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2 This material draws on information published by Airservices and AOPA Australia. We acknowledge their work in this publication. 1. What is ADS-B? How does ADS-B work? Why is New Zealand moving to ADS-B? What other surveillance systems will be used alongside ADS-B? When will I need to start using ADS-B-OUT? What are the benefits of ADS-B OUT to me as an owner/operator? What about ADS-B IN? Which ADS-B system will be used in New Zealand? What about the UAT system? What will be the coverage of ADS-B in New Zealand? ADS-B OUT Equipment Requirements Do I need to equip my aircraft with ADS-B OUT? I never fly in controlled airspace, do I need to equip? If I want to go into controlled airspace but my aircraft isn t equipped, what will I need to do? What equipment will I need? What about ADS-B OUT transmitters? What about low power ADS-B transponders (LPAT)? What about SBAS? I ve already got a Mode S transponder. Can I use that for ADS-B OUT? Can I upgrade my Mode A/C transponder for ADS-B OUT? Can I get weather updates through ADS-B? What about the cheaper ADS-B systems available overseas? What about the all-in-one ADS-B boxes? What about performance based navigation (PBN) requirements? I ve got a TSO-C129 GNSS receiver. Can I use that for ADS-B OUT?

3 2.15 Will ADS-B equipment take away the requirement for us to carry Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)? Will ADS-B equipment replace Spidertracks or similar flight tracking devices? ADS-B OUT Installation Requirements Can any licensed aviation maintenance engineer install my ADS-B OUT equipment? How do I know my ADS-B OUT installation is working properly? Do I need an approval to use ADS-B OUT? Operational Requirements What do I need to know to operate with ADS-B OUT? What should I do if my equipment fails in-flight? Will I need a rating to fly with ADS-B OUT? ADS-B Transition Will there be a bulk buy of ADS-B as there was for the 1990s changeover to Mode A/C? If I equip now, what standards do I have to meet? Can the proposed 2021 ADS-B mandate be delayed to allow more time for equipage? The 2021 proposed mandate point is right in the middle of a busy summer flying season. Why can t the mandate be delayed to the following winter? If the current SSR system is being discontinued after 2021, what surveillance coverage will be provided to aircraft in uncontrolled airspace? An aircraft in uncontrolled airspace can receive radar assistance today in the event of an emergency. How will this be provided after discontinuation of the SSR system if the aircraft does not have ADS-B equipment on board? Can I make other suggestions for the FSIWG to consider? Where can I get more information?

4 Glossary ACAS ADS-B ADS-B OUT and ADS-B- IN ADS-B system AML STC ATC ATM CAA CAR FIR FIS Flight Level 245 (FL 245) FMS FSIWG GA VFR GNSS GPS Airborne Collision Avoidance System Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast ADS-B OUT refers to information being broadcast out by the aircraft s transponder. ADS-B IN refers to information received by the transponder. A GNSS position source and a compatible Mode S extender squitter 1090Mhz ADS-B OUT transponder. Approved Model List Supplemental type certificate, which allows a single STC to address several different type certificates. It provides a more efficient process compared to multiple approvals of, for example, installations that are largely similar or identical for several different aircraft models. Air Traffic Control Air Traffic Management Civil Aviation Authority Civil Aviation Rule Flight Information Region Flight Information Service Flight Level 245 (24,500 feet) is the boundary between upper and lower airspace in the New Zealand domestic FIR. Flight Management System Future Surveillance Implementation Working Group General Aviation aircraft that operate under Visual Flight Rules Global Navigation Satellite System, a general term referring to a navigation satellite system including the US GPS network, the Chinese BeiDou, Russian GLONASS and European Galileo systems. Global Positioning System - one type of GNSS, owned and operated by the US Government. GPS is the only GNSS currently providing coverage to New Zealand. 4

