FAST & FABULOUS. SP s. Market Segments of Business Jets. L1 Dilemma in Procurement LABACE 08 Photo Feature IAF at Red Flag Green Initiatives

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1 Aviation News Flies. We Gather Intelligence. Every Month. From India. SP s AN SP GUIDE PUBLICATION ISSUE L1 Dilemma in Procurement LABACE 08 Photo Feature IAF at Red Flag Green Initiatives RNI NUMBER: DELENG/2008/24199 FAST & FABULOUS Market Segments of Business Jets PAGE 16

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4 Table of Contents Aviation SP s AN SP GUIDE PUBLICATION News Flies. We Gather Intelligence. Every Month. From India. ISSUE Civil 10 ENVIRONMENT GREEN BRIGADE One to One 13 EUROFIGHTER Cover Story 16 BUSINESS AVIATION TRENDY JETSETTERS On Camera 24 LABACE 2008 ROLL OUT THE RED CARPET Military 27 RAFALE CATCH ME IF YOU CAN 30 JOINT EXERCISE RED FLAG: LAUDED & APPLAUDED Hall of Fame 29 IGOR SIKORSKY 10 PUBLISHER AND EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jayant Baranwal ASSISTANT EDITOR Arundhati Das SENIOR VISITING EDITOR Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia SENIOR TECHNICAL GROUP EDITORS Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Lt General (Retd) Naresh Chand 16 Trendy Jetsetters: The range of offerings now available in the business jet segment of general aviation is quite wide. Any firm with travel requirements should be able to find a suitable aircraft for its needs. (Seen here: The Cessna Columbus in flight) Regular Departments 4 A Word from Editor 5 NewsWithViews - HAL to grow civil wings - US hits space vacuum 7 InFocus Unravelling the L1 8 Forum Grappling with the L1 32 NewsDigest 36 LastWord Forging Ties Cover Photo: The CJ1+ first introduced as the CitationJet in 1993 as a modern replacement for the original Citation 500 was the first Cessna jet to be powered by Williams fanjets. Photo Credit: Cessna ASSOCIATE ART DIRECTOR: Ratan Sonal LAYOUT DESIGNS: Raj Kumar Sharma SP Guide Publications, 2008 ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION Inland: Rs 850 Foreign: US$ FOR ADVERTISING DETAILS, CONTACT: GREEN BRIGADE ON THE RED CARPET SUB-EDITOR Bipasha Roy CONTRIBUTORS India Air Chief Marshal (Retd) S.P. Tyagi, Air Marshal (Retd) P.K. Mehra, Air Marshal (Retd) Raghu Rajan, Air Marshal (Retd) N. Menon, Group Captain (Retd) A.K. Sachdev, Group Captain (Retd) Joseph Noronha Europe Alan Peaford, Phil Nasskau, Rob Coppinger USA & Canada Sushant Deb, Lon Nordeen, Anil R. Pustam (West Indies) CHAIRMAN & MANAGING DIRECTOR Jayant Baranwal ADMIN & COORDINATION Bharti Sharma Owned, published and printed by Jayant Baranwal, printed at Rave India and published at A-133, Arjun Nagar (Opposite Defence Colony), New Delhi , India. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, photocopying, recording, electronic, or otherwise without prior written permission of the Publishers. SP GUIDE PUBLICATIONS PVT LTD A-133 Arjun Nagar, (Opposite Defence Colony) New Delhi , India. Tel: +91 (11) , , Fax: +91 (11) POSTAL ADDRESS Post Box No 2525 New Delhi , India. REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE BANGALORE, INDIA 534, Jal Vayu Vihar Kammanhalli Main Road Bangalore , India. Tel: +91 (80) MOSCOW, RUSSIA LAGUK Co., Ltd., (Yuri Laskin) Krasnokholmskaya, Nab., 11/15, app. 132, Moscow , Russia. Tel: +7 (495) Fax: +7 (495) LAUDED & APPLAUDED NEXT ISSUE: Watch out for a double treat! 2 SP S AVIATION Issue

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6 A Word from Editor Trendy wings for the jetsetting corporate sector vie with serious issues pertaining to environmental concerns and India s procurement policy even as the race for the MMRCA deal hots up with two of the frontrunners drawing aces. Business aviation has over the past few decades assumed mind-boggling connotations. Earlier, company executives made do with converted military and airline airplanes, which often were overly large and costly, both to acquire and to operate. Today, the range of offerings in the business jet segment of general aviation is quite wide. In the Cover Story, LeRoy Cook painstakingly elaborates on the plethora of choices. Some of these trendy jetsetters were seen at the three-day Latin American Business Aviation Conference & Exhibition held at São Paulo s Congonhas International Airport from August 14. A pictorial spread captures the buzz and the business. On the flip side, boom in aviation has inevitably invited the spotlight of environmental concerns on the sector. Taking up the challenge of reducing greenhouse gases, jet engine manufacturers have already embarked on developing green engines that reduce emissions and