hulled and naked barley Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare; Hordeum vulgare var.nudum; millet Panicum muliaceum; Lathyrus sativa. The archeobotanic studies of Е. Маrinova during the later archeological campaigns but prove a dominant presence of emmer Triticum dicoccum. The presence of Lathyrus sativa is documented also in her papers (materials) as well as of the other 3 kinds of pulses Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum, Vicia ervilia. The recent studies of the site demonstrated influence of the Mediterranean vegetation most clearly manifested by the fruits of Pistacia terebinthus. Quite abundant in the settlement layers together with Cornus mas is the wild vine (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris). All the last mentioned three species belong to the collected in the settlemen wilde plants. Another abundant fruit-stons in the archaeobotanical record are this of plums (Prunus sp.). Some of them have more rough surface and, supposedly pertain to Prunus spinosa, whereas some others with smooth rounded surface maybe pertain to Prunus cerasifera (MARINO- VA 2001). This show a wide use of the wild plant resources in the surrounding of the site. Gălăbnik The settlement is located in the South-Eastern part of the Radomir kettle and it has been found during a correction (rectification) of Blato river in the Gyuritza district. It has come into being on the left river side, at a 420 m altitude. It is dated from the Early Neolith. The 1 st residential level (horizon) is dated cal. BC. (BOJADZIEV 2000). The results have shown a domination of the emmer in all the three studied horizons, where the second place is taken by the einkorn. Barley is less as quantity. From the leguminous plants lentils (Lens culinaris), pea (Pisum sativum), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia ) and chick-peas (Cicer arietinum) are found. The chick-peas is found in a vessel, dated from the Early Neolith as appointed by Е. Маrinova (MA- RINOVA et al. 2002). A similar finding has been discovered also in the Early Neolith settlement Orlitza, near the town of Kirkovo, East Rhodopes, (POPOVA, non-published) as well as also in the village of Kapitan Dimitrievo (МАRINOVA 2001). The chick pea is a Mediterranean plant of which our country is its Nordest frontier of spreading. Its presence in those settlements as also in the Chalcolith strata of the tell Junatzite comes to prove that it has come together with the whole Anatolian complex of cultivated plants in the territory of the country. Balgarčevo The settlement is located to the north of the Kresna gorge and it is dated from the Early Neolith. It comprises two construction horizons. The settlement is located on a middle river ter- In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

11 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria % 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Populus Betula Pinus Juniperus Crataegus Cornus mas Fraxinus Carpinus Buxus Fagus Castanea Alnus Rosaceae Acer Pinaceae Quercus Fig. 3. Distribution of the mineralized wood of the Neolithic in Gălăbnik (after GROZEVA, not published). race on the right bank of the Struma near 10 km north-west of Blagoevgrad. The archeobotanical study reveals availability of Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum. In one of the examined dwellings storage of hulled wheats has been found which was not in treshed state. The grains of the found cereals are bigger than average size which is evidence of favorable conditions of development. As for the leguminous the biggest quantity found in this dwelling is of peas. Together with it in the samples are present Lens culinaris and Vicia ervilia. The location of the site close to the Struma-river has been favorable for growing leguminous crops. The weed flora is presented by Gallium sp., Verbena officinalis, Ajuga chamaepitys. The last two sorts are indicators of chalky soils. Drenkovo-Ploshteko The settlement is located in proximity of the town of Blagoevgrad. From topographic point of view its location is of importance both for the connections North-South and East-West in the valey of the Struma river. The late-neolith levels have been studied archeobotanically. The material originates from the floor areas of two dwellings. There have been found chaff from the sort of Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum and, in great quantities, Lathyrus sativus. Interesting finding is the millet in being (Panicum milliaceum), which appears to be a comparatively rare finding in the Neolith Age in our lands. Slatino The settlement is located at the foot of Western Rila mountain, at about 380 m altitude, in the neighbourhood of the outflow of the Struma river. Here Early Chalcolithic period is dated (ČOHADZIEV 1986), and it comprises 5 building horizons. The data achieved by С14 show: cal.вс. The archeobotanical materials substantiate presence of: Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum, as well as of hulled and naked barley, bitter vetch, lentil. (POPOVA 1995). The data of Marinova show a dominant participation of emmer, as well as the presence of various leguminous plants. In storages of Triticum dicoccum different kinds of weeds have been found: Bromus sp, Asperula arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Centaurea sp. Most of those weed sorts speak for the availability of winter sowings (MARINOVA et al. 2002). In the material there is also another kind of storages of seeds of Chenopodium sp. That could be considered as likely food in periods of crisis. The seeds of The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

12 504 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Alnus sp. cf. Carpinus Cornus sp. Corylus avellana Fraxinus Pinus nigra/sylvestris Pomoideae Prunus sp. Rosaceae Quercus f.c. Ulmus sp. Kovacevo I (Early Neolithic) Indet. Fig. 4. Charred wood from the Neolithic site Kovačevo. Chenopodium sp. are abounding in proteins and fats so gruels could be made from some of the sorts (СТОЯНОВ/КИТАНOВ 1960). Kamenska Čuka This site is located nearby the town of Blagoevgrad. The site consists of a settlement and a mound occupying a commanding height (elevation 404 m above sea levels). Geologically, the basin is composed of low- lying alluvium surrounded by colluvial slopes and older metamorphic hills (STEFANOVICH/BANKOFF 1999). The site is dated Late Bronze Age. The achreobotanical results show the presence of a number of cereals and legumes, where in the first place has been the einkorn. Besides it in the sown fields also naked barley, millet, lentil, bitter vetch have been sown (POPOVA 1998). Discussion The results of the studied settlements are generalized and compared with other archeobotanical materials of the same period and of adjoining regions in Table 2. The ubiquity of finding the sorts of cultural and wild growing plants is presented in Fig. 2. There it could be seen that in all of the studied by us sites the hulled wheat prevail. Comparatively well are presented the both species of barley as well. It makes impression that the barley or the einkorn wheat prevail in the settlements with higher altitude or by infavorable soil conditions as Kremenik (CAKALOVA /SARBINSKA 1986), Vaxevo, Rakitovo (ЧАКАЛОВА/БОЖИЛОВА 2002), Kapitan Dimitrievo (MAРИНОВА 1999). The naked wheats (Triticum aestivum/durum s.l.) appear sporadically, which comes to show that during this period they still haven t succeeded to take over. The ubiquity of leguminous crops and their variety (5 species) is of special interest. In the most of the settlements they are found in great quantities as storages. The availance of this diversity is in connection with evasion of any risks for the crops, as some have greater power of endurance in drought and poor soils (Lathyrus sativus и Vicia ervilia), when the pea needs higher humidity. On that basis a conclusion could be drawn that they have had a big importance as sources of proteins for the Neolithic man. Most of the settlements are located in the by-mountain regions, near to water sources. The findings of chik pea among the legumen are of a special interest, as it has been known to be found till recently only in the Southern parts In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

13 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 505 Quercus Pinus silvestris Abies Juniperus Ulmus Fraxinus A Rosa sp. B Pinus sylvestris Pinaceae Abies Juniperus Quercus Corylus Carpinus Fagus Fraxinus Prunus Acer Populus Cr.monogina Pomoideae Cornus mas Alnus Fig. 5. Charred wood in the Late Bronze Age Kamenska čuka (A) and Koprivlen (B). of the Balkan peninsula, namely Dimini and Otzaki (KROLL 1981). Тhis kind of legume comes to our lands in the Near Eastern crop assеmblage, still it does not succeed to take an equal place together with the other legumen. In the diet of neolithic man particular role have played also the wild plants. In the studied settlements are often to be met a number of remains of fruits: of Cornus mas, Sambucus nigra, Vitis sylvestris, Rubus sp., Prunus sp. and partly Pistacia terebinthus which have been objects of collection. The situation is different with the seeds of wild grasses and legumes that are found in appreciable numbers in some Early Neolithic sites. Various wild plants could have been collected for human consumption. A good example in that respect is the available supply of Chenopodium sp. that appears in the Eneolithic Slatino. The mere presence of manz others in archaeological deposits is not yet proof of their The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

14 506 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Cultivated plants Wild plants Sites Data Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum T.aestivo/durum H.vulgare v.nudum H.vulgare v.vulgare Panicum milliaceum Lens culinaris Vicia ervilia Lathirus sativus Pisum stivum Cicer arietinum Linum usitatissimum Cornus mas Prunus sp. Pistacia terebinthus Vitis vinifera ssp. sylv. Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra 1. Gălăbnik early neolith xxx xxx x x x x x x 2. Kovačevo early neolith xx xxx x x x x x x x xx x x x x x 3. Čavdar early neolith x x x x x 4. Slatina early neolith xx xx x x x x xx x x x xx x 5. Vaxevo early neolith x x xxx 6. Kap. Dimitrievo early neolith xxx x x x x x x xxx x x x xx x x x xx x 7. Rakitovo early neolith x x x xxx x x 8. Kremenik early/midle neolith xx xx x x x 9. Balgarčevo final early neolith x xx x x x xxx 10. Drenkovo late neolith xxx x x x x xxx x x x 11. Slatino early eneolithic x x x x x x 12. Kamenska čuka late bronze age xxx x xx x x x x x 13. Koprivlen late bronze age x x x x x Tab. 2. Cultivated and collected plants in the considered sites (with Bold own studies in Struma valley). use as such. The may have been brought to the settlement unintentionally (VAN ZEIST 1988). The findings of the einkorn are numerous in the territory of Bulgaria.(HOPF 1973; REN- FREW 1973, POPOVA 1995). On the Balkan peninsula it presents in the Neolith in the territory of Greece Franchti, Achileon, Sitagri ІІ (HANSEN 1991; VAN ZEIST 1980; KROLL 1981); Jugoslavia Starčevo, Оbre І; Аnzabegovo І ІІ (RENFREW 1979). The evidence of early einkorn cultivation in Cajönü, SE Turkey ( BP.) (VAN ZEIST 1972; 1988) prove the close contacts between Anatolia, the Greek territories and the Balkans as a whole, where einkorn was of great importance especially during the early stages of Neolithic period. The wide areal of the emmer could be explained with its ability to give crops in different ecological conditions. By relatively not vast lands the sowings have decisive importance in keeping the crops. Its ears do not fall apart, its stems are extremely robust and for that reason they are used for roofs and to strengthen walls. It is drought-resistant and could be cultivated in different soils on account of its developed root system. The emmer wheat grains recovered from the basal levels of Cayönü. Its findings are numerous. The barley in its both varieties appears in the Neolith but it takes the second place with the exception for the settlements of Vaxevo and Rakitovo. It is obvious that the different kinds of the barley plant have entered through Asia Minor and Greece to the territory of Bulgaria. New data from Northeren Greece (VALAMOTI 2004) from the neolithic levels of Dikili Tash and Arkadikos show concurrent type of data with those of Sredna and Gorna Struma. In these settlements prevailance of hulled wheat and a rich spectrum of legumen has been also established. The predominant leguminous crops are the drought-resistant Lathyrus sativus and Vicia ervilia. The spectrum of the wild-growing fruits is presented by Malus/Pyrus/Sorbus, most likely preserved as dried fruits. As the here presented data shows the archeobotanically studied sites in the valey of the Struma river belong mainly to the Neolithic period. That is connected predominantly with the significance of the region in clarifying the problems of the Neolithisation in our lands. From this region only one settlement of the Eneolithic period and one of the Bronze Age have been studied archaeobotanically untill now. It comes to show that the further work in the region should be directed also in the study In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

15 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 507 of those later periods. This would contribute to following the overall picture of the ancient agriculture in the process of its development in the pre-history in the valey of the Struma river. Mineralized, nonchared and charred wood The presence of wood in the archeological sites usually is connected with its usage in different activities: construction, instruments of production, fuel, etc. Almost always it has been collected in the vicinity, thanks to which the wood provides precise information about the flora in the studied region. Such studies are extremely important in the low-lying lands of our country, in particular the valey of the Struma river, where there are none preserved sediments suitable for polen analysis. The settlement Topolnitza is dated Early Neolith. The not-charred wood is from the ІІ horizon of dwelling no. 2. It is highly mineralized. After the run analysis the presence of oak and wood of Rosaceae family has been proved. 3 fragments of conifer trees, Gymnospermae and 2 of Pinus sp. have been determined. The material contained in addition a wooden awl, which has been done by oak wood and a wooden nail, originating of wood representing a kind of Rosaceae. The noncharred wood in the Gălăbnik (Fig. 3.) settlement has been studied by Groseva. 21 species of wood have been found, total 126 fragments. The most numerous are the oak fragments 26, followed by the Rosaceae 14 and those of the ashl-tree 15 and the pine trees 13. It has been determined that the ashl-tree has been used for the longitudinal beams, and the wood of the conifer trees, the sycamore and the Rosaceae for objects of the evryday life. It is confirmed by the finding in Topolnitza, where the nail is also done from Rosaceae wood. In the neolithic settlement of Kovačevo (Fig. 4), together with the oak tree (Quercus) that prevails, widely spread is the cornel-tree (Cornus mas) as well. A possible explanation of its large scale presence but could be its usage as construction material. The cornel tree has robust and resilient wood which is extremely suitable for weaving the walls of dwellings. The riverside forests are presented by Alnus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, and the sub-mediterranean flora by Pinus nigra. Oak wood has been found also in Kamenska čuka (Fig. 5.). In a smaller quantity fragments of: Abies sp., Juniperus sp. Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Ulmus sp., Fraxinus sp. Rosa sp. have been found. It is possible that they have been collected in a more remote places as well as in the higher place of the mountains (POPOVA 1988). Oak wood has been found also in the village of Vaxevo The oak is widespead kind of wood and its role in the archeological context could be explained with some of its qualities. The oak wood is very robust, the oak could be found in easy of access places and used for fuel it comes fast to high temperature, which is an advantage for households Conclusions The neolithic settlements in South-Western Bulgaria are rich in archaeobotanical material. The wide spread of Triticum monococcum is based on its ability aclimate to different ecological circumstances. Due to its well developed root system Triticum monococcum grows well on infertile mountain soil,as well as in very damp soils. In investigated settlements Triticum dicoccum is represented by a large quantity. Barley takes second place among the cereals in the studied samples. Additional to the cereals wide spectrum of pulses was used. We conclude that the represantation of this species in investigated settlements from territory of Bulgaria is comparable to results from other settlements in the Balkan peninsula. The wood presented in the settlement layers witnesses of the oak forests prevalance and of the use made of diverse ecological niches in the near proximity. In the riverside valleys the woods collected have been of elm-tree (Ulmus), alder-tree (Alnus glutinosa/incana), ashl-tree and plums. The data of use of black pine-tree (Pinus) show that it has been even more widely spread in the past as nowadays. References ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982 Ж. Гълъбов. География на България. Cофия, МАРИНОВА 1999 Е. Маринова. Археоботанично изследване на The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

16 508 ранно и къснонеолитни материали. In: В. Николов (ed.). Тел Капитан Димитриево. Разкопки (София Пещера 1999), НИКОЛОВ 1999 B. Николов. Варианти на преход от ранния към късния неолит в Тракия и долината на р. Струма. Старини 9, 1999, 5 16 ПОПОВА 2001 Ц. Попова. Изследване на археоботаничен материал. In: C. Чохаджиев (ed.). Ваксево праисторически селища (Велико Търново 2001). ТОДОРОВА/ВАЙСОВ 1993 Х. Тодорова, И. Вайсов. Новокаменната епоха в България (София 1993). СТОЯНОВ/КИТАНОВ 1960 Н. Стоянов, Б. Китанов. Диви полезни растения в България (София, БАН 1960). ЧАКАЛОВА/БОЖИЛОВА 2002 E. Чакалова, Е. Божилова. Палеоекологични и палеоетноботанични материали от селищната могила до град Ракитово. In: A. Радунчева (ed.). Неолитно селище до град Ракитово. Разкопки и проучвания ХХІХ (София 2002), ЧОХАДЖИЕВ 2001 C. Чохаджиев. Ваксево праисторически селища (Велико Търново 2001). BOJADZIEV 2000 J. Bojadziev. Entwicklung der fruhneolithishen bemalten Keramik in Bulgarien. In: Karanovo, band III (Wien 2000), CAKALOVA/SARBINSKA 1986 E. Cakalova, E. Sarbinska. Pflanzenreste aus der neolithischen Siedlung Kremenik bei Slatino. Bez. Kjustendil. Studia Praehistorica 8, ČOHADZIEV 1986 S. Čohadziev. Frühneolithische Keramik aus der prähistorischen Siedlung bei Slatino Bez.Kjustendil. Studia Praehistorica 8, DAVIS et al B. Davis, S. Brewer, A. Stevenson, J. Guiot, Data Contributors. The temperature of Europe during the Holocene reconstructed from pollen data. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 2003, HANSEN 1991 J.M. Hansen. The Palaeoethnobotany of Franchthi Cave, Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece. Fascicle 7 (Bloomington Indianapolis 1991). HOPF 1973 M. Hopf. Fruhe Kulturpflanzen aus Bulgarien Jahrbuch des RGZM 20, 3, 1973, KROLL 1981 H. Kroll. Thessalishe Kulturpflanzen. Zetrscr. Archäeol. 15, 1981, LICHARDUS 2000 M. Lichardus. Mission archeologique de la vellee du Strimon. Fouilles neolithiques Franco-Bulgares de Kovačevo. Rapp. 14. Campagne de 1999, MARINOVA 2001 E. Marinova. Vergleichende palaeoethnobotanische Untersuchung zur Vegetationsgeschichte und zur Entwicklung der prähistorischen Landnutzung in Bulgarien. (Dissertation, Bonn University 2001). Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova MARINOVA et al E. Marinova, E. Tchakalova, D. Stoyanova, S. Grozeva, E. Dočeva. Ergebnisse archäobotanischer Untersuchungen aus dem Neolithikum und Chalcolithikum in Südwestbulgarien. Archaeologia Bulgarica IV 3, 2002, PERNICHEVA 1995 L. Pernicheva. Prehistoric cultures in the Middle Struma valley: Neolithic and Eneolithic. In: D. Bailey et al. (eds.). Prehistory of Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology 22, I (Madison/Wiskonsin 1995), POPOVA 1992 Tz. Popova. Analyse carpologique. In: J.-P. Demoule, M. Lichardus-Itten (eds.). Kovačevo. Fouilles néolithiques franco-bulgares dans la valee du Strymon. Rapport annuel mimeogrphies, Universite de Paris I, vol. 8, 1992, POPOVA 1995 Tz. Popova. Plant remains from Bulgarian Prehistory ( B.P.). In: D. Bailey et al. (eds.). Prehistory of Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology 22, I (Madison/Wiskonsin 1995), POPOVA 1998 Tz. Popova. Etude carpologique et anthracologique de tell Kajmenska Cuka (Blagoevgrad). Bronze final. In: The Thracian World at the crossroad of civilisation II (Bucharest 1998), RENFREW 1973 J. Renfrew. Palaeoethobotany (London 1973). RENFREW 1979 J. Renfrew. The first farmers in South East Europe. Archaeophisika 8, 1973, STEFANOVA/AMMANN 2003 I. Stefanova, B. Ammann. Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation belts in the Pirin Mountains (southwestern Bulgaria). The Holocene 13, 1, 2003, STEFANOVICH/BANKOFF 1998 M. Stefanovich, A. Bankoff. Kamenska Čuka Late Bronze Age site in Southwest Bulgaria. In: M. Stefanovich et al. (eds.). In the steps of James Harvey Gaul I (Sofia 1998), VALAMOTI 2004 M. Valamoti. Plants and People in Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Northern Greece. An archaeobotanical investigation. BAR Int. Series. 1258, VAN ZEIST 1972 W. van Zeist. Palaeobotanical results of the 1970 seson at Cayönü, Turkey. Helinium 7, 1972, 3 19 VAN ZEIST 1980 W. van Zeist. Apercu sur la diffusion des vegetaux cultivée dans le region Mediterranean. Natur. Monspelensia 1980, VAN ZEIST 1988 W. van Zeist. Some aspects of early neolithic plant husbandry in the Near East. Anatolica XV, 1988, In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

Archaeobotanical data from the early Neolithic of Bulgaria

Archaeobotanical data from the early Neolithic of Bulgaria Chapter 6 Archaeobotanical data from the early Neolithic of Bulgaria Elena Marinova Sofia University 'St Kliment Ohridsky', Bulgaria 6.1 Introduction The territory of modern Bulgaria is situated on one

More information

THE STRUMA/STRYMON STRUMA/STRYMON. Strymon Praehistoricus Kjustendil Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) and Serres Amphipolis (Greece)

THE STRUMA/STRYMON STRUMA/STRYMON. Strymon Praehistoricus Kjustendil Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) and Serres Amphipolis (Greece) In The Steps of James Harvey Gaul Volume 2 THE THE STRUMA/STRYMON STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER RIVER VALLEY VALLEY IN IN PREHISTORY PREHISTORY Pernik Kjustendil Blagoevgrad Kamenska Čuka ma Stru Topolnica Promachon

More information

Seasonal Variability of the Groundwater Regime for Several Aquifers in Bulgaria Tatiana Orehova 1

Seasonal Variability of the Groundwater Regime for Several Aquifers in Bulgaria Tatiana Orehova 1 Seasonal Variability of the Groundwater Regime for Several Aquifers in Bulgaria Tatiana Orehova 1 The purpose of the paper is to analyse the seasonal variability of the groundwater regime for several aquifers

More information

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK

EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK EXPLORING BIOMES IN GORONGOSA NATIONAL PARK ABOUT THIS WORKSHEET This worksheet complements the Click and Learn Gorongosa National Park Interactive Map (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/gorongosa-national-park-interactive-map),

More information

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt

How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt How the Nile River Led to Civilization in Ancient Egypt By USHistory.org, adapted by Newsela staff on 03.07.17 Word Count 786 Level 950L TOP: This photo, taken around 1915, shows the flooding of the Nile

More information

TYPE REGION P-j: SWII~TOKRZYSKIE MTS. (HOLY CROSS MTS.)

TYPE REGION P-j: SWII~TOKRZYSKIE MTS. (HOLY CROSS MTS.) ACTA PALAEOBOTANICA 2g (2) : 51-55, 1g39 KAZIMIERZ SZCZEPANEK TYPE REGION P-j: SWIITOKRZYSKIE MTS. (HOLY CROSS MTS.) Location: longitude c. 2 17'21 17'E, latitude c. 5 4'-51 34'N. Area: approx. 35 sq.

More information

Global Warming in New Zealand

Global Warming in New Zealand Reading Practice Global Warming in New Zealand For many environmentalists, the world seems to be getting warmer. As the nearest country of South Polar Region, New Zealand has maintained an upward trend

More information

Submerged Prehistoric Settlements along the Western Black Sea Coast: the Problem of Situation 1

Submerged Prehistoric Settlements along the Western Black Sea Coast: the Problem of Situation 1 Submerged Prehistoric Settlements along the Western Black Sea Coast: the Problem of Situation 1 PRESLAV PEEV Along the Western Black Sea coast, eighteen submerged prehistoric settlements are known with

More information

РОДОПИТЕ ПРЕЗ АНТИЧНОСТТА, КНИГА I: РОДОПА КАТО РЕАЛИЯ В АНТИЧНИЯ СВЯТ RHODOPE MOUNTAINS IN ANTIQUITY, BOOK I: RHODOPE AS REALITY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD

РОДОПИТЕ ПРЕЗ АНТИЧНОСТТА, КНИГА I: РОДОПА КАТО РЕАЛИЯ В АНТИЧНИЯ СВЯТ RHODOPE MOUNTAINS IN ANTIQUITY, BOOK I: RHODOPE AS REALITY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD 1 РОДОПИТЕ ПРЕЗ АНТИЧНОСТТА, КНИГА I: РОДОПА КАТО РЕАЛИЯ В АНТИЧНИЯ СВЯТ RHODOPE MOUNTAINS IN ANTIQUITY, BOOK I: RHODOPE AS REALITY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD 4 д-р Йордан Илиев, 2013 Родопите през античността,

More information

Natural and man-made flooding hazards at the torrents in the town of Thessaloniki

Natural and man-made flooding hazards at the torrents in the town of Thessaloniki Risk Analysis VII PI-373 Natural and man-made flooding hazards at the torrents in the town of Thessaloniki S. Stefanidis, F. Tziaftani & C. Chatzicristaki Institute of Mountainous Water Management and

More information

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOERNE CITY PARK, KENDALL COUNTY, TEXAS. Thomas C. Kelly and Thomas R. Hester

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOERNE CITY PARK, KENDALL COUNTY, TEXAS. Thomas C. Kelly and Thomas R. Hester AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOERNE CITY PARK, KENDALL COUNTY, TEXAS Thomas C. Kelly and Thomas R. Hester Center for Archaeological Research The University of Texas at San Antonio Archaeological Survey

More information

Archaeological Investigation of Coloane, Macau

Archaeological Investigation of Coloane, Macau Archaeological Investigation of Coloane, Macau Received 13 March 1974" W. KELLY AND W. MEACHAM INTRODUCTION UP UNTIL July 1972, when a field survey of Coloane Island was undertaken by members of the Hong

More information

What Is An Ecoregion?

What Is An Ecoregion? Ecoregions of Texas What Is An Ecoregion? Ecoregion a major ecosystem with distinctive geography, characteristic plants and animals, and ecosystems that receives uniform solar radiation and moisture Sometimes

More information

αρχαία Ελλάδα (Ancient Greece)

αρχαία Ελλάδα (Ancient Greece) αρχαία Ελλάδα (Ancient Greece) The Birthplace of Western Civilization Marshall High School Mr. Cline Western Civilization I: Ancient Foundations Unit Three AA Neolithic Europe Europe s earliest farming

More information

Dr. Dimitris P. Drakoulis THE REGIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (4TH-6TH CENTURY A.D.

Dr. Dimitris P. Drakoulis THE REGIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (4TH-6TH CENTURY A.D. Dr. Dimitris P. Drakoulis THE REGIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE EARLY BYZANTINE PERIOD (4TH-6TH CENTURY A.D.) ENGLISH SUMMARY The purpose of this doctoral dissertation is to contribute

More information

Settlement Patterns West of Ma ax Na, Belize

Settlement Patterns West of Ma ax Na, Belize SETTLEMENT PATTERNS WEST OF MA AX NA, BELIZE 1 Settlement Patterns West of Ma ax Na, Belize Minda J. Hernke Faculty Sponsor: Kathryn Reese-Taylor, Department of Sociology/Archaeology ABSTRACT The focus

More information

A New Fragment of Proto-Aeolic Capital from Jerusalem

A New Fragment of Proto-Aeolic Capital from Jerusalem TEL AVIV Vol. 42, 2015, 67 71 A New Fragment of Proto-Aeolic Capital from Jerusalem Doron Ben-Ami and Yana Tchekhanovets Israel Antiquities Authority The article deals with a fragment of a proto-aeolic

More information

Amarna Workers Village

Amarna Workers Village Amarna Workers Village The Egyptian city of Amarna was the pet building project of the pharaoh Akhenaten, who oversaw construction of his new capital between 1346 and 1341 BCE. The city was largely abandoned

More information

(RE)CONSTRUCTION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN SANTORINI ISLAND, GREECE

(RE)CONSTRUCTION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN SANTORINI ISLAND, GREECE (RE)CONSTRUCTION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN SANTORINI ISLAND, GREECE Santorini is the southern island of the Cyclades, with a surface of 75 sq. km and is part of a volcanic basin composed by three

More information

Labraunda Preliminary report

Labraunda Preliminary report Labraunda 2012. Preliminary report The excavations at Labraunda this year were very successful and lasted for eight weeks. Our main new discovery is obviously the gold coin from Philip II discovered in

More information

Good morning! You need: both sheets from yesterday! Write HW in agenda: BRING IN CANS. College day tomorrow: Wear college shirts and hats!

Good morning! You need: both sheets from yesterday! Write HW in agenda: BRING IN CANS. College day tomorrow: Wear college shirts and hats! Good morning! You need: both sheets from yesterday! Write HW in agenda: BRING IN CANS College day tomorrow: Wear college shirts and hats! Ancient Greece BIG IDEA: Greece s geography and closeness to seas

More information

Lidar Imagery Reveals Maine's Land Surface in Unprecedented Detail

Lidar Imagery Reveals Maine's Land Surface in Unprecedented Detail Maine Geologic Facts and Localities December, 2011 Lidar Imagery Reveals Maine's Land Surface in Unprecedented Detail Text by Woodrow Thompson, Department of Agriculture, Conservation & Forestry 1 Introduction

More information

Çatalhöyük 2015 Archive Report by members of the Çatalhöyük Research Project

Çatalhöyük 2015 Archive Report by members of the Çatalhöyük Research Project Çatalhöyük 2015 Archive Report by members of the Çatalhöyük Research Project Chapter 4 Excavations in the TPC Area Arkadiusz Marciniak, Patrycja Filipowicz, Jędrzej Hordecki, Paul Eklöv Pettersson Introduction

More information

The Minoans, DNA and all.

The Minoans, DNA and all. Mathilda s Anthropology Blog. Just another WordPress.com weblog The Minoans, DNA and all. Posted on April 14, 2008 26 Comments Starting with the breaking DNA news, and this rather sinks the Black Athena

More information

Chapter 25 Geography and the Settlement of Greece. How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece?

Chapter 25 Geography and the Settlement of Greece. How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece? Chapter 25 Geography and the Settlement of Greece 25.1 Introduction How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece? Tal Naveh/Shutterstock The ancient Greeks learned to use the

More information

Ancient Greece GREECE UNIT 5 GEOGRAPHY CHALLENGE. 1 Unit 5 Geography Challenge miles. Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection

Ancient Greece GREECE UNIT 5 GEOGRAPHY CHALLENGE. 1 Unit 5 Geography Challenge miles. Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection W N S E UNIT 5 GEOGRAPHY CHALLENGE Ancient Greece 0 250 500 miles 0 250 500 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection GREECE 1 Unit 5 Geography Challenge UNIT 5 GEOGRAPHY CHALLENGE Geography Skills

More information

Chapter 17. North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia

Chapter 17. North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia Chapter 17 North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia Chapter Objectives Describe the major landforms and natural resources of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. Discuss the climate and

More information

Kagoshima Prefecture consists of about 600

Kagoshima Prefecture consists of about 600 Kawai, K., Terada, R. and Kuwahara, S. (eds): The Islands of Kagoshima Kagoshima University Research Center for the Pacific Islands, 15 March 213 Chapter 16 Sugarcane Cultivation in the Islands of Kagoshima

More information

Archaeologists for Hire: An In-Class Activity

Archaeologists for Hire: An In-Class Activity Archaeologists for Hire: An In-Class Activity Beyond Grades: Capturing Authentic Learning Conference Welcome to the Marveloso Valley, a fictional valley on the central coast of Peru. Over the decades,

More information

OF OLIVE. years old. (UN) (UN, 2008) 2009) 2010) (World Bank, 2008) Bank, 2008) Figure 1. (Source: UN) Page 1 / 6

OF OLIVE. years old. (UN) (UN, 2008) 2009) 2010) (World Bank, 2008) Bank, 2008) Figure 1. (Source: UN) Page 1 / 6 Policies - Montenegro 2012 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF OLIVE GROWING IN MONTENEGRO 1.1. Introduction Figure 1. Location of Montenegro (Source: UN) Olive growing is concentrated along the coast of Montenegro

More information

Ancient Greece. Teachers Curriculum Institute Geography and the Settlement of Greece 1

Ancient Greece. Teachers Curriculum Institute Geography and the Settlement of Greece 1 G e o g r a p h y C h a l l e n g e Ancient Greece G R E E C E N W E S 0 250 500 miles 0 250 500 kilometers Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection Teachers Curriculum Institute Geography and the Settlement

More information

III. THE EARLY HELLADIC POTTERY FROM THE MASTOS IN THE BERBATI VALLEY, ARGOLID

III. THE EARLY HELLADIC POTTERY FROM THE MASTOS IN THE BERBATI VALLEY, ARGOLID III. THE EARLY HELLADIC POTTERY FROM THE MASTOS IN THE BERBATI VALLEY, ARGOLID by JEANNETTE FORSÉN The Swedish investigations of the hillock Mastos in the western part of the Berbati valley, ca. 3 km south

More information

Reading Informational Medford 549C Work Sample Effective February 2010 Informational Text Title:

Reading Informational Medford 549C Work Sample Effective February 2010 Informational Text Title: Reading Informational Medford 549C Work Sample Effective February 2010 Informational Text Title: Geography and the Settlement of Greece Reading Work Sample Assessment Middle School Geography and the Settlement

More information

Jneneh in the Upper Wadi az-zarqa, in North Central Jordan, First Season 2011.

Jneneh in the Upper Wadi az-zarqa, in North Central Jordan, First Season 2011. Jneneh in the Upper Wadi az-zarqa, in North Central Jordan, First Season 2011. Khaled Douglas Jneneh is located in the north-western periphery of the city of Zarqa (grid ref. 250.88E 165.25N), in North

More information

ANTH 489. Romans, Arabs and Vikings. Seafaring in the Mediterranean during the Early Christian Era.

ANTH 489. Romans, Arabs and Vikings. Seafaring in the Mediterranean during the Early Christian Era. ANTH 489 Romans, Arabs and Vikings. Seafaring in the Mediterranean during the Early Christian Era. Class 12: The Late Roman Shipwrecks at Skerki Bank. Between 1988 and 2003 Dr. Robert D. Ballard and the

More information

Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Lesson 1 Objectives Evaluate how geography affected people of the Aegean Cultures. Study the effects of trade on he growth of the Minoan customs and ideas to their way of life. Observe how the Mycenaeans

More information

Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus,

Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus, Brief Description of Northern the West Bank, Palestine Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Ghodieh Department of Geography An-Najah National University Nablus, Palestine Brief Description of Northern the West Bank

More information

RIVER ZADORRA, between Ibaiondo and Gobeo RIVER ZADORRA, FROM GAMARRA MAYOR TO ABETXUKO FROM THE CITY TO THE COUNTRYSIDE ALONG THE RIVER

RIVER ZADORRA, between Ibaiondo and Gobeo RIVER ZADORRA, FROM GAMARRA MAYOR TO ABETXUKO FROM THE CITY TO THE COUNTRYSIDE ALONG THE RIVER RIVER ZADORRA, FROM GAMARRA MAYOR TO ABETXUKO PRACTICAL INFORMATION TIMETABLE OF THE URARTE VEGETABLE GARDENS Winter timetable (from 1st October to 31st March): from 08:30 to 18:15 Summer timetable (from

More information

TH E FIRST SEASON of investigations at the

TH E FIRST SEASON of investigations at the QUSEIR AL-QADIM Janet H. Johnson & Donald Whitcomb TH E FIRST SEASON of investigations at the ancient port of Quseir al-qadim on the Red Sea in Egypt took place in winter, 1978; the investigations were

More information

Geoscape Toronto The Oak Ridges Moraine Activity 2 - Page 1 of 10 Information Bulletin

Geoscape Toronto The Oak Ridges Moraine Activity 2 - Page 1 of 10 Information Bulletin About 13,000 years ago as the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted, glacial meltwater accumulated between the ice sheet and the Niagara Escarpment. This formed a lake basin into which gravel and sand were deposited.

More information

OLIVE GROWING IN MONTENEGRO, SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

OLIVE GROWING IN MONTENEGRO, SITUATION AND PROSPECTS OLIVE GROWING IN MONTENEGRO, SITUATION AND PROSPECTS Biljana Lazovic University of Montenegro Biotechnical Faculty - Centre for Subtropical Cultures, Bar Montenegro: Area 13.812 km2, Total population 650.000

More information

Geography of Ancient Greece Summary Sheet for Use in Assessment

Geography of Ancient Greece Summary Sheet for Use in Assessment Geography of Ancient Greece Summary Sheet for Use in Assessment 1. At the same time that the Shang dynasty was ruling much of the Huang He River valley and the Egyptian pharaohs were building the New Kingdom

More information

Plot of sq.m. at the beach Orkos of Kea (Tzia) in Cyclades GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PLOT

Plot of sq.m. at the beach Orkos of Kea (Tzia) in Cyclades GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PLOT Plot of 165.000 sq.m. at the beach Orkos of Kea (Tzia) in Cyclades GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PLOT Kea 2009 Plot of 165.000 sq.m., ideal for investment in Cyclades Cyclades and Crete are "champions in

More information

6th Grade Social Studies Chapter 7: The Geography and Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush and Canaan

6th Grade Social Studies Chapter 7: The Geography and Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush and Canaan I. Introduction (7.1) A. Egyptians settled along the Nile River, in the NE corner of Africa B. civilization lasted from around 3100 B.C. to 350 C. E. C. Kushites settled to the south of Egypt, along the

More information

Chapter 1 Test A (1 of 5)

Chapter 1 Test A (1 of 5) Chapter 1 Test A (1 of 5) Vocabulary Match the descriptions with the correct terms. (8 points) Column I 1. a natural feature of Earth s surface 2. something in the environment that people use 3. the pattern

More information

Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan

Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan Chapter 7 Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan How did geography affect early settlement in Egypt, Kush, and Canaan? Section 7.1 - Introduction RF/NASA//Corbis This satellite photograph

More information

CHAPTER II THE EXCAVATION AT SESKLO

CHAPTER II THE EXCAVATION AT SESKLO CHAPTER II THE EXCAVATION AT SESKLO The site of Sesklo is situated at 39 2r30"N and 22 50'50"E in the region of Thessaly, district Magnisia - 9 km to the West of the modem town of Volos and the sea shore.

More information

2012. Proceedings of the 11 European Geoparks Conference. AGA Associação Geoparque Arouca, Arouca, 5-6.

2012. Proceedings of the 11 European Geoparks Conference. AGA Associação Geoparque Arouca, Arouca, 5-6. References to this volume It is suggested that either the following alternatives should be used for future bibliographic references to the whole or part this volume: th Sá, A.A., Rocha, D., Paz, A. & Correia,

More information

Research Article. Late Neolithic, Calcolithic and Late Bronze Age Fortifications in Southeast Albania. 1. Introduction

Research Article. Late Neolithic, Calcolithic and Late Bronze Age Fortifications in Southeast Albania. 1. Introduction Research Article Late Neolithic, Calcolithic and Late Bronze Age Fortifications in Southeast Albania Froseda Angjellari Tola Archaeology Keywords: Fortifications, Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Late Bronze

More information

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN GUADALUPE, NORTHEAST HONDURAS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN GUADALUPE, NORTHEAST HONDURAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN GUADALUPE, NORTHEAST HONDURAS Markus Reindel, Franziska Fecher and Peter Fux Archaeological investigations in Honduras have focused on the western, Mesoamerican part of

More information

SAULT COLLEGE SAULT STE. MARIE, ONTARIO COURSE OUTLINE

SAULT COLLEGE SAULT STE. MARIE, ONTARIO COURSE OUTLINE SAULT COLLEGE SAULT STE. MARIE, ONTARIO COURSE OUTLINE COURSE TITLE: Trail Construction and Facility Maintenance CODE NO. : NRT 260 SEMESTER: 3 PROGRAM: AUTHOR: Adventure Recreation and Parks Brian Anstess

More information

T ourism. KS3 Geography. B B C Northern Ireland Education Online. Introduction. What is Education for Sustainable Development?

T ourism. KS3 Geography. B B C Northern Ireland Education Online. Introduction. What is Education for Sustainable Development? Introduction The aim of this web site is to provide teachers with a means of delivering up to date material. using local examples. covering a wide range of geographical themes. integrating ICT with good

More information

Location, Climate, & Natural Resources. Where People Live & How They Trade

Location, Climate, & Natural Resources. Where People Live & How They Trade Location, Climate, & Natural Resources Where People Live & How They Trade Standards SS6G13 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution

More information

Medulin Bay in Late Antiquity Antique and Late Antique Site of Vižula near Medulin, Croatia

Medulin Bay in Late Antiquity Antique and Late Antique Site of Vižula near Medulin, Croatia Medulin Bay in Late Antiquity Antique and Late Antique Site of Vižula near Medulin, Croatia Kristina Džin, International Research Centre for Archaeology Brijuni Medulin Ivo Pilar Institute, Zagreb p.p.

More information

Mediterranean Europe

Mediterranean Europe Chapter 17, Section World Geography Chapter 17 Mediterranean Europe Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 17, Section

More information

OFFROAD. Addiction guaranteed. Table of Contents. 1. Provisional program 2. Camps 3. Airports 4. Hotels 5. Hotel package 6.

OFFROAD. Addiction guaranteed. Table of Contents. 1. Provisional program 2. Camps 3. Airports 4. Hotels 5. Hotel package 6. BALKAN Addiction guaranteed OFFROAD Table of Contents NEWSLETTER: MARCH 18 1. Provisional program 2. Camps 3. Airports 4. Hotels 5. Hotel package 6. How to book EVENT OF RALLYE BRESLAU INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION

More information

Species: Wildebeest, Warthog, Elephant, Zebra, Hippo, Impala, Lion, Baboon, Warbler, Crane

Species: Wildebeest, Warthog, Elephant, Zebra, Hippo, Impala, Lion, Baboon, Warbler, Crane INTRODUCTION Gorongosa National Park is a 1,570-square-mile protected area in Mozambique. Decades of war, ending in the 1990s, decimated the populations of many of Gorongosa s large animals, but thanks

More information

Ancient Egypt. Life Along the Nile River

Ancient Egypt. Life Along the Nile River Ancient Egypt Life Along the Nile River 2018 Geography How Does Geography affect the way that people live? Geography- Where in the World? You are Here Streetsboro, Ohio United States of America Geography-

More information

Northern Aegean in the Bronze Age *

Northern Aegean in the Bronze Age * Northern Aegean in the Bronze Age * Stelios Andreou [Draft of chapter published in Eric Cline, ed. Oxford Handbook of Bronze Age Aegean. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Not for reproduction]

More information

Trench 91 revealed that the cobbled court extends further to the north.

Trench 91 revealed that the cobbled court extends further to the north. Report on the 2013 Gournia Excavations The 2013 excavations at Gournia were conducted June 17 July 26 under the aegis of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the supervision of the KD

More information

Roduner Ranch FOR SALE. 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land. Merced County, California. Offices Serving The Central Valley

Roduner Ranch FOR SALE. 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land. Merced County, California. Offices Serving The Central Valley FOR SALE 5,878± Acres Potential Development Land Merced County, California Offices Serving The Central Valley F R E S N O V I S A L I A B A K E R S F I E L D 7480 N. Palm Ave, Ste 101 3447 S. Demaree Street

More information

FRANCE : HOW TO IMPROVE THE AVALANCHE KNOWLEDGE OF MOUNTAIN GUIDES? THE ANSWER OF THE FRENCH MOUNTAIN GUIDES ASSOCIATION. Alain Duclos 1 TRANSMONTAGNE

FRANCE : HOW TO IMPROVE THE AVALANCHE KNOWLEDGE OF MOUNTAIN GUIDES? THE ANSWER OF THE FRENCH MOUNTAIN GUIDES ASSOCIATION. Alain Duclos 1 TRANSMONTAGNE FRANCE : HOW TO IMPROVE THE AVALANCHE KNOWLEDGE OF MOUNTAIN GUIDES? THE ANSWER OF THE FRENCH MOUNTAIN GUIDES ASSOCIATION ABSTRACT : Alain Duclos 1 TRANSMONTAGNE Claude Rey 2 SNGM The French Mountain Guides

More information

Brown bear (Ursus arctos) fact sheet

Brown bear (Ursus arctos) fact sheet Brown bear (Ursus arctos) fact sheet Biology Status Distribution Management Conservation Biology Size: Reproduction: Diet: Social organisation: Home ranges: Males 140 320 kg/females 100 200 kg Mating:

More information

2015 Brain Wrinkles. SS8G1b

2015 Brain Wrinkles. SS8G1b SS8G1b Standards SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location. b. Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and

More information

Student Reading 13.10: The Regions of Ohio

Student Reading 13.10: The Regions of Ohio Student Reading 13.10: The Regions of Ohio Ohio has five natural regions which formed more than 10,000 years ago. A natural region is an area that shares the same natural features. These places have similar

More information

Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the western seaways of Britain, BC

Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the western seaways of Britain, BC Stepping stones to the Neolithic? Islands, maritime connectivity and the western seaways of Britain, 5000-3500 BC Duncan Garrow (Liverpool) & Fraser Sturt (Southampton) Stepping stones to the Neolithic?

More information

Notes from the Field: An Island off an Island - Understanding Bronze Age Society in Mochlos, Crete

Notes from the Field: An Island off an Island - Understanding Bronze Age Society in Mochlos, Crete 57 Notes from the Field: An Island off an Island - Understanding Bronze Age Society in Mochlos, Crete Luke Kaiser School of Anthropology, University of Arizona I pushed a wheelbarrow up over the berm of

More information

Abstract. 1 Introduction

Abstract. 1 Introduction Transactions on Ecology and the Environment vol 4, 997 WIT Press, www.witpress.com, ISSN 74-54 Environmental impact on the surface sediments of the bay and the gulf of Thessaloniki (Greece) according to

More information

Ken Hughey Department of Environmental Management May 2011

Ken Hughey Department of Environmental Management May 2011 LINCOLN UNIVERSITY Preserving natural asset values while also promoting tourism potential an exploration of issues in New Zealand and China (Invited keynote address to: International Symposium on Balanced

More information

Approximate distance: 4.5 miles For this walk we ve included OS grid references should you wish to use them. Start. End

Approximate distance: 4.5 miles For this walk we ve included OS grid references should you wish to use them. Start. End Approximate distance: 4.5 miles For this walk we ve included OS grid references should you wish to use them. 2 1 Start End 4 3 N W E S Reproduced by permission of Ordnance Survey on behalf of HMSO. Crown

More information

Greece: A History By Alexander Eliot

Greece: A History By Alexander Eliot Greece: A History By Alexander Eliot - A History Of Greece - medulla.store - Browse and Read A History Of Greece A History Of Greece Will reading habit influence your life? Many say yes. Reading a history

More information

Whangarei Airport. Prepared by Carine Andries 10/20173

Whangarei Airport. Prepared by Carine Andries 10/20173 Whangarei Airport Prepared by Carine Andries 10/20173 March 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 3 INTRODUCTION... 3 AIRPORT ROLE AND FUNCTION... 3 AIRPORT FEATURES AND CAPACITY... 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2

More information

Development and performance of the common Keren Stove Yogyakarta, November 2012 March C Pemberton Pigott

Development and performance of the common Keren Stove Yogyakarta, November 2012 March C Pemberton Pigott Development and performance of the common Keren Stove Yogyakarta, November 2012 March 2013 C Pemberton Pigott 1. Overview: 1.1. The Keren stove is the most common single pot cooking device in Central Java.

More information

Geomorphology. Glacial Flow and Reconstruction

Geomorphology. Glacial Flow and Reconstruction Geomorphology Glacial Flow and Reconstruction We will use simple mathematical models to understand ice dynamics, recreate a profile of the Laurentide ice sheet, and determine the climate change of the

More information

1. Sea: heavy influence on physical environment of Greece (Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea)

1. Sea: heavy influence on physical environment of Greece (Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea) 1. Sea: heavy influence on physical environment of Greece (Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea) 2. Mountains (with narrow valleys): cover more than ¾ of Greece s surface area 3. Islands: more than 2000 islands (Crete

More information

European Destinations of ExcelleNce

European Destinations of ExcelleNce European Destinations of ExcelleNce ONLINE BULLETIN ON BULGARIAN EDEN DESTINATIONS, CREATED UNDER THE PROJECT ENTITLED COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN TO PROMOTE BULGAR- IAN EDEN DESTINATIONS SECOND EDITION, AS

More information

First announcement concerning the results of the 2005 exploratory season at Tel Kabri

First announcement concerning the results of the 2005 exploratory season at Tel Kabri First announcement concerning the results of the 2005 exploratory season at Tel Kabri Assaf Yasur-Landau Tel Aviv University (assafy@post.tau.ac.il) Eric H. Cline The George Washington University (ehcline@gwu.edu)

More information

o a London Borough of Barnet Stoney Wood Lake Silk Stream Flood Alleviation Scheme Archaeological Watching Brief Report Oxford Archaeology

o a London Borough of Barnet Stoney Wood Lake Silk Stream Flood Alleviation Scheme Archaeological Watching Brief Report Oxford Archaeology Silk Stream Flood Alleviation Scheme Stoney Wood Lake London Borough of Barnet Archaeological Watching Brief Report o a Oxford Archaeology November 2004 Client: Halcrow on behalf of Environment Agency

More information

Southern Africa Growing Season : Heading for a Record Drought?

Southern Africa Growing Season : Heading for a Record Drought? Southern Africa Growing Season 2015-2016: Heading for a Record Drought? HIGHLIGHTS The current growing season (October 2015 April 2016) in Southern Africa is developing under the peak phase of El Nino

More information

2. (1pt) From an aircraft, how can you tell the difference between a snowfield and a snow-covered glacier?