5 IFR MLAT Mode A/C transponder Mode S transponder NSS OEM PBN PSR RAIM SBAS SSR TIS TSO UAT VOR WAAS Instrument Flight Rules Multilateration: is a ground-based surveillance system. A network of ground stations interrogate and receive replies from aircraft SSR transponders. Mode A/C refers to transponders currently mandated in parts of New Zealand airspace. Mode A provides an aircraft identity code; Mode C provides altitude in 100 ft increments. Mode S(elect) transponders are the next generation on from Mode A/C. Mode S provides a much larger number of identification codes, altitude in 25 ft increments, and a range of Downlink Airborne Parameters (DAPs) depending on the aircraft avionics and surveillance system characteristics. New Southern Sky Original Equipment Manufacturer Performance based navigation Primary surveillance radar. PSR is a non-co-operative surveillance system: it does not rely on information from the aircraft. Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring. RAIM is a technology developed to assess the integrity of global positioning system (GPS) signals in a GPS receiver system. It is of special importance in safety-critical GPS applications, such as in aviation or marine navigation. Satellite-based augmentation system. SBAS measures small variations in the GPS signals and provides regular corrections to aircraft receivers within the specific geographic service areas covered by the system s ground stations. New Zealand is not currently covered by an SBAS service area. Secondary surveillance radar, SSR is a co-operative surveillance system, meaning that it relies on a response from an aircraft transponder. Traffic Information Service Technical Service Order, issued by the FAA and provides the performance parameters for equipment certification. Universal Access Transceiver VHF Omni Directional Radio Range Wide area augmentation system see SBAS. 5

6 ADS-B is a GNSS dependent surveillance system. The aircraft receives data from navigation satellites via a GNSS receiver and then broadcasts information, up to twice a second, on its identification, position, altitude, speed, and intention. The broadcast system is the ADS-B transponder. The data received by ground stations are then transmitted to the air traffic management (ATM) system for display to air traffic controllers who use it to maintain aircraft separation in controlled airspace. This is different to the existing system, in which the aircraft is interegated for position information by radar. Our current primary and secondary surveillance radar systems will reach the end of their operational life in Replacing the full radar system would be expensive in terms of its purchase and operating costs. It is also aging technology that does not make the most 6

7 of the significant improvements offered by global navigation satellite system (GNSS) systems. ADS-B has a number of benefits. It is more technologically advanced than the current surveillance system, providing more accurate data more often. This means that Air Traffic Controllers have a more complete picture of an aircraft s whereabouts. ADS-B also provides better surveillance coverage. ADS-B OUT means that operators have the option of using ADS-B IN, a system that allows pilots to use ADS-B data from other aircraft to see traffic, and help with situational awareness. ADS-B is a satellite-dependent system. This means that if there s an equipment failure on board an aircraft, or if there is a GNSS system outage, ADS-B will not function. During the transition, the existing primary and secondary radar system will be available to provide a safety net through the transition to ADS-B. Proposed traffic recovery and contingency surveillance after 2021 The New Southern Sky programme provided evidence to show that New Zealand would require a non-gnss dependent back-up to ADS-B. This is to mitigate the risk of loss of the whole surveillance system in the event of loss of the GNSS signal, or aircraft equipment failure. There are two parts to this: Recovery: a system that will enable every airborne aircraft to land safely; and Contingency: a system that will provide limited surveillance coverage during a longer-term outage. Airways New Zealand is considering the best way to provide contingency surveillance to cover the busiest parts of New Zealand airspace to make sure that, in the event of a GNSS system outage, we are able to keep the air routes between Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch open, albeit at a reduced level of service. Safety will dictate how many aircraft can be managed at any one time. Whilst the contingency system will be continuously operating so it can be used when needed, it won t be the primary source of surveillance data. The proposed level of service for the contingency system is approximately half of the SSR existing capacity, so it will not be able to be used for surveillance instead of ADS-B. 7

8 ADS-B OUT refers to information being broadcast out by the aircraft s transponder. New Southern Sky proposes the following dates: By 31 December 2018: all aircraft flying in controlled airspace above flight level (FL) 245 will have to be ADS-B OUT equipped and have the system operating; and By 31 December 2021: all aircraft flying in all controlled airspace will have to be ADS-B OUT equipped and have the system operating. A discussion document regarding the proposed 2021 mandate will be provided for industry feedback in ADS-B provides better surveillance coverage and more accurate data, which improves safety and operating efficiency. The main benefits of ADS-B OUT for the owner/operator is that: You ll be visible to the new surveillance system for air traffic control purposes within controlled airspace. The system is more accurate and safer than the current SSR system. Outside controlled airspace, you ll be visible to ATC over a much greater area in the New Zealand FIR because the coverage of ADS-B is much greater. Should an aircraft have an emergency, ADS-B coverage will provide precise information on the aircraft s position, potentially to a much lower altitude and with 45 percent more coverage than currently possible with secondary radar. ADS-B IN allows aircraft to receive information from other aircraft that are ADS-B OUT equipped. ADS-B IN systems provide aircraft with the ability to see and receive information from other ADS-B OUT equipped aircraft in range. ADS-B transponders that include a display may be able to show other ADS-B OUT equipped aircraft as traffic in the area, depending on the transponder model. There are no plans to require ADS-B IN within the New Zealand Domestic Flight Information Region. However, ADS-B IN can be a very useful tool for traffic awareness. 8

9 Note, however, that ADS-B IN will not be replacing airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS). If your aircraft is subject to ACAS requirements, that won t change. There are no plans to allow ADS-B IN to be used for self-separation in controlled airspace in New Zealand, so it s not a replacement for ATC. Even though there is no proposal to mandate ADS-B IN in for New Zealand airspace users, equipping with ADS-B IN has the benefit of allowing you to see other aircraft who are equipped with ADS-B OUT, so you may want to consider it. Civil Aviation Rule Part requirements for you to use seeand-avoid will also remain and you need to be aware of those if you re considering introducing ADS-B IN into your cockpit. Not all aircraft around you will necessarily be ADS-B equipped, especially Always maintain situational awareness if you re flying outside controlled airspace, so ADS-B IN will provide a useful but not necessarily complete picture of traffic in the area. However, ADS-B IN only works well if the ADS-B OUT transmits robust information. This is why it is so important that your ADS-B system has been tested and is transmitting compliant data see Questions 2.4 and 3.2 for more information. New Zealand will implement the 1090 MHz extended squitter (ES) ADS-B surveillance system. No other system is proposed to be approved for use in this country. Squitter refers to the way data is transmitted by a Mode S transponder. Extended squitter refers to the extra data required to transmit the information required for ADS-B. The United States has implemented two systems the 1090 MHz ES system and the Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) system, which operates on 978 MHz. New Zealand will not be implementing the UAT system. UAT requires a dedicated ground infrastructure that is not compatible with the 1090 MHz system. The cost of implementing two systems would be prohibitive. In addition, the frequency used by UAT conflicts with New Zealand s mobile phone bandwidth. UAT is not compatible with the extended squitter system. The proposed regulations for ADS-B will prohibit UAT. 9

10 Be wary if you are buying an aircraft or any transponders from the US. They may be advertised as ADS-B capable; however if the ADS-B system fitted is UAT, you will not be able to use it in New Zealand. Buy once, buy right! How to identify a UAT transponder: - Check the TSO: UAT equipment will more than likely have a TSO C154c - Check the frequency: UAT is 978MHz, not 1090MHz (although dual 1090 MHz ES and 978 MHz transponders are available) - Check the application: in the United States, UAT is used below 18,000 feet Dual band UAT Some ADS-B transponders can provide data for UAT and 1090 ES systems. Anyone with a dual band transponder will need to be able to disable the UAT function if they want to use it in New Zealand. Check with your avionics supplier before you buy. ADS-B will provide 45 percent greater surveillance coverage compared to the current system. The following diagrams show the coverage of ADS-B at 500ft, 1000ft, 2,000ft, 3000ft, 5000ft and 7000ft. ADS-B Coverage at 500ft ADS-B Coverage at 1000ft 10

11 ADS-B Coverage at 2000ft ADS-B Coverage at 3000ft ADS-B Coverage at 5000ft ADS-B coverage at 7000ft 11

12 How does this compare to current coverage? Current primary radar Current secondary radar Current WAM coverage area 12

13 Under the ADS-B proposal, if you want to fly in controlled airspace above FL 245 after 31 December 2018, you will need to have operational ADS-B equipment. New Southern Sky also proposes that if you want to fly in controlled airspace after 31 December 2021, you will also need to be ADS-B OUT equipped. For information on the policy and rule development for this proposal, refer to the NSS and CAA websites and The short answer is no. The proposed rule changes will only apply to controlled airspace. However, there are benefits to equipping that you should think about: visibility to other aircraft who have ADS-B IN visibility to ATC, especially if you get into trouble the option to enter controlled airspace without needing to seek permission from the controllers improved resale value of your aircraft. ADS-B: like brake lights on a car others can see you and know what you re doing Civil Aviation Rule allows Air Traffic Control to authorise an aircraft to operate in transponder-mandatory airspace without a transponder. There is no proposal to remove an ATC s discretion to do this. Bear in mind that the controller does not have to give permission entry into controlled airspace will be at the controller s discretion. In the case of ADS-B, CAA is developing and will consult of advice about how often ATC may allow entry by aircraft that do not have ADS-B. As a rule of thumb, if you fly regularly in controlled airspace, for example for refuelling, you will need to equip your aircraft. 13

14 In emergencies, ATC will manage the aircraft as they do now, chosing the best option for the situation regardless of whether the aircraft is ADS-B equipped or not. The Civil Aviation Rules will set out the performance requirements for ADS-B transponders, and the GNSS units that provide the information to the transponder. If you are currently considering upgrading your avionics to fly in ADS-B mandatory airspace, you should equip to the latest versions of the following TSOs to ensure that you meet the future rule requirements: TSO-C145 or TSO-C146 or TSO-C196 GNSS receiver TSO-C166 transponder (Mode S ES, 1090 Mhz) It s important that your receiver and transponder are tested and certified as a compatible system rather than individual pieces of equipment. Not all ADS-B transponders and GNSS receivers work well together For more information on compatible units, avionics requirements, and certification processes, contact the CAA via or Some manufacturers are developing extremely lightweight devices that transmit ADS-B OUT only; that is, the data they transmit does not include Mode A, C, or S information. These transmitters (as opposed to transponders) will not be suitable for use in an ADS-B surveillance environment because they are not compatible with the co-operative surveillance systems that will comprise the recovery and contingency networks. However, consideration is being given to the feasibility of different types of equipment see question 2.6. The CAA is investigating whether other types of ADS-B equipment, such as low power ADS-B transceivers and uncertified GNSS position source information, can be safely integrated into an ADS-B surveillance environment. These considerations will be tested with the Future Surveillance Implementation Working Group and will be included for comment in the policy discussion document when it is released. 14

15 If you have any questions about the LPAT considerations, please contact Jessica Henderson, CAA Senior Policy Advisor, at New Zealand doesn t have satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) coverage. There have been instances in New Zealand of GNSS receivers picking up the Japanese MSAS SBASand since New Zealand doesn t have SBAS coverage the corrections applied in the Japanese SBAS system don t work here. When a GNSS receiver picks up SBAS it may stop providing navigation capability. Some models of GNSS receiver allow for SBAS to be turned off and this prevents the problem described above, and some are now aware of their location and can ignore invald SBAS corrections. We suggest that you check your OEM for further guidance on how to resolve this problem. You can also get advice from the CAA via or You ll need to check. Not all Mode S transponders are ADS-B OUT capable. You need a Mode S transponder that is capable of extended squitter (ES). Some Mode S transponders can be upgraded to enable extended squitter functionality. Check with your OEM and avionics supplier and/or the CAA avionics team to see if this applies to your Mode S transponder. If you are upgrading your Mode A/C transponder, we strongly suggest you buy an ES capable Mode S transponder, even if you don t currently fly in controlled airspace. You can buy a transponder first with a view to adding a GNSS position source later; however, make sure that the transponder and the GNSS receiver are compatible). No. Mode A/C transponders cannot be upgraded to transmit ADS-B. If you are replacing your Mode A/C transponder, we strongly suggest that you install a Mode S transponder that is either ADS-B OUT capable (i.e. ES), or can be made so with a software upgrade and integration with a suitable and compatible GNSS receiver. Note that not all Mode S transponders can be used for ADS-B OUT. If you have any upgrading questions, you can discuss this with your avionics supplier, or contact CAA via or

16 Weather information will not be available through ADS-B in New Zealand. However, reception of certificated meteorological information in the cockpit by GA VFR operations using contemporary devices such as ipad and other tablet devices connected to a data/cellular network is acceptable to the CAA. The use of technology for this purpose is already widespread across the GA community. New technologies are becoming available, particularly in the area of GNSS receivers. However, please be aware of misleading information as many of the cheaper alternatives coming out of the US are described as ADS-B but are the UAT version or uncertfied equipment. As we consider options for the proposed mandate for ADS-B in all controlled airspace, we are considering whether and how we can provide for 1090 MHz ADS-B OUT systems that are cheaper and/or lighter (refer Question 2.6). Equip now or wait? Get the information and make the choice that s best for you You may choose to wait to see if equipment becomes available that provides a good solution for you and your aircraft, and meets the performance requirements for ADS-B OUT in New Zealand. The CAA cannot guarantee what will be available if the mandate proceeds as proposed. You will need to decide if equipping now or waiting is the best option for you. Any new technologies will need to meet the performance based criteria set in the regulations. Evidence of whether a piece of equipment meets the minimum criterion, would be found in the relevant Technical Standard Order (TSO) for the type of equipment. There are a number of ADS-B solutions on the market which include the transponder and receiver in an all-in-one box. Whilst installing an all-in-one systems still involves a modification, they can be cheaper than buying and installing the separate components, and you will have assurance that the transponder and receiver are compatible. Some allin-one systems include ADS-B IN and a touch screen display. However, it should be noted that the GNSS receiver on the all-in-one solutions cannot be used for IFR navigation at this time. 16

17 You can discuss all-in-one ADS-B solutions with your avionics supplier. As part of New Southern Sky, we re moving from a major reliance on ground-based navigation aids such as non-directional beacons and VORs toward more use of performance based navigation (PBN). The CAA is ensuring that the requirements for GNSS receivers for PBN operations align with ADS-B requirements so there is no need to have different receivers for each function. Although some operators may choose to have separate equipment depending on their circumstances. At this point in time only GPS is certified for IFR navigation by ICAO. This may change in the future as more GNSS constellations come on stream. For more information, see the New Southern Sky website at The proposed Rule will most likely provide that a TSO-C129 GNSS receiver can only be used for ADS-B OUT if the equipment has a certified Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) functionality. There are a number of TSO-C129 GNSS receivers in New Zealand that do not meet this requirement. If you are considering fitting or upgrading your GNSS receiver, we strongly recommend you purchase a TSO-C145 or TSO-C146 receiver, or an all-in-one ADS-B and GNSS box that includes a GNSS receiver with FDE functionality. You can discuss this with your avionics supplier, or contact the CAA via or No. ADS-B is a surveillance technology and a Emergency Locator Transmitter is a distress location device. They have a different functionality. Proposed new Rules for emergency location equipage requirements are coming out soon. Keep an eye on the CAA website for updates on this project. ADS-B will not replace your emergency location 17

18 Flight tracking devices cannot be used in lieu of ADS-B. The functionality of ADS-B and Spidertracks or similar flight tracking devices are different. ADS-B is primarily for providing surveillance data to Airways for air traffic control purposes. It does not have the same features as Spidertracks. Flight tracking equipment like Spidertracks is also not mandatory. ADS-B can assist with locating an aircraft; however, once the aircraft has stopped transmitting (lost power, or come down), ADS-B will no longer provide postion information. ELTs continue to transmit location after the aircraft has come down. ADS-B equipment is required to be installed by a licensed aviation maintenance engineer with a group 3, radio license. The avionic engineer will need to ensure that the GNSS receiver and transponder are properly integrated by testing the installed equipment using specialist test equipment. If acceptable technical data is not available (e.g. if there s no STC covering the ADS-B equipment you want to install), a design organisation or the CAA will need to approve the the design change to your aircraft. If you have any questions, please contact the CAA via or As like any other avionic equipment, your ADS-B system will need to be tested with specialist test equipment to ensure it is compliant so that it can be certified. Your avionics engineer will supply this information to the CAA. Testing is important it s the way you can prove that your system is transmitting the right information before you try to enter controlled airspace. It s also a courtesy to other airspace users. If you are using ADS-B IN, you d expect that those transmitting ADS-B OUT to make sure that the information they re sending you is safe and accurate. Airways will advise operators if their aircraft is transmitting non-compliant ADS-B information; however, don t rely on this. The purpose of the Airways system is to control aircraft, not test the quality of equipment installations. 18