noise pollution. Meanwhile, the race to bag India s medium multi-role combat aircraft deal hots up in the pages of this edition with Dassault elaborating on the SPECTRA a state-of-the-art selfdefence system mounted on the Rafale. On the other hand, Eurofighter Campaign Director in India Matthias Schmidlin spells out the benefits that would accrue to India if it accepts the EADS offer to join the Eurofighter programme. Enumerating on a key aspect of defence acquisition, InFocus and Forum ignite a debate on the enigmatic L-One (L1) simply put, the lowest bidder among shortlisted vendors who meet all technical criteria. Does the concept work towards the goals and objectives for which it has been put in place? Undeterred by policy hurdles back home, the Indian Air Force (IAF) persists in its efforts to consolidate its overseas relations with the Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal F.H. Major, paying a three-day visit to Malaysia. Underlining the vital implications of the visit, LastWord reasons that while Malaysia s objectives in seeking India s assistance for training on the Su-30 fleet may be limited, the experience will enable the IAF to grow in capability, confidence and reputation to lend credibility to the nation s regional power status. Doing India proud, the IAF participated in Exercise Red Flag 2008 at the US Air Force Base Nellis, Nevada, which concluded on August 23. Eight Sukhois along with two IL-78 mid-air refuellers and an IL-76 heavy-lift aircraft flew over 120 sorties just in the work-up phase. If daredevil performance earned the force accolades, the IAF s culinary spread to celebrate Independence Day had the hosts quite literally eating out of their hands! According to a senior IAF official, The IAF hosted a small lunch for the US Air Force and South Korean Air Force personnel on August finding a taste for the Indian delicacy, the air warriors also tried to emulate the Indian way of eating rajma-chawal that is, by hand. They were licking their fingers at the end of the lunch. Now turn the pages to feast your eyes on the special moments. SP S AVIATION EDITOR-IN-CHIEF JAYANT BARANWAL WITH MINISTER OF STATE FOR DEFENCE PRODUCTION RAO INDERJIT SINGH AT INDAIR 2008 (REPORT ON PAGE 35) Jayant Baranwal Publisher & Editor-in-Chief 4 SP S AVIATION Issue

7 NewsWithViews HAL TO GROW CIVIL WINGS Indian aerospace and defence manufacturing giant Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) will produce the first passenger aircraft to be designed and manufactured in the country. The state-run organisation was bestowed the unique privilege after it got the nod from launch customer, the Indian Air Force (IAF), pipping Indian private sector companies such as Mahindra Aerospace and Larsen and Toubro Ltd. The 14-seater, multi-role Saras will be the first passenger plane to be designed and manufactured in the country. Saras is a product of the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), a state-run laboratory for civil aircraft design. So far, all aircraft design and manufacturing activity in the country has been conducted by HAL or the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and that too for military use. VIEWS ILLUSTRATION: MAMTA That the IAF should choose HAL as the production agency for the first commercial aircraft to be manufactured in India comes as no surprise. HAL already has a fully developed facility at Kanpur for assembly of transport aircraft, the experience of two similar major projects in the past and has provided product support to the IAF for several years. In contrast, there is no denying that the private sector lacks the knowledge, experience and expertise to handle a project involving the integration of a passenger aircraft. Initially, HAL was to have developed the Saras in collaboration with Russia. However, with the collapse of the latter HAL developed cold feet, prompting NAL to embark on the project. Established in 1959 at Delhi, the National Aeronautical Laboratory was relocated to Bangalore in Subsequently renamed National Aerospace Laboratory, it is one of 40 civilian R&D laboratories under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, an apex body under the central government. India s only civilian aerospace laboratory with primary focus on the Indian space programme, it is also involved in projects in a host of other disciplines outside the regime of space. Drawing inspiration from Dr Satish Dhawan, the architect of India s space programme, NAL commenced designing of aircraft in 1990 with the Hansa an all-composite, two-seat aircraft for basic training and other miscellaneous roles. The prototype flew