Satoquo SEINO (Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan)

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1 A reconsideration of horseshoe crab conservation methodology in Japan over the last 100 years and prospects for a marine protected area network in Asian seas Satoquo SEINO (Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan)

2 The history of horseshoe crab conservation in Japan began with the country s modernization over the last century. The many lessons learned and some good practices can help reduce losses and promote precautionary approaches for its conservation. (Pic by H.Nishii)

3 After World War II, coastal and watershed development posed serious threats to every aspect of horseshoe crab life history and habitat. lost existed (Pic by H.Nishii) Local populations decreased or disappeared

4 Oyehama beach (National Natural Monument) Kasaoka (reclamed) Kasaoka Bay K o n o s h i m a c h Konoshima Isl. Large scale reclamation in 1970s in Kasaoka

5 Various measures were undertaken, such as larvae release, small-scale beach nourishment etc.

6 These experiences informed Japanese conservation managers that continuity of habitat, a well-managed ecosystem and maintenance of water and materials cycles are essential.

7 Spawning ground conservation and restoration based on coastal dynamics Natural sandy bar at the river mouth Restored spawning ground by Beach nourishment

8 Coastal zone management

9 Sand dredge of sandy beach (horseshoe crab habitat) Spawning site Habitat of the adult HSC

10

11 Destruction of geomorphological continuity of costal zone 2004

12 Recent Changes in Distribution of horseshoe crab habitat in Japan

13 Public awareness Citizen participation Environmental education Fieldwork

14 Multi-sectoral activities Local knowledge Small scale experiments for sandy beach management with traditional way by community people

15 TOWARD COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Nakatsu Tidal Flat one of the most well-protected coasts in Japan xc

16 Nakatsu Tidal Flat Coastal fishing (bivalves, shrimps and crabs) Ecosystem conservation (habitat of endangered species) * Reclamation and dredging for port facilities * Recreation and education 10 km 1,347 ha Max tidal range 4 m

17 Habitats of 183 species including 68 species in the red data book The horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus The finless porpoise Neophocaena hocaenoidees + Fishery ground <BIODIVERSITY>

18 Agenda of citizens participating in TALKFEST on tidal flat utilization and conservation Members: residents, naturalists, environmental educators, local and municipal government administrators, fishermen, citizens, assemblymen, community association engineers of national institutions, university scientists

19 Oshinden Beach and Nakatsu Port

20 Maite River mouth (Oshinden, Nakatsu) Rounded sand bars and sandy beaches are the spawning grounds of the horseshoe crab These interface zones have been protected by concrete constructions for disaster management

21 Diversity of the environment of the river mouth and habitats of animals and plants The dynamics of water and sand sustain this environment. Conservation of this dynamism is essential.

22 Local inhabitants bought in old photographs of memories to the talkfest on coastal planning Sato-umi Seaweed drying operation A child on a school excursion Launching ceremony for fishing boats

23 Comparison of nature and human relations through aerial photographs and discussions with residents

24 Classification of coastal zone of Nakatsu tidal flat (typical: seashore, port and harbor, river, protective forest, park, farming land and residential ) Seto Inland Sea Shore protection Nakatsu tidal flat River Forest Park Nakatsu Port Reclaimed farming land Fishing port Mouth of the Maite River Oshinden Maite River

25 RESPECT-- the agenda of TALKFEST in the community the natural geomorphology of the sandy beach and river mouth leads to a change in methodology of shore protection

26 SETBACK revetment on the river mouth flowing into the tidal flat

27 SETBACK methodology protected natural river mouth sea dike Oshinden Beach Maite River Oshinden Beach Maite River

28 LEGAL SYSTEM related to Water in JAPAN in modernization law and act 1868 (The beginning of modern in Japan) 1896 Old River Law 1897 Erosion Control Law Forest Law 1899 Arable Land Readjustment Act 1901 Old Fisheries Law 1907 Forest Law Revised 1908 Water Association Act 1909 New Arable Land Readjustment Act 1921 Area Reclamation Law 1931 National Parks Law

29 The Age of Recovery and Reconstruction (1945-) 1945 (The end of World War II) 1948 Harbor Regulations Law 1949 Flood Control Act The Fisheries Law Fisheries Law Land Improvement Act 1950 Comprehensive National Land Development Law 1951 Forest Law Revised Living Aquatic Resources Protection Law Harbor Transport Operation Law 1956 Seacoast Law 1957 Enactment of Designated Multi-Purpose Dam Law Natural Parks Law 1958 Sewage Law 1961 Agricultural Basic Law 1964 New River Law Forestry Basic Law

30 Shonai River was milky white Colored river is the pride of flourish of ceramic industry (1970) Courtesy of Shonai River Office, Ministry of Land, Infrastractue, and Transport

31 The Age of High Economic Growth 1964 (Tokyo Olympic) 1967 Basic Pollution Countermeasures Law 1969 (Minamata Disease) 1970 Water Pollution Control Law Law of Relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law 1971 Marine Resources Development Promotion Law 1974 Coastal Fisheries Grounds Enhancement and Development Program Law 1976 Setouchi Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Act local 1980 (Ramsar Convention)

32 law and act 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity The Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 1993 Basic Environment Law, Ramsar Convention in Kushiro, Japan 1995 The National Biodiversity Strategy of Japan 1997 River law revised to promote preservation of river environments Environmental Impact Assessment Law 1999 Basic Law on Food, Agriculture and Rural Areas The Law to Ensure Sustainable Aquaculture Production New Seacoast Law 2001 Fishery Basic Law 2002 Ariake and Yatsushiro Sea Restoration Act Law for the Promotion of Nature Restoration 2003 Urban River Inundation Prevention Act 2004 Landscape Law Invasive Alien Species Act 2005 Amendant of Flood Control Act 2007 Ocean Basic Law 2010 Convention on Biological Diversity (Japan) The Age of Environmental Revolution and Post-modern 2010

33 The history of MPAs in Japan can be said to have started in the modern era. During the large-scale developments were carried out around the country during the Taisho period ( ), and movements sprang up to conserve historical buildings, places of natural beauty, and flora and fauna. Internationally, similar problems had already arisen in the West, and in Japan, domestic legal systems were drafted that referred to measures being taken overseas while adapting them to native Japanese values and existing systems.

34 Conservation methodologies Recognition and methodologies for horseshoe crabs evolved variously depending on specialists disciplines. Designation of its spawning grounds as a Natural Monument arose from simple respect and the encouragement of the local community, giving it symbolic species status. (After Nishii)

35 Wetland conservation policy In 1980 Japan became a contracting party to the Ramsar Convention, which aims to protect wetland environments. Japan has designated brackish lagoons, tidal flats and other coastal wetlands to the Ramsar list of wetlands of international importance.

36 COP10 to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD/COP10) was held in Aichi, Japan in It was a good trigger to promote both domestic and international conservation policies. COP11 in 2012 INDIA!!

37 An Aichi Target was adopted, aiming at designation of 10% of the sea as MPAs by This international meeting on horseshoe crab habitat conservation is a good opportunity to bring together one part of the MPA network in Asia!

38 Toward International MPA Network to share lessons and practice From the 1990s, the development of biodiversity policies has helped integrate biological measures and habitat issues. Especially, issues of marine protected areas (MPAs) are parallel to habitat conservation problems in Japan. A target for an international network of MPAs by 2012 was formulated at the World Summit for Sustainable Development.

39 Horseshoe Crab Protected Area Network MPA-1 MPA-5 MPA-4 MPA-3 MPA MPA-41 MPA-42 MPA-43 MPA-44 MPA MPA-51 MPA-52 MPA-53 MPA-54 MPA-55

40 Only one symbolic species to ecosystem and biodiversity Coastal migratory species And habitat protection Tidal flat and estuary ecosystem and habitat

41 International Marine Protected Area Network MPA-1 MPA-5 MPA-4 MPA-3 MPA-2 FISH- MPA-31 FISH- MPA-32 FISH- MPA-33 FISH- MPA-34 FISH- MPA-35 MPA-41 MPA-42 MPA-43 MPA-44 MPA MPA-51 MPA-52 MPA-53 MPA-54 MPA-55 Linking to international biodiversity/coastal Environment framework

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