THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY

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1 THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY

2 Gerda Henkel Stiftung In The Steps of James Harvey Gaul Volume 2 The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory Proceedings of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus, Kjustendil Blagoevgrad Serres Amphipolis, Editing: Henrieta Todorova, Mark Stefanovich and Georgi Ivanov 1. Prehistoric Europe; 2. Neolithic period Europe; 3 Europe Antiquities. 544 pp., 29 maps, 9 topograchical plans, 779 color photos, 81 b/w photos, 815 drawings, 58 tabl., 32 diagrams and simplified graphs, 10 reconstructions drawing of houses. Museum of History-Kyustendil ISBN: Sofia (2007) First published GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG MALKASTENSTRASSE 15, D DÜSSELDORF, GERMANY TELEFON +49 (0) , TELEFAX +49 (0) English texts edited by: MARK STEFANOVICH Drawings and Maps by: IVAN VAJSOV, MICHAIL GEORGIEV AND AUTHORS Photographs: KRASIMIR GEORGIEV AND AUTORS Graphic desing, layout and artistic supervisions: GEORGI IVANOV (pages I X; 1 41; ) AND IVAN VAJSOV (pages ) Cover graphic desing by: GEORGI IVANOV AND IVAN VAJSOV Cover photographs by: KRASIMIR GEORGIEV, GEOGRI IVANOV AND CHAIDO KOUKOULI-CHRYSSANTHAKI Copyright 2007 by GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG and THE AUTHORS ISBN: No part of this publication may by reproduced by any means, including photocopy, recording or other information storage retrieval system, without permission in writing from GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG and THE AUTHORS. The copyright to the illustrations are hold by the authors. Printed in Bulgaria at BULGED. Digital print. The technology of Indigo.

3 Gerda Henkel Stiftung THE STRUMA/STRYMON RIVER VALLEY IN PREHISTORY Proceedings of the International Symposium Strymon Praehistoricus Kjustendil Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) Serres Amphipolis (Greece) Edited by Henrieta Todorova, Mark Stefanovich, Georgi Ivanov Sofia 2007

4 Table of Contents Vorwort... vii Die paleoklimatische Entwicklung in VII I Jt. vor Chr. H. Todorova... 1 Abrupt Climate Forcing Observed at Early Neolithic Sites in South-East Europe and the Near East B. Weninger, E. Alram-Stern, E. Bauer, L. Clare, U. Danzeglocke, O. Jöris, C. Kubatzki, G. Rollefson, H. Todorova, T. van Andel... 7 Social Network Analysis of Neolithic Societies E. Claßen Promachon-Topolnica. A greek-bulgarian archaeological project Ch. Koukouli-Chryssanthaki, H. Todorova, I. Aslanis, I. Vajsov, M. Valla Promachon-Topolnica. A typology of painted decorations and its use as a chronological marker I. Vajsov Tierdarstellungen und Stierkult im Neolithikum Südosteuropas und Anatoliens F. Falkenstein Where Do Children Belong? Neolithic burials in western Bulgaria K. Băčvarov Нови сведения за ранния неолит в Северозападна България Г. Ганецовски Die Entstehung und Gliederung der neolithischen Kulturen auf dem Zentralbalkan: Fallbeispiel Gălăbnik J. Pavúk Tell Gălăbnik. Architecture and Site Planning A. Bakamska Крайници раннокерамично селище от басейна на река Струма С. Чохаджиев, А. Бакъмска Л. Нинов The Early Neolithic Site at Piperkov Čiflik, Near Kjustendil (Season 2004) V. Vandova Proto-Starčevo Culture and Early Neolithic in the Struma Valley M. Bogdanović La périodisation des sites préhistoriques dans la vallée de la Strouma moyenne L. Perničeva Das Frühchalkolithikum des Strymonbereichs S. Čochadžiev Some Observations on Zoomorphic Images from Western Bulgaria S. Terzijska Ignatova Prehistoric Settlements in the Province of Kjustendil V. Genadieva Recent Researches at the Neolithic Settlement of Dikili Tash, Eastern Macedonia, Greece: an Overview P. Darcque, H. Koukouli-Chryssanthaki, D. Malamidou, R. Treuil, Z. Tsirtsoni Neolithic Societies: Recent Evidence from Northern Greece M. Pappa In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