three years later, was type-certified by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in 2000 and cleared for day and night operations. Taneja Aerospace and Aviation Limited, a Bangalore-based private company, was tasked to manufacture the aircraft. Unfortunately, owing to a sluggish aviation industry and the deplorable state of civil flying training establishments, demand for trainer aircraft was low. Despite the low cost and other advertised attributes, it was difficult to compete against the well entrenched Cessna 152 and the 172. NAL has now entered into collaboration with Mahindra Plexion to develop a five-seat general purpose aircraft. In addition, a sum of Rs 300 crore ($70 million) has been sanctioned to develop a seat civil regional transport aircraft. NAL may seek partnership with HAL and even with a foreign company for this project. Saras a 14-seat, twin-engine, multi-role light transport aircraft is to replace the current fleet of Dornier 228 as also to meet requirements in the civil sector. So far, two prototypes have taken to the air with the third under development at NAL and expected to fly in mid The IAF has issued a letter of intent for 15 initial followed by another 30 at a later stage. Certification by the DGCA is expected in Priced at Rs 39.4 crore ($9 million), Saras would be a very expensive machine compared with others in the same category. The cost is unlikely to come down as the aircraft will not be manufactured in large numbers. Meanwhile, Israel Aerospace Industries is scouting for joint ventures to build a 60 to 80 seat regional jet and executive jets in India but designed in Israel. From a broader perspective, Saras could well be a rare and golden opportunity for the private sector to make an entry into a field which has hitherto been the preserve of the public sector. There is no reason why private entrepreneurs, like the Tatas, Mahindra Aerospace, L&T, Reliance and TAAL, cannot rise to the occasion to meet the challenge given a level playing field and foreign investment option. Perhaps the time is ripe for a decisive move to not only invigorate the private sector but also introduce competition for the defence PSU which enjoys an unchallenged and unhealthy monopoly today. SP Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Issue SP S AVIATION 5

8 NewsWithViews US HITS SPACE VACUUM NASA has abandoned plans to get replacements for retiring US space shuttles into service by 2013 because of lack of additional funds and technical issues. The US space agency had hoped to fly astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard new spaceship Orion as early as September 2013, well before the formal deadline of March The window of opportunity for us to accelerate Orion has closed, said Programme Manager Jeff Hanley at NASA s Johnson Space Centre in Houston. The US will be without a means to transport people to and from space after the shuttle fleet is retired in 2010 and intends to rely on Russia to ferry crews to the space station and on private companies to deliver cargo during the gap. VIEWS ILLUSTRATION: MAMTA On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced the development of the Orion spacecraft known then as the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as part of the Vision for Space Exploration. The primary purpose of the CEV was to carry astronauts beyond the Earth s orbit. However, it would also act as a replacement vehicle to ferry astronauts, scientists and payloads to the ISS after the space shuttles were retired. The Orion spacecraft was proposed partly as fallout of the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster and its design, therefore, is heavily influenced to include crew life saving systems in all phases of flight. The shuttle, it may be recalled, was the first reusable orbital spacecraft. Among its various tasks, it carries payloads to Low Earth Orbit, provides crew rotation for the ISS and performs servicing missions, such as in support of the Hubble Space Telescope. The orbiter can also recover satellites and other payloads from orbit and return them to Earth, but this capacity has not been used often. On the other hand, it has been used extensively to transport large payloads from the ISS to Earth. In all, six air-worthy shuttles were built. The first orbiter, Enterprise, was not built for space flight and used only for testing purposes. The other five space-worthy shuttles built were: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds into the launch phase in 1986 and Columbia broke apart during re-entry in Each shuttle was designed for a projected lifespan of 100 launches or 10 