Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

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1 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

2 In the beginning was the Word... Convention on International Civil Aviation (Doc 7300) was signed on 7 December 1944 International Civil Aviation Organization began operations on 4 April 1947

3 Convention on Civil Aviation Article 15 of the Doc all aerodromes open to public use should provide uniform conditions for the aircraft

4 Convention on Civil Aviation Articles 28 and 37 oblige each State to provide airports and other air navigation facilities and services in accordance with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) developed by ICAO.

5 Convention on Civil Aviation The Convention has 19 Annexes that regulate different domains in aviation. Annex 14 to the Convention contains SARPs on the subject of aerodrome and heliport design and operation.

6 Convention on Civil Aviation Hierarchy of rules: Shall mandatory, state has to conform Should obligatory(ish), state will endeavour to conform

7 Convention on Civil Aviation Example of the hierarchy: Dimensions of runway end safety areas Standard: A runway end safety area (RESA) shall extend from the end of a runway strip to a distance of at least 90 m where the code number is 3 or 4 Recommendation. A runway end safety area should, as far as practicable, extend from the end of a runway strip to a distance of at least 240 m where the code number is 3 or 4; or a reduced length when an arresting system is installed

8 Convention on Civil Aviation In addition to SARPs ICAO has issued guidance material: Doc 9137 Airport Services Manual Doc 9157 Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9184 Airport Planning Manual Doc 9859 Safety Management Manual etc

9 Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137) Part 1 Rescue and Fire Fighting Part 2 Pavement Surface Conditions Part 3 Wildlife Control and Reduction Part 5 Removal of Disabled Aircraft Part 6 Control of Obstacles Part 7 Airport Emergency Planning Part 8 Airport Operational Services Part 9 Airport Maintenance Practices

10 Airport Design Manual (Doc 9157) Part 1 Runways Part 2 Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays Part 3 Pavements Part 4 Visual Aids Part 5 Electrical Systems Part 6 Frangibility

11 Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184) Part 1 Master Planning Part 2 Land Use and Environmental Control Part 3 Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services

12 Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and Council European Aviation Safety Agency was created to establish high and uniform level of protection in European civil aviation Regulation's Article 8a and Annex Va establish general requirements for aerodromes, equipment and operator

13 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Implementing Regulation lays down detailed rules on certification process and certificate holder, competent authority, operating procedures etc. Is directly applicable to the member state

14 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Regulation is divided into three main parts: 1) Requirements for Competent Authority 2) Requirements for Aerodrome Operator 3) Requirements for Aerodrome Operations Also includes Acceptable Means of Compliance, Guidance Material and Certification Specifications

15 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Hierarchy of rules: 1. Essential Requirements (ER) what has to be achieved Example: the aerodrome operator shall establish and implement an appropriate aerodrome wildlife risk management programme.

16 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Hierarchy of rules: 2. Implementing rules (IR) what must be done and by whom Example: The aerodrome operator shall: assess the wildlife hazard on the aerodrome; establish means and procedures to minimise the risk of collisions between wildlife and aircraft.

17 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Hierarchy of rules: 3. Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) how it can be accomplished Example: The aerodrome operator should: establish procedures to record and report wildlife strikes; establish, implement and maintain a wildlife risk management programme.

18 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Hierarchy of rules: 4. Certification Specifications (CS) measurables Example: Suitable means of protection such as fence or other suitable barrier should be provided on an aerodrome to prevent the entrance by nonflying animals large enough to be a hazard to aircraft.

19 Regulation (EU) No 139/2014 of the European Commission Hierarchy of rules: 5. Guidance Material (GM) examples of how to... Example: conduct a risk assessment using strike data for each species; take into account the number of strikes for each species and the severity of damage.

20 State Laws and Regulations Aviation Act Chapter 6 Regulation for certifying Aerodromes and Heliports ( no. 66) Regulation concerning dimensions and limitation surfaces of aerodrome vicinity ( no. 50)

21 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

22 Why certify? To ensure common global standards in safety and safety surveillance To ensure the compliance with Convention on International Civil Aviation To ensure the compliance with State regulations

23 Which aerodromes have to be certified? By ICAO SARPs: All aerodromes open for international air traffic All aerodromes open for public use, if national regulations do not state otherwise

24 Which aerodromes have to be certified? By regulation 216/2008: Aerodromes which serve commercial air transport providing instrument approach or departure procedures and Have a paved runway of at least 800 metres

25 Certification prerequisites Aviation legislation Authority executing supervision Safety legislation and guidance material Qualified personnel with necessary facilities Certification processes and procedures Continuous control of certified aerodromes Actions to identify and rectify noncompliances

26 Certification documentation Application Aerodrome manual Documented evidence showing the relationship of the applicant with the aerodrome owner and/or the land owner Relevant information about the accountable manager Data regarding aerodrome location, type of operations, facilities, infrastructure etc

27 Certification process (1) 1. Operator applies for certificate, provides authority with necessary documentation 2. CAA scrutinizes provided documents, asks for additional material, if necessary 3. CAA conducts on-site audit 4. CAA evaluates gathered information, composes audit report including found non-compliances

28 Certification process (2) 5. CAA assesses the non-compliances and either asks for immediate corrective action or issues a schedule by which aerodrome operator has to submit corrective action plan 6. After approving corrective actions and/or time schedule for eliminating non-compliances, CAA issues the certificate

29 Certification process (3) In Estonia the duration of certification process is 80 days. After certification CAA establishes oversight programme for aerodrome, by EASA standards oversight planning cycle should not exceed 4 years, after which every service and aspect of certified aerodrome has to be checked.

30 Essential questions for certification Are aerodrome parametres compatible with intended aircraft parametres? Can aerodrome layout, equipment and infrastructure serve intended traffic? Is the number and training of personnel sufficient? Are the safety and quality management systems and documentation procedures in place?

31 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

32 What is aerodrome manual? Document, that contains all pertinent information on the aerodrome site, facilities, services, equipment, operating procedures, organization and management including a safety management system. Is mandatory for all aerodromes and heliports. Is the base document for certification.

33 Purpose of aerodrome manual Information in the manual should demonstrate that the aerodrome conforms to the certification standards and that there are no apparent shortcomings which would adversely affect the safety of aircraft operations Manual is a reference document and provides a checklist of aerodrome certification standards to be maintained

34 Laws and regulations set: The contents of manual Approval by Competent Authority Pertinency, Competent Authority has to have the current version Changes to be approved by Competent Authority

35 Contents of Aerodrome Manual (ICAO) Part 1 General Information Purpose and scope of aerodrome manual Legal requirement(s) for certificate and manual Aeronautical information system Obligations of the aerodrome operator

36 Contents of Aerodrome Manual (ICAO) Part 2 Aerodrome site Legal ownership Site maps

37 Contents of Aerodrome Manual (ICAO) Part 3 Aerodrome data Name, location and parametres of aerodrome Visual aids Emergency contacts, rescue and firefighting information

38 Contents of Aerodrome Manual (ICAO) Part 4 Operating procedures Access to aerodrome Emergency planning Rescue and firefighting Aerodrome inspection and maintenance Apron safety management Low visibility procedures (LVP) etc

39 Contents of Aerodrome Manual (ICAO) Part 5 Management system Aerodrome administration Safety management system (SMS) Safety policy SMS strategy and planning SMS implementation Internal audit and review system etc

40 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

41 Safety the state in which the possibility of harm to persons or of property damage is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and safety risk management

42 Safety dilemma

43 History of safety management

44 History of safety management Number of occurrences 1 5 Accidents Serious incidents Incidents Latent conditions

45 Safety management strategies Reactive method The reactive method responds to the events that already happened, such as incidents and accidents Proactive method The proactive method looks actively for the identification of safety risks through the analysis of the organization s activities Predictive method The predictive method captures system performance as it happens in real-time normal operations to identify potential future problems

46 History of safety management Traditional Aviation system performs most of the time as per design specifications Compliance based, outcome oriented Evolving Aviation system does not perform most of the time as per design specifications (practical drift) Performance based, process oriented

47 Safety management at a glance Identify hazards Re-evaluate control strategies Collect additional hazard data Assess consequences Implement control strategies Assign responsibilities Safety management process Approve control strategies Assess and prioritize risks Develop elimination/ mitigation strategies

48 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

49 Aerodrome emergency planning Intent and purpose: Identify the roles and responsibilities of various agencies involved Assist in a rapid and orderly transition from normal to emergency ops and back Reference document for training and familiarization Maximizes the efficient utilization of resources to minimize casualties and damage

50 Aerodrome emergency planning Aerodrome emergency plan shall be established. AEP must cover: Types of emergencies planned for Agencies involved, their responsibilities, contact details etc

51 Aerodrome emergency planning Aerodrome emergency exercises, types and frequencies: Full-scale exercise conducted once in two years (now modified to once in three years series of modular exercises in first two years and full-scale test in third year) Partial exercises conducted in intervening year(s)

52 Aerodrome emergency planning Emergency Operations Centre and mobile command post should be available for coordination Authorized person in-charge of Ops Centre and another of mobile post Emergencies in difficult environments Sufficient number of rescue and firefighting equipment (incl. water rescue)

53 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

54 Aerodrome maintenance Maintain aerodrome facilities and equipment FOD problems and consequences Airfield inspections Pavement surface friction characteristics Pavement rehabilitation programme Maintenance of visual aids

55 Aerodrome maintenance Maintenance of visual aids: Preventive maintenance system Serviceability levels Types and frequency of inspections Calibrations of approach lighting systems Renewal of pavement markings

56 Andres Lainoja Eesti Lennuakadeemia

57 Wildlife strike hazard Wildlife strikes cause significant amounts of expenditure to airlines Also cause disruption to flights Impacts severely airport operational safety and capacity Airlines and insurance companies may recover the expenses from the aerodrome operator

58 Wildlife strike hazard reduction Wildlife strike hazards shall be assessed through procedure, data collection and analysis regularly Strike reports are reported to ICAO IBIS database Eliminate or reduce the sources of attraction for wildlife in the vicinity Fencing

59 Thank you! Any questions?

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