19 The proposed rule for ADS-B above FL 245 includes prohibiting the transmission of noncompliant ADS-B data. This is a safety measure and would also apply to aircraft below FL 245. If you have any questions, you can contact the CAA via or You can also talk to your avionics engineer. You will not need an operational approval to use ADS-B out. The system works like any other transponder the pilot is responsible for ensuring that the transponder is on and operating during flight. ADS-B is a simple system from the operator perspective. Crew must ensure that the transponder is switched on and always enter your FLIGHT ID exactly as per your flight plan. If you don t file a flight plan, enter your aircraft registration without the ZK prefix. Please note that problems with the integrity or continuity of the GNSS signal will affect the information provided by the transponder to the ATM system. Crews need to be alert to RAIM warnings and other indications that the GNSS receiver may be faulty or not receiving adequate information. Further information regarding RAIM can be found in your flight manual. Advise Air Traffic Control and apply the procedures outlined in your Operations Manual and the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). After landing your aircraft consider what repair or maintenance is required to correct the problem. No. Pilots will not require any additional ratings to fly in an ADS-B OUT environment. However, they should be familiar with any change to procedures that might affect them, particularly in the event of loss of GNSS signal, or a transponder fault. 19

20 The Future Surveillance Implementation Working Group is examining all options to enable early uptake of the technology. However, because there is not necessarily a one size fits all ADS-B solution, it s more difficult to do a bulk-buy or similar programme. There is time ahead of the proposed mandate to allow operators to decide what sort of equipment is best for them. The proposed rule change to mandate ADS-B for above FL 245 includes a rule part that would also apply to operators below FL 245. If you equip with ADS-B ahead of the proposed 2021 mandate, your ADS-B system will need to meet the same performance standards set out in the rule for above FL 245. This is for safety reasons: if aircraft are transmitting ADS-B into the air traffic control system, we need that information to be accurate. Any aircraft operating ADS-B IN will also want to receive accurate information. The guidance in this document; i.e. a TSO166 transponder and a compatible TSO 145 or 146 GNSS receiver, will meet the requirements proposed in the ADS-B rule for above FL 245. No, the proposed ADS-B equipage date is aligned with the end of life date for the current SSR system. We re encouraging aircraft owners to use the time ahead of the proposed mandate to equip. This document gives you guidance on what to buy if you want to equip now. Other options may be become available in time. 20

21 You can choose to equip now, or wait to see what other options might be available to you. Choose the route that s best for you. We suggest that the latest time to equip and be ready for the 2021/22 summer season would be in mid The ADS-B system will extend coverage into uncontrolled airspace but coverage from the SSR contingency system will be reduced and focused on the air routes between Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. There is a key difference between the coverage of the surveillance network, and the area where Airways provides a surveillance service (i.e. controlled airspace only). A surveillance service is not provided to aircraft operating in uncontrolled airspace (in normal circumstances) now and there are no plans to change this practice after The New Southern Sky Working Group is currently examining the requirement for contingency and recovery systems in case of ADS-B system failure. In an emergency, aircraft without serviceable ADS-B transponders will need a serviceable Mode S (or Mode A/C) transponder and be within SSR coverage from the future contingency system, to receive surveillance services, including those flights within uncontrolled airspace. However, the reduction in SSR system coverage after 2021 will limit the extent of assistance that Airways can provide to Mode S (or Mode A/C) equipped flights. Voice communications will always be an option to assist in an emergency. If you have any suggestions that you would like the FSIWG to consider, please contact Jessica Henderson, CAA Senior Policy Advisor, at 21

22 Any technical questions can be directed towards Clayton Hughes at or Any questions regarding the policy and rule development, or other suggestions for the FSIWG to consider, can be directed to Jessica Henderson, CAA Senior Policy Advisor, at or phone

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