years operational life. With the first launch in 1981, while none of the shuttles have come anywhere close to 100 launches, their operational life has been periodically extended beyond 10 years. However, NASA has now announced that all the space shuttles will be retired after mission STS-133 in In the meantime, NASA was hoping that it would get the necessary financial support to hasten development of the Orion. In addition to the crew and service module combination, Orion will be configured to have a launch abort system and a spacecraft adapter for mating with the launch vehicle Ares I. In the event of an emergency on the launch pad or during ascent, the Launch Abort System (LAS) will separate the Crew Module from the launch vehicle using a solid rocket-powered launch abort motor more powerful than the Atlas 109-D booster that launched astronaut John Glenn into orbit in NASA was also toying with the idea of replacing the LAS tower with Max Launch Abort System, in which four existing solid-rocket motors integrated into the boost protective cover and, placed at 90 degree intervals, would fire and pull the Orion crew module away from an Ares I rocket in the event of a launch-pad or in-flight abort during the first two-and-half minutes of launch. NASA was hopeful of squeezing the schedule and flying the astronauts to the ISS aboard the Orion as early as September 2013 well before the formal deadline or goal of March But with additional funding to do so not having been approved by the US Congress, NASA appears to have lost the golden window of opportunity. NASA had earlier reversed its decision of initiating a phased retirement of the space shuttles with the decommissioning of one orbiter, Atlantis, in But, while all the three remaining shuttles would continue in service, NASA apparently cannot extend the life of these ageing shuttles beyond To fill the gap, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft and the European ATVs are likely to step in. But for at least four long years, NASA and the US are destined to face vacuum in space. SP Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia 6 SP S AVIATION Issue

9 InFocus PROCUREMENT Unravelling L1 the L1 is the vendor whose product has successfully passed all compliance parameters and technical evaluation tests and who is also the lowest bidder among all the otherwise successful vendors. However, does the concept work towards the goals and objectives for which it has been put in place? DETERMINED TO REMOVE INFIRMITIES in the defence procurement procedures, the Government of India has further refined the acquisition process through its revised and recently released Defence Procurement Procedure 2008 (DPP 2008). The document has also helped to further unravel the enigmatic L-One (L1) to make the defence procurement regime truly transparent, equitable and responsive. Or, has it? For the uninitiated, consequent to the acceptance of the report of the Group of Ministers, constituted in the wake of the 1999 Kargil Conflict, a new setup had been established in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in October 2001 and a procurement procedure was put into effect on December 30, The procedure has, since then, been revised three times in 2005, 2006 and, finally, this year to remove all perceived anomalies and make it more comprehensive. India s defence acquisition process can be broadly divided into two stages, planning and procurement, which are neither exclusive nor independent of each other. The procurement part of the process which is of immediate interest right now and which will lead to the understanding of the L1 concept consist of (sequentially): formulation of Services Qualitative Requirements (SQR), solicitation of offers, technical evaluation, field trials, staff evaluation, technical oversight, commercial evaluation and negotiations and; finally, the contract signing and project management and execution. Once the SQRs have been approved by the Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), solicitation of offers are processed by the Acquisition Wing through issuance of Request for Proposal (RFP) to original equipment manufacturers authorised vendors and government-sponsored export agencies. The Acquisition Wing which maintains a comprehensive data bank issues the RFP to eligible vendors who are not only required to submit their technical but also commercial proposals termed Single-Stage Two-Bid system in two separate sealed envelopes. Initially, envelopes containing only the technical offers are opened by the concerned agency and handed over to Service HQ constituted Technical Evaluation Committee (TEC) which