5 Linguistische Angaben über die Namen der Flüsse Axios, Strymon, Nestos I. Duridanov Prehistorical Sites in the Middle Struma River Valley Between the End of the VII th mill. BC and the Beginning of the I st mill. BC M. Grębska-Kulowa, I. Kulow Kryoneri: a Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Settlement in the Lower Strymon Valley D. Malamidou Absolute Chronology of the Neolithic and Eneolithic Cultures in the Valley of Struma J. Bojadžiev Decline of the Painted Pottery in Eastern Macedonia and North Aegean at the End of the Final Neolithic/Chalcolithic Period S. Papadopoulos On the Late Stages of the Krivodol-Sălcuţa Culture P. Georgieva The Ethno-Cultural Affiliation of the North Anatolian Early Bronze Age J. Yakar Dating the Donja Brnjica Culture Based on Metal Finds K. Luci A Late Bronze Age Cemetery in Faia Petra, East of the Middle Strymon Valley M. Valla The Late Bronze Age Necropolis in the Тown of Sandanski, Southwest Bulgaria S. Alexandrov, V. Petkov, G. Ivanov Krsto Pokrovnik Excavations at a Late Bronze Age Site in the Middle Struma River Valley, Southwest Bulgaria. Preliminary results 2004 season M. Stefanovich, I. Kulov Tradition and Innovation in the Bronze Age Pottery of the Thessaloniki Toumba. Food and drink consumption and tableware ceramics S. Andreou, K. Psaraki Bronzezeitliche Goldornate aus Süddeutschland und ihre donauländisch-balkanischen Beziehungen W. David The Beginning of the Iron Age in Macedonia D. Mitrevski Assiros Toumba. A brief history of the settlement K.A. Wardle, D. Wardle Troy VIIB2 Revisited. The date of the transition from Bronze to Iron Age in the Northern Aegean K.A. Wardle, M. Newton, P.I. Kuniholm Palaeobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria Tz. Popova, E. Marinova Промахон-Тополница. Компаративно изследване на дивите и домашни животни от сектор Тополница Н. Илиев, Н. Спасов Agriculture and Use of Space at Promachon/Topolnica. Preliminary observations on the archaeobotanical material S.M. Valamoti Palaeoecological Evidence of the Main Postglacial Vegetation and Climate Changes in Southwestern Bulgaria from the Neolithic to Modern Times E. Božilova, S. Tonkov The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

6 vi Участниците в конференцията пред Археологическия музей на Серес, 1 октомври 2004 г. Οι συμμετέχοντες στο συνέδριο μπροστά από το Αρχαιολογικό μουσείο στις Σέρρες, 1 Οκτωβρίου The participants of the conference in front of the Archaeological Museum of Serres, 1st of October Henrieta Todorova Bernhard Weninger Erich Claßen Chaido Koukouli-Chryssanthaki Ioanis Aslanis Ivan Vajsov Frank Falkanstein Krum Bačvarov Georges Ganetzovski Juraj Pavuk Aneta Bakamska Stefan Čochadžiev Veselina Vandova Liljana Perničeva Stoilka Terzijska Ignatova Veneta Genadieva Pascal Darcque René Treuil Zoï Tsirtsoni Maria Papa Malgorzata Grębska-Kulowa Ilija Kulow Dimitra Malamidou Javor Bojadžiev In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2 Stratis Papadopoulos Petya Georgieva Jak Yakar Kemjal Luci Magdalene Valla Stefan Alexandrov Georgi Ivanov Mark Stefanovich Stelios Andreou Wolfgang David Dragi Mitrevski Ken Wardle Diana Wardle Maryanne Newton P.I. Kuniholm Tzvetana Popova Nikolaj Spasov Elisaveta Božilova Spassimir Tonkov Sultana Maria Valamoti Irena Nasteva Petar Zidarov Biserka Gaydarska Valentin Debochichki

7 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova The archeobotanics of Southwestern Bulgaria is less investigated, than the Thracian plain. Here the development of the prehistoric cultures, and mainly on the valley of Struma/Strimon, has special importance for the prehistory of the Balkans. The Struma valley is one of the roads connecting Anatolia and Northern Aegean with Balkans. The investigated settlements existed from the Neolithic Period to the Late Bronze Age. Most of them are located along the valley of Struma and the feeders. The attempt was made to draw general conclusions from some sites Slatino, Vaksevo, Topolnica, Kamenska Čuka, Kovačevo, Bălgarčevo, Gălăbnik, Drenkovo-Ploshteko and compare together with the data, obtained from other research workers of the area. The hulled wheat is mainly cultivated (Triticum monococcum - einkorn, Triticum dicoccum - emmer). The wide spread of einkorn wheat is due to adaptation to different ecology environment. The emmer is presented in large amounts, followed by barley, mostly hulled (Hordeum vulgare var.vulgare), but naked occurred too H.vulgare var. nudum. Pulses are the next group of cultivated plants grown in the area, most abundant and numerous of them were lentils and bitter vetch. The finds from chick pea from Gălăbnik are particularly interesting. Similar ones were found in the Early Neolithic settlement Orlica near the town of Kirkovo, Eastern Rhodope Mountains, and in Kapitan Dimitrievo too. This plant is almost unknown from paleobotanical data from this period. Its present in these settlements as well as in Chalcolithic layers of the Yunacite tell demonstrates that it came together with the whole Anatolian complex of cultivated plants in the territory of Bulgaria. The Neolithic settlements from Southwestern Bulgaria are rich in archaeobotanical material. The presence of these species in the investigated settlements from the territory of Bulgaria is similar with the results from other settlements in the Balkans. Палеоетноботанични данни в района на Югозападна България Цветана Попова, Елена Маринова Югозападна България е един слабо изследван в палеоботанично отношение район. Тук развитието на праисторическите култури, главно по течението на р. Струма, е от особено значение за Балканската праистория, тъй като р. Струма е един от пътищата, свързващ Анатолия и Северна Егея с Балканите. Изследваните селища обхващат с отделни прекъсвания периода от ранния неолит до късната бронзова епоха. В по-голямата си част те са разположени по долината на р. Струма и по нейните притоци. Направен е опит да се обобщят резултатите от палеоботаническите изследвания от няколко обекта: Слатино, Ваксево, Тополница, Каменска чука, Ковачево, Българчево, Гълъбник, Дренково-Площеко както и да се сравнят с данните, получени от други изследователи на обекти от района. Анализът показа, че в района са били отглеждани предимно плевестите пшеници (Triticum monococcum еднозърнеста пшеница, Triticum dicoccum двузърнеста пшеница). Широкото разпространение на еднозърнестта пшеница се дължи на приспособимостта й към различните екологични условия. Двузърнесттата пшеница също е представена в големи количества, следва ечемикът, предимно плевест (Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare), но се е срещал и голозърнест H.vulgare var. nudum. Бобовите растения са втората група отглеждани земеделска култури. Основно са се отглеждали уровът и лещата. Интерес представляват находките от нахут от Гълъбник. Подобни са открити и в раннонеолитното селище Орлица, до гр. Кирково в Източните Родопи, и в Капитан-Димитриево (Тракия). Растението бе почти непознато досега по палеоботанични данни от този период. Присъствието му в неолитните селища доказва, че то е донесено заедно с целия анатолийски арсенал от културни растения на територията на страната в рамките на неолитизационните процеси. Неолитните селища от Югозападна България са богати на археоботанични материали. Присъствие на изброените видове е констатирано и в други неолитни селища от територията на България, което е в унисон с резултатите от палеоботаническите изследвания от останалата част на Балканския полуостров. The South-Western region of Bulgaria is one of the less studied with respect to the paleobotanic regions of Bulgaria compared with some other parts of the country. In the last years the archeological excavations in this area have increased in number. Most of the studied sites (settlements) are located alongside the main stream and the feeders of the river of Struma. The river of Struma is one of the most significant rivers in Bulgaria. For is length 290 km measured from its sources till the state frontier with Greece it stands 4 th in the country after the rivers of Iskar, Tundja and Maritza; and as for the size of its water catching ent of sq. The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

8 500 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Fig. 1. Map of the considered sites. 1 Gălăbnik 2 Kovačevo 3 Čavdar 4 Slatina 5 Vaxevo 6 Kapitan Dimitrievo 7 Rakitovo 8 Kremenik 9 Bălgarčevo 10 Drenkovo 11 Slatino 12 Topolnica 13 Kamenska čuka 14 Koprivlen 15 Arkadikos 16 Dikili Tash km. it stands second after the river of Maritza. The rivers of Struma and Mesta are included in the district falling under the influence of the Mediterranean a fact that is essential for the structure of the water balance. This region is distinguished for the highest rainfalls compared to the surrounding regions. The most often to be found in the region are the maroon forest soils and the most significant characteristics of the soil tegument here is the heavy erosion. The alluvium and delluvium soils alongside the river beds are shallow (ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982). In the period about 8000 ВР according to climatic reconstructions based on precipitation of sapropel in the Mediterranean lands (DAVIS et al 2003) presumably there has been an increase in humidity in South-Eastern Europe. The palynological data from Pirin Mts. point to warmer and humid conditions in the period about BP. In this time the temperate decidous trees reached higher altitudes than today. According to the palaeoecological investigations in Pirin Montains around 6000 BP a change of the seasonality of the climate took place, when summers became significant cooler and winters warmer (STEFANOVA/AMMAN 2003). The vegetation in the Struma valley westward of the town of Simitly, in the Tundja valley south of Belitza, Slavjanka and the East Rhodopes is described as one with superiority of the Mediterranean vegetable life. Characteristic species for the region are: Quecus coccifera, Pistacia sp., dendriform and red juniper, wild jasmine. A considerable place in the structure of the vegetation take the hairy oak tree In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

9 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 501 (Quercus), Quercus frainetto, mangy horn-beam (joke-elm), water horn-beam ostria. Many south kinds of vegetation are also represented as: the red juniper, Pistacia sp., the wild jassemine, the Coronilla emerus, the Artemisia campestre etc. (ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982 ) After L. Pernicheva (1999) the development of prehistoric cultures in south-western Bulgaria, and particularly along the Struma valley, is a key question in Balkan prehistory. The direct territorial connection of this region with the northern Aegeen coast, and from there with Anatolia, conditioned specific dynamics of development through all prehistoric periods. (PERNICHEVA 1999). After V. Nikolov today the Struma valley is considered the prime route for the Neolithization of the Balkan peninsula. (НИКОЛОВ 1999). The studied settlements comprise the period Early Neolith late Bronze Age and, in its major part they are located alongside the main stream and the feeders of the Struma river (Fig. 1). In the recent study an attempt has been made to summarize the results of the studied by the authors several sites (settlements) Kovačevo, Gălă bnik, Balgarčevo, Drenkovo-Ploshteko, Slatino, Vaxevo, Topolnica, Kamenska Čuka, as well as to compare the data with that of some other scholars who have studied sites in the region (Fig.1). Dating of the studied sites (settlements) Vaxevo The prehistoric settlement in the place Studena voda is located on the first non-inlet ledge of the left waterside of Eleshnitza river. The terrain represents vast, East slopping terrace of altitude. Differenciated are 3 basic strata, comprising 7 horizons (levels). The first stratum comprises the 1 st and 2 nd horizons of the Early Neolith, characterised by whitepainted ceramics (pottery). The second stratum comprises the 3 rd and the 4 th horizons belonging to the final period of the Early Neolith, characterised by brown painted ceramics as we as the 4 th of the Middle Neolith. The third stratum comprises 3 horizons (levels) one from the Late Eneolith, one from the Post Eneolith and one from the Early Bronze Age (ЧОХАДЖИЕВ 2001). Sites Data Autors Kovačevo early neolithic LICHARDUS 2000 Gălăbnik early neolithic ČOCHADJIEV 1998 Topolnica late neolithic TОДОРОВА/ВАЙСОВ1993 Vaxevo Balgarčevo Drenkovo- Poshteko final early neolithic final early neolithic late neolithic ČOCHADJIEV 2001 PERNICHEVA1995 GREBSKA-KULOVA, in press Slatino early eneolithic COCHADJIEV1986 Kamenska čuka late bronze age Tab.1. Dating of the studied sites. STEFANOVICH et al.1998 The charred vegetal remains are found in: granary of the 1 st construction horizon, in a pit, together with white-painted pottery. The contents is about 150 grams. The dominant quantity is of hulled barley (Hordeum vulgare var.vugare). In the mixture there have been found grains of: einkorn ( Triticum monococcum 51), emmer, (Triticum dicoccum 7 ), ryе (Secale cereale 5), Triticum aesivo/durum 1 (ПОПОВА 2001). The presence of the accompanying grains could be explained by the fact that they have been previously into the grain store and subsequently they have mixed with the barley. The studied grains are sized under the norm and fractured which leads us to think that the conditions in the region have not been suitable enough. Having in mind that the settlement is located in a mildly hilly district with infertile soil the only land suitable to sow has been alongside the river, it is obvious that those factors have influenced the degree of development of the crops. Kovačevo The settlement is located on one of the terraces of Pirinska Bistritza river at a distance of 20 km to the East from the outflow of Struma river. It is dated from the earliest phase of the European Neolith according to the explorers making the excavations (LICHARDUS 2000). The latest period is dated by means of 14 С: ВР., and by means of paleomagnetism in-between: BC. The analysis of the archeobotanic material done by Popova The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

10 % Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum T.aestivo/durum H.vulgare v.nudum H.vulgare v.vulgare Panicum milliaceum Lens culinaris Vicia ervilia Lathirus sativus Pisum stivum Cicer arietinum Linum usitatissimum Cornus mas Prunus sp. Pistacia terebinthus Vitis vinifera ssp. sylv. Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra Fig. 2. The Ubiquity of the cultivated and collected plants in the considered Neolithic sites. (1992) has shown a dominating presence of the einkorn Triticum monococcum, followed by emmer Triticum dicoccum, as well as presence of hulled and naked barley Hordeum vulgare var. vulgare; Hordeum vulgare var.nudum; millet Panicum muliaceum; Lathyrus sativa. The archeobotanic studies of Е. Маrinova during the later archeological campaigns but prove a dominant presence of emmer Triticum dicoccum. The presence of Lathyrus sativa is documented also in her papers (materials) as well as of the other 3 kinds of pulses Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum, Vicia ervilia. The recent studies of the site demonstrated influence of the Mediterranean vegetation most clearly manifested by the fruits of Pistacia terebinthus. Quite abundant in the settlement layers together with Cornus mas is the wild vine (Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris). All the last mentioned three species belong to the collected in the settlemen wilde plants. Another abundant fruit-stons in the archaeobotanical record are this of plums (Prunus sp.). Some of them have more rough surface and, supposedly pertain to Prunus spinosa, whereas some others with smooth rounded surface maybe pertain to Prunus cerasifera (MARINO- VA 2001). This show a wide use of the wild plant resources in the surrounding of the site. Gălăbnik The settlement is located in the South-Eastern part of the Radomir kettle and it has been found during a correction (rectification) of Blato river in the Gyuritza district. It has come into being on the left river side, at a 420 m altitude. It is dated from the Early Neolith. The 1 st residential level (horizon) is dated cal. BC. (BOJADZIEV 2000). The results have shown a domination of the emmer in all the three studied horizons, where the second place is taken by the einkorn. Barley is less as quantity. From the leguminous plants lentils (Lens culinaris), pea (Pisum sativum), bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia ) and chick-peas (Cicer arietinum) are found. The chick-peas is found in a vessel, dated from the Early Neolith as appointed by Е. Маrinova (MA- RINOVA et al. 2002). A similar finding has been discovered also in the Early Neolith settlement Orlitza, near the town of Kirkovo, East Rhodopes, (POPOVA, non-published) as well as also in the village of Kapitan Dimitrievo (МАRINOVA 2001). The chick pea is a Mediterranean plant of which our country is its Nordest frontier of spreading. Its presence in those settlements as also in the Chalcolith strata of the tell Junatzite comes to prove that it has come together with the whole Anatolian complex of cultivated plants in the territory of the country. Balgarčevo The settlement is located to the north of the Kresna gorge and it is dated from the Early Neolith. It comprises two construction horizons. The settlement is located on a middle river ter- In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

11 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria % 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Populus Betula Pinus Juniperus Crataegus Cornus mas Fraxinus Carpinus Buxus Fagus Castanea Alnus Rosaceae Acer Pinaceae Quercus Fig. 3. Distribution of the mineralized wood of the Neolithic in Gălăbnik (after GROZEVA, not published). race on the right bank of the Struma near 10 km north-west of Blagoevgrad. The archeobotanical study reveals availability of Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum. In one of the examined dwellings storage of hulled wheats has been found which was not in treshed state. The grains of the found cereals are bigger than average size which is evidence of favorable conditions of development. As for the leguminous the biggest quantity found in this dwelling is of peas. Together with it in the samples are present Lens culinaris and Vicia ervilia. The location of the site close to the Struma-river has been favorable for growing leguminous crops. The weed flora is presented by Gallium sp., Verbena officinalis, Ajuga chamaepitys. The last two sorts are indicators of chalky soils. Drenkovo-Ploshteko The settlement is located in proximity of the town of Blagoevgrad. From topographic point of view its location is of importance both for the connections North-South and East-West in the valey of the Struma river. The late-neolith levels have been studied archeobotanically. The material originates from the floor areas of two dwellings. There have been found chaff from the sort of Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum and, in great quantities, Lathyrus sativus. Interesting finding is the millet in being (Panicum milliaceum), which appears to be a comparatively rare finding in the Neolith Age in our lands. Slatino The settlement is located at the foot of Western Rila mountain, at about 380 m altitude, in the neighbourhood of the outflow of the Struma river. Here Early Chalcolithic period is dated (ČOHADZIEV 1986), and it comprises 5 building horizons. The data achieved by С14 show: cal.вс. The archeobotanical materials substantiate presence of: Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum, as well as of hulled and naked barley, bitter vetch, lentil. (POPOVA 1995). The data of Marinova show a dominant participation of emmer, as well as the presence of various leguminous plants. In storages of Triticum dicoccum different kinds of weeds have been found: Bromus sp, Asperula arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Centaurea sp. Most of those weed sorts speak for the availability of winter sowings (MARINOVA et al. 2002). In the material there is also another kind of storages of seeds of Chenopodium sp. That could be considered as likely food in periods of crisis. The seeds of The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

12 504 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Alnus sp. cf. Carpinus Cornus sp. Corylus avellana Fraxinus Pinus nigra/sylvestris Pomoideae Prunus sp. Rosaceae Quercus f.c. Ulmus sp. Kovacevo I (Early Neolithic) Indet. Fig. 4. Charred wood from the Neolithic site Kovačevo. Chenopodium sp. are abounding in proteins and fats so gruels could be made from some of the sorts (СТОЯНОВ/КИТАНOВ 1960). Kamenska Čuka This site is located nearby the town of Blagoevgrad. The site consists of a settlement and a mound occupying a commanding height (elevation 404 m above sea levels). Geologically, the basin is composed of low- lying alluvium surrounded by colluvial slopes and older metamorphic hills (STEFANOVICH/BANKOFF 1999). The site is dated Late Bronze Age. The achreobotanical results show the presence of a number of cereals and legumes, where in the first place has been the einkorn. Besides it in the sown fields also naked barley, millet, lentil, bitter vetch have been sown (POPOVA 1998). Discussion The results of the studied settlements are generalized and compared with other archeobotanical materials of the same period and of adjoining regions in Table 2. The ubiquity of finding the sorts of cultural and wild growing plants is presented in Fig. 2. There it could be seen that in all of the studied by us sites the hulled wheat prevail. Comparatively well are presented the both species of barley as well. It makes impression that the barley or the einkorn wheat prevail in the settlements with higher altitude or by infavorable soil conditions as Kremenik (CAKALOVA /SARBINSKA 1986), Vaxevo, Rakitovo (ЧАКАЛОВА/БОЖИЛОВА 2002), Kapitan Dimitrievo (MAРИНОВА 1999). The naked wheats (Triticum aestivum/durum s.l.) appear sporadically, which comes to show that during this period they still haven t succeeded to take over. The ubiquity of leguminous crops and their variety (5 species) is of special interest. In the most of the settlements they are found in great quantities as storages. The availance of this diversity is in connection with evasion of any risks for the crops, as some have greater power of endurance in drought and poor soils (Lathyrus sativus и Vicia ervilia), when the pea needs higher humidity. On that basis a conclusion could be drawn that they have had a big importance as sources of proteins for the Neolithic man. Most of the settlements are located in the by-mountain regions, near to water sources. The findings of chik pea among the legumen are of a special interest, as it has been known to be found till recently only in the Southern parts In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

13 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 505 Quercus Pinus silvestris Abies Juniperus Ulmus Fraxinus A Rosa sp. B Pinus sylvestris Pinaceae Abies Juniperus Quercus Corylus Carpinus Fagus Fraxinus Prunus Acer Populus Cr.monogina Pomoideae Cornus mas Alnus Fig. 5. Charred wood in the Late Bronze Age Kamenska čuka (A) and Koprivlen (B). of the Balkan peninsula, namely Dimini and Otzaki (KROLL 1981). Тhis kind of legume comes to our lands in the Near Eastern crop assеmblage, still it does not succeed to take an equal place together with the other legumen. In the diet of neolithic man particular role have played also the wild plants. In the studied settlements are often to be met a number of remains of fruits: of Cornus mas, Sambucus nigra, Vitis sylvestris, Rubus sp., Prunus sp. and partly Pistacia terebinthus which have been objects of collection. The situation is different with the seeds of wild grasses and legumes that are found in appreciable numbers in some Early Neolithic sites. Various wild plants could have been collected for human consumption. A good example in that respect is the available supply of Chenopodium sp. that appears in the Eneolithic Slatino. The mere presence of manz others in archaeological deposits is not yet proof of their The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

14 506 Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova Cultivated plants Wild plants Sites Data Triticum monococcum Triticum dicoccum T.aestivo/durum H.vulgare v.nudum H.vulgare v.vulgare Panicum milliaceum Lens culinaris Vicia ervilia Lathirus sativus Pisum stivum Cicer arietinum Linum usitatissimum Cornus mas Prunus sp. Pistacia terebinthus Vitis vinifera ssp. sylv. Rubus sp. Sambucus nigra 1. Gălăbnik early neolith xxx xxx x x x x x x 2. Kovačevo early neolith xx xxx x x x x x x x xx x x x x x 3. Čavdar early neolith x x x x x 4. Slatina early neolith xx xx x x x x xx x x x xx x 5. Vaxevo early neolith x x xxx 6. Kap. Dimitrievo early neolith xxx x x x x x x xxx x x x xx x x x xx x 7. Rakitovo early neolith x x x xxx x x 8. Kremenik early/midle neolith xx xx x x x 9. Balgarčevo final early neolith x xx x x x xxx 10. Drenkovo late neolith xxx x x x x xxx x x x 11. Slatino early eneolithic x x x x x x 12. Kamenska čuka late bronze age xxx x xx x x x x x 13. Koprivlen late bronze age x x x x x Tab. 2. Cultivated and collected plants in the considered sites (with Bold own studies in Struma valley). use as such. The may have been brought to the settlement unintentionally (VAN ZEIST 1988). The findings of the einkorn are numerous in the territory of Bulgaria.(HOPF 1973; REN- FREW 1973, POPOVA 1995). On the Balkan peninsula it presents in the Neolith in the territory of Greece Franchti, Achileon, Sitagri ІІ (HANSEN 1991; VAN ZEIST 1980; KROLL 1981); Jugoslavia Starčevo, Оbre І; Аnzabegovo І ІІ (RENFREW 1979). The evidence of early einkorn cultivation in Cajönü, SE Turkey ( BP.) (VAN ZEIST 1972; 1988) prove the close contacts between Anatolia, the Greek territories and the Balkans as a whole, where einkorn was of great importance especially during the early stages of Neolithic period. The wide areal of the emmer could be explained with its ability to give crops in different ecological conditions. By relatively not vast lands the sowings have decisive importance in keeping the crops. Its ears do not fall apart, its stems are extremely robust and for that reason they are used for roofs and to strengthen walls. It is drought-resistant and could be cultivated in different soils on account of its developed root system. The emmer wheat grains recovered from the basal levels of Cayönü. Its findings are numerous. The barley in its both varieties appears in the Neolith but it takes the second place with the exception for the settlements of Vaxevo and Rakitovo. It is obvious that the different kinds of the barley plant have entered through Asia Minor and Greece to the territory of Bulgaria. New data from Northeren Greece (VALAMOTI 2004) from the neolithic levels of Dikili Tash and Arkadikos show concurrent type of data with those of Sredna and Gorna Struma. In these settlements prevailance of hulled wheat and a rich spectrum of legumen has been also established. The predominant leguminous crops are the drought-resistant Lathyrus sativus and Vicia ervilia. The spectrum of the wild-growing fruits is presented by Malus/Pyrus/Sorbus, most likely preserved as dried fruits. As the here presented data shows the archeobotanically studied sites in the valey of the Struma river belong mainly to the Neolithic period. That is connected predominantly with the significance of the region in clarifying the problems of the Neolithisation in our lands. From this region only one settlement of the Eneolithic period and one of the Bronze Age have been studied archaeobotanically untill now. It comes to show that the further work in the region should be directed also in the study In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

15 Palaeoethnobotanical Data in South-Western Region of Bulgaria 507 of those later periods. This would contribute to following the overall picture of the ancient agriculture in the process of its development in the pre-history in the valey of the Struma river. Mineralized, nonchared and charred wood The presence of wood in the archeological sites usually is connected with its usage in different activities: construction, instruments of production, fuel, etc. Almost always it has been collected in the vicinity, thanks to which the wood provides precise information about the flora in the studied region. Such studies are extremely important in the low-lying lands of our country, in particular the valey of the Struma river, where there are none preserved sediments suitable for polen analysis. The settlement Topolnitza is dated Early Neolith. The not-charred wood is from the ІІ horizon of dwelling no. 2. It is highly mineralized. After the run analysis the presence of oak and wood of Rosaceae family has been proved. 3 fragments of conifer trees, Gymnospermae and 2 of Pinus sp. have been determined. The material contained in addition a wooden awl, which has been done by oak wood and a wooden nail, originating of wood representing a kind of Rosaceae. The noncharred wood in the Gălăbnik (Fig. 3.) settlement has been studied by Groseva. 21 species of wood have been found, total 126 fragments. The most numerous are the oak fragments 26, followed by the Rosaceae 14 and those of the ashl-tree 15 and the pine trees 13. It has been determined that the ashl-tree has been used for the longitudinal beams, and the wood of the conifer trees, the sycamore and the Rosaceae for objects of the evryday life. It is confirmed by the finding in Topolnitza, where the nail is also done from Rosaceae wood. In the neolithic settlement of Kovačevo (Fig. 4), together with the oak tree (Quercus) that prevails, widely spread is the cornel-tree (Cornus mas) as well. A possible explanation of its large scale presence but could be its usage as construction material. The cornel tree has robust and resilient wood which is extremely suitable for weaving the walls of dwellings. The riverside forests are presented by Alnus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, and the sub-mediterranean flora by Pinus nigra. Oak wood has been found also in Kamenska čuka (Fig. 5.). In a smaller quantity fragments of: Abies sp., Juniperus sp. Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Ulmus sp., Fraxinus sp. Rosa sp. have been found. It is possible that they have been collected in a more remote places as well as in the higher place of the mountains (POPOVA 1988). Oak wood has been found also in the village of Vaxevo The oak is widespead kind of wood and its role in the archeological context could be explained with some of its qualities. The oak wood is very robust, the oak could be found in easy of access places and used for fuel it comes fast to high temperature, which is an advantage for households Conclusions The neolithic settlements in South-Western Bulgaria are rich in archaeobotanical material. The wide spread of Triticum monococcum is based on its ability aclimate to different ecological circumstances. Due to its well developed root system Triticum monococcum grows well on infertile mountain soil,as well as in very damp soils. In investigated settlements Triticum dicoccum is represented by a large quantity. Barley takes second place among the cereals in the studied samples. Additional to the cereals wide spectrum of pulses was used. We conclude that the represantation of this species in investigated settlements from territory of Bulgaria is comparable to results from other settlements in the Balkan peninsula. The wood presented in the settlement layers witnesses of the oak forests prevalance and of the use made of diverse ecological niches in the near proximity. In the riverside valleys the woods collected have been of elm-tree (Ulmus), alder-tree (Alnus glutinosa/incana), ashl-tree and plums. The data of use of black pine-tree (Pinus) show that it has been even more widely spread in the past as nowadays. References ГЪЛЪБОВ 1982 Ж. Гълъбов. География на България. Cофия, МАРИНОВА 1999 Е. Маринова. Археоботанично изследване на The Struma/Strymon River Valley in Prehistory

16 508 ранно и къснонеолитни материали. In: В. Николов (ed.). Тел Капитан Димитриево. Разкопки (София Пещера 1999), НИКОЛОВ 1999 B. Николов. Варианти на преход от ранния към късния неолит в Тракия и долината на р. Струма. Старини 9, 1999, 5 16 ПОПОВА 2001 Ц. Попова. Изследване на археоботаничен материал. In: C. Чохаджиев (ed.). Ваксево праисторически селища (Велико Търново 2001). ТОДОРОВА/ВАЙСОВ 1993 Х. Тодорова, И. Вайсов. Новокаменната епоха в България (София 1993). СТОЯНОВ/КИТАНОВ 1960 Н. Стоянов, Б. Китанов. Диви полезни растения в България (София, БАН 1960). ЧАКАЛОВА/БОЖИЛОВА 2002 E. Чакалова, Е. Божилова. Палеоекологични и палеоетноботанични материали от селищната могила до град Ракитово. In: A. Радунчева (ed.). Неолитно селище до град Ракитово. Разкопки и проучвания ХХІХ (София 2002), ЧОХАДЖИЕВ 2001 C. Чохаджиев. Ваксево праисторически селища (Велико Търново 2001). BOJADZIEV 2000 J. Bojadziev. Entwicklung der fruhneolithishen bemalten Keramik in Bulgarien. In: Karanovo, band III (Wien 2000), CAKALOVA/SARBINSKA 1986 E. Cakalova, E. Sarbinska. Pflanzenreste aus der neolithischen Siedlung Kremenik bei Slatino. Bez. Kjustendil. Studia Praehistorica 8, ČOHADZIEV 1986 S. Čohadziev. Frühneolithische Keramik aus der prähistorischen Siedlung bei Slatino Bez.Kjustendil. Studia Praehistorica 8, DAVIS et al B. Davis, S. Brewer, A. Stevenson, J. Guiot, Data Contributors. The temperature of Europe during the Holocene reconstructed from pollen data. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 2003, HANSEN 1991 J.M. Hansen. The Palaeoethnobotany of Franchthi Cave, Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece. Fascicle 7 (Bloomington Indianapolis 1991). HOPF 1973 M. Hopf. Fruhe Kulturpflanzen aus Bulgarien Jahrbuch des RGZM 20, 3, 1973, KROLL 1981 H. Kroll. Thessalishe Kulturpflanzen. Zetrscr. Archäeol. 15, 1981, LICHARDUS 2000 M. Lichardus. Mission archeologique de la vellee du Strimon. Fouilles neolithiques Franco-Bulgares de Kovačevo. Rapp. 14. Campagne de 1999, MARINOVA 2001 E. Marinova. Vergleichende palaeoethnobotanische Untersuchung zur Vegetationsgeschichte und zur Entwicklung der prähistorischen Landnutzung in Bulgarien. (Dissertation, Bonn University 2001). Tzvetana Popova, Elena Marinova MARINOVA et al E. Marinova, E. Tchakalova, D. Stoyanova, S. Grozeva, E. Dočeva. Ergebnisse archäobotanischer Untersuchungen aus dem Neolithikum und Chalcolithikum in Südwestbulgarien. Archaeologia Bulgarica IV 3, 2002, PERNICHEVA 1995 L. Pernicheva. Prehistoric cultures in the Middle Struma valley: Neolithic and Eneolithic. In: D. Bailey et al. (eds.). Prehistory of Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology 22, I (Madison/Wiskonsin 1995), POPOVA 1992 Tz. Popova. Analyse carpologique. In: J.-P. Demoule, M. Lichardus-Itten (eds.). Kovačevo. Fouilles néolithiques franco-bulgares dans la valee du Strymon. Rapport annuel mimeogrphies, Universite de Paris I, vol. 8, 1992, POPOVA 1995 Tz. Popova. Plant remains from Bulgarian Prehistory ( B.P.). In: D. Bailey et al. (eds.). Prehistory of Bulgaria. Monographs in World Archaeology 22, I (Madison/Wiskonsin 1995), POPOVA 1998 Tz. Popova. Etude carpologique et anthracologique de tell Kajmenska Cuka (Blagoevgrad). Bronze final. In: The Thracian World at the crossroad of civilisation II (Bucharest 1998), RENFREW 1973 J. Renfrew. Palaeoethobotany (London 1973). RENFREW 1979 J. Renfrew. The first farmers in South East Europe. Archaeophisika 8, 1973, STEFANOVA/AMMANN 2003 I. Stefanova, B. Ammann. Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation belts in the Pirin Mountains (southwestern Bulgaria). The Holocene 13, 1, 2003, STEFANOVICH/BANKOFF 1998 M. Stefanovich, A. Bankoff. Kamenska Čuka Late Bronze Age site in Southwest Bulgaria. In: M. Stefanovich et al. (eds.). In the steps of James Harvey Gaul I (Sofia 1998), VALAMOTI 2004 M. Valamoti. Plants and People in Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Northern Greece. An archaeobotanical investigation. BAR Int. Series. 1258, VAN ZEIST 1972 W. van Zeist. Palaeobotanical results of the 1970 seson at Cayönü, Turkey. Helinium 7, 1972, 3 19 VAN ZEIST 1980 W. van Zeist. Apercu sur la diffusion des vegetaux cultivée dans le region Mediterranean. Natur. Monspelensia 1980, VAN ZEIST 1988 W. van Zeist. Some aspects of early neolithic plant husbandry in the Near East. Anatolica XV, 1988, In the Steps of James Harvey Gaul, volume 2

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