2. (1pt) From an aircraft, how can you tell the difference between a snowfield and a snow-covered glacier? 1 GLACIERS 1. (2pts) Define a glacier: 2. (1pt) From an aircraft, how can you tell the difference between a snowfield and a snow-covered glacier? 3. (2pts) What is the relative size of Antarctica, Greenland,

More information

The Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem A Heritage Site at the Crossroads of Politics and Real Estate

The Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem A Heritage Site at the Crossroads of Politics and Real Estate The Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem A Heritage Site at the Crossroads of Politics and Real Estate The Mamilla Cemetery with Jerusalem high-rises in the background Location and Significance The Mamilla

More information

AMBIO. Electronic Supplementary Material This supplementary material has not been peer reviewed.

AMBIO. Electronic Supplementary Material This supplementary material has not been peer reviewed. AMBIO Electronic Supplementary Material This supplementary material has not been peer reviewed. Title: Ecosystem services in coupled social ecological systems closing the cycle of service provision and

More information

Reconstruction of some Minoan words through signs of Phaistos disc

Reconstruction of some Minoan words through signs of Phaistos disc 21 Reconstruction of some Minoan words through signs of Phaistos disc Alexander Akulov independent scholar; St.Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: aynu@inbox.ru Abstract Some signs of Phaistos disc look like pictures

More information

Curriculum Vitae. Karni Golan

Curriculum Vitae. Karni Golan Curriculum Vitae Karni Golan Address: Department of Bible, Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beersheba, 84105, Israel E-mail: golank@post.bgu.ac.il,

More information

POTS, WORKSHOPS AND EARLY IRON AGE SOCIETY FUNCTION AND ROLE OF CERAMICS IN EARLY GREECE

POTS, WORKSHOPS AND EARLY IRON AGE SOCIETY FUNCTION AND ROLE OF CERAMICS IN EARLY GREECE POTS, WORKSHOPS AND EARLY IRON AGE SOCIETY FUNCTION AND ROLE OF CERAMICS IN EARLY GREECE Pots, Workshops and EIA Society, ULB, 16/11/2013. Éditeur CReA-Patrimoine Centre de Recherches en Archéologie et

More information

Erica Kinias Brown University, Department of the History of Art and Architecture

Erica Kinias Brown University, Department of the History of Art and Architecture Erica Kinias Brown University, Department of the History of Art and Architecture Archaeological Institute of America Jane C. Waldbaum Scholarship Fund Research Outcomes With the generous support from the

More information

The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long. It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long. It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea The Nile is the world s longest river. It is 4,160 miles long It flows north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea Lower Egypt is at the Nile s mouth near the Mediterranean Sea. It is in Northern Egypt

More information

The Earliest Americans

The Earliest Americans The Earliest Americans A Land Bridge Section The Earliest Americans The cultures of the first Americans, including social organization, develop in ways similar to other early cultures. The American Continents

More information

Early Andean Civilizations. Origins and Foundations

Early Andean Civilizations. Origins and Foundations Early Andean Civilizations Origins and Foundations Environmental Context Basic divisions: east/west, north/south Mountains, deserts, and rivers Vertical archipelago : adapting to climate diversity based

More information

GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG VON MUSEEN IN ÄTHIOPIEN E.V. (GFMÄ)

GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG VON MUSEEN IN ÄTHIOPIEN E.V. (GFMÄ) GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FÖRDERUNG VON MUSEEN IN ÄTHIOPIEN E.V. (GFMÄ) REPORT ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELD TRIP TO ETHIOPIA 10th-20th OCTOBER 2016 Ethiopian-German Expedition to Wuqro Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts

More information

Alternatives Study of Alignment

Alternatives Study of Alignment Project: 4-lanning of Barhi Rajauli Section of NH-31 Sheet: 1 of 6 Alternatives Study of Alignment 1 Objectives The following objectives were kept in view while locating the alternative bypass alignments:

More information

Key words: hotel chain, entry mode, type of affiliation, franchise, management contract, Bulgaria

Key words: hotel chain, entry mode, type of affiliation, franchise, management contract, Bulgaria Hotel chains entry mode in Bulgaria Maya Ivanova Varna, Bulgaria, e-mail: maya.g.ivanova@gmail.com Stanislav Ivanov, PhD. Associate Professor and Vice Rector, International University College, Bulgaria;

More information

Brain Wrinkles. Africa: The impact of location, climate, & physical characteristics on where people live, the type of work they do, & how they travel

Brain Wrinkles. Africa: The impact of location, climate, & physical characteristics on where people live, the type of work they do, & how they travel Africa: The impact of location, climate, & physical characteristics on where people live, the type of work they do, & how they travel STANDARDS: SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate,

More information

Location, Climate, & Natural Resources

Location, Climate, & Natural Resources Location, Climate, & Natural Resources UK is a country of islands off the coast of mainland Europe. It consists of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, & Wales. UK s location makes it a HUB for trade.

More information

Rotorua District Council. Economic Impacts of City Focus. Technical Annexures. by McDermott Miller Strategies

Rotorua District Council. Economic Impacts of City Focus. Technical Annexures. by McDermott Miller Strategies Rotorua District Council Economic Impacts of City Focus Technical Annexures by McDermott Miller Strategies 19 December 2014 Copyright McDermott Miller Limited is the author of this report and holds all

More information

Monitoring of Mountain Glacial Variations in Northern Pakistan, from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and ALOS Data. R. Jilani, M.Haq, A.

Monitoring of Mountain Glacial Variations in Northern Pakistan, from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and ALOS Data. R. Jilani, M.Haq, A. Monitoring of Mountain Glacial Variations in Northern Pakistan, from 1992 to 2008 using Landsat and ALOS Data R. Jilani, M.Haq, A. Naseer Pakistan Space & Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)

More information

Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor

Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor Coverage of Mangrove Ecosystem along Three Coastal Zones of Puerto Rico using IKONOS Sensor Jennifer Toledo Rivera Geology Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus P.O. Box 9017 Mayagüez,

More information

VAL ATTENBROW THE ABORIGINAL PREHISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF ROYAL NATIONAL PARK AND ITS SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES September 2011

VAL ATTENBROW THE ABORIGINAL PREHISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF ROYAL NATIONAL PARK AND ITS SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES September 2011 THE ABORIGINAL PREHISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF ROYAL NATIONAL PARK AND ITS SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES VAL ATTENBROW 29-30 September 2011 Linnean Society of New South Wales 2011 Symposium Royal National Park

More information

The Semna South Project

The Semna South Project The Semna South Project Louis V. Zabkar For those who have never visited the area of southern Egypt and northern Sudan submerged by the waters of the new Assuan High Dam, and who perhaps find it difficult

More information

FIELD BOUNDARIES, A MEDIEVAL STRUCTURE AND DEAD SHEEP AT IWADE, KENT

FIELD BOUNDARIES, A MEDIEVAL STRUCTURE AND DEAD SHEEP AT IWADE, KENT FIELD BOUNDARIES, A MEDIEVAL STRUCTURE AND DEAD SHEEP AT IWADE, KENT Pre-Construct Archaeology Limited Unit 54, Brockley Cross Business Centre, 96 Endwell Road, Brockley, London SE4 2PD tel: 020 7732 3925

More information