starts the process with the structuring of a Compliance Statement with respect to SQR. Envelopes containing the commercial offers are kept unopened in safe custody of the MoD. Propagated by DPP 2006 and further consolidated in DPP 2008, maximum competition is aimed at and a singlevendor situation is discouraged to the utmost. Therefore, at the time of paper evaluation by the TEC, if only one vendor claims compliance with the parameters, the procedure stipulates that the RFP be retracted and a fresh RFP with revised parameters issued. What is aimed at is that, at the end of the exhaustive technical evaluation, which includes field trials, staff evaluation and scrutiny by the Technical Oversight Committee, a multiple-vendor situation should emerge when the commercial-bid stage is reached. At this stage, a Commercial Negotiation Committee (CNC) is constituted under the Acquisition Manager (a civilian official of the MoD), which opens the commercial bids (hitherto kept in safe custody) to determine the L1. The L1 is the vendor whose product has successfully passed all the compliance parameters and the technical evaluation tests and who is also the lowest bidder among all the otherwise successful vendors. All other vendors being out of the race at this stage, further commercial negotiations are carried out only with the L1. Once commercial negotiations are finalised, the case is referred to the competent financial authority for approval on receipt of which, the contract is awarded to the L1 vendor. The Single-Stage Two-Bid system has been made mandatory as it guards against the possibility of a vendor increasing his commercial offer consequent to the possible development of a single vendor situation post evaluation. As explained earlier, all vendors have to submit their technical and commercial proposals at the initial stage itself albeit in two separate sealed envelopes. It is only after the technical evaluation that the commercial offers of the successful vendors are opened by the CNC to determine the lowest bidder. No alteration in the commercial offer is permitted under any circumstances. This also allows for speedier conclusion of contracts compared with a single-vendor situation where the Price Negotiation Committee would have to get into protracted and time-wasting negotiations with the vendor, haggling over final prices. A case in point is the recent single-vendor Hawk AJT deal wherein more than two years were wasted in concluding the last stage of price negotiations which also meant that the IAF was deprived of the much needed training asset it had been already waiting for more than two decades. But is the new procedure totally transparent, foolproof and equitable? Does it ensure best value for money? Turn the page to Forum for details. SP Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Issue SP S AVIATION 7

10 Forum PROCUREMENT Grappling with the L1 Creation of suitable matrices for technical and commercial evaluations can provide a great tool to help reduce all offers to a common comparable scale, thus ensuring easy, transparent and objective comparisons to determine the L1 ILLUSTRATION: MAMTA OPENING THE SEALED COMMERCIAL OFFERS of the technically accepted vendors and declaring the lowest bidder the L-One (L1) does not end the complex and arduous process of procuring defence equipment. In some ways, it is just the beginning of the commercial evaluation process which finally leads to the signing of the contract. Constituted under the Ministry of Defence, the first task of the Commercial Negotiation Committee (CNC) in determining the L1 is to ascertain whether the price quoted by the lowest bidder is fair and reasonable. This provides the base in evolving an effective strategy for subsequent price negotiations. A Compliance Statement is prepared incorporating commercial terms offered against what had been sought with an analysis of the discordance if any and impact of the same. Similarly, a statement is prepared in terms of deviations noticed in the delivery schedules, performance warranty, guarantee provisions, acceptance criteria and a host of other provisions. Thereafter, the CNC prepares a Comparative Statement of Tenders to determine the lowest acceptable offer (L1). Further negotiations are carried out with the L1 only in what evolves into a highly complex process as a large number of multifaceted aspects with commercial overtones have to be addressed. Though recent reforms have substantially improved the process, there is scope to streamline it further. One of the most glaring inadequacies in the system is that in the current format of commercial evaluation, no matrix is prepared as such. However, vendors are required to provide costs of all items listed in the format, such as the unit cost of fully assembled and/or semi knocked down and completely knocked down equipment, cost of manufacturers recommended list of spares, cost of special test equipment, cost of training, cost of optional equipment and so on. Experience has shown that the list is neither all-encompassing nor comprehensive enough to meet all requirements. There are a large number of related factors/items to the main equipment which have a profound effect on total price and not only remain hidden in the initial stages while comparing offers but are fully exploited later on by the smart vendors. This view is widely held by the military brass who cite Russian aircraft that were automatically supplied with ancillary equipment, such as drop tanks, rocket pods, bomb racks, missile launchers and so on. The gadgets arrived as scaled items in boxes for each aircraft referred to as the Dowry Boxes by the squadron s technical staff. On the other hand, no such provision was automatically made by 8 SP S AVIATION Issue

11 FORUM PROCUREMENT the OEM when the Jaguar deal was signed and as a result the IAF had to pay heavily even to acquire mundane items, such as drop tanks, to exploit full range potential of the socalled Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft. The IAF would like to go beyond the L1 concept in its existing form to enable more collaborative and long-term relationship with potential partners in the area of modernisation, said the Joint Director Engineering, Air Headquarters, Wing Commander Samir Chabra during a presentation on A Perspective of Business Prospect for Aircraft Upgrades at the recently held joint CII/IAF seminar INDAIR 2008 in Delhi. A fair comparison can be done only when all expenses are listed to work out overall cost of owning particular equipment. Creation of a suitable matrix for commercial evaluation can provide a great tool to help reduce all offers to a common comparable scale thus ensuring easy, transparent and objective comparisons to determine the L1. Matrix must be issued with RFP to enable vendors to provide their commercial quotes for all items. Preparation of a viable and effective commercial matrix is not easy as it requires a thorough knowledge of likely exploitation of the equipment, covering all aspects that have a financial bearing which include support facilities and Life-Cycle Costs (LCC). The latter analysis calculates the cost of a system or product over its entire life span in service and thus helps in choosing the most cost-effective alternative available to least long term cost of ownership. The concept is also called as cradle-to-grave or womb-to-tomb analysis, which facilitates equipment selection based on total costs rather than the initial purchase price. While it is an excellent technique for equipment where adequate data is available and its usage can be predicted, however, its applicability to military equipment is uncertain due to a large number of unpredictable factors. Major General (Retd) Mrinal Suman, a noted analyst on offsets and defence procurement policies and procedures, observes: Life Cycle Cost consists of acquisition costs and sustaining costs. Both are not mutually exclusive. At times, cost of sustaining military equipment is many times the cost of acquisition. However, LCC analysis is a complex task. Whereas deterministic costs (cost of acquisition/development) can be firm, probabilistic costs (cost of operation, maintenance and failures) remain inestimable. Complexities of calculating the LCC notwithstanding, its inclusion for determining the L1 would be a step in the right direction. It would certainly help in choosing the most cost-effective equipment to cover the entire period of ownership rather than getting lured by just the initial acquisition costs, as has been the case in the past with the Russian equipment. Understandably, procedure stipulated for all contracts on behalf of the government lays emphasis on the lowest quotation as the preferred vendor. But while a vendor would like to maximise the profit margin, there is a minimum profit margin below which he is unlikely to quote. In some cases, vendors are known to bid lower rates with the knowledge that they will be able to compensate at a later stage through LIFE CYCLE COST CONSISTS OF ACQUISITION COSTS AND SUSTAINING COSTS. BOTH ARE NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. AT TIMES, COST OF SUSTAINING MILITARY EQUIPMENT IS MANY TIMES THE COST OF ACQUISITION. MAJOR GENERAL (RETD) MRINAL SUMAN, NOTED ANALYST ON OFFSETS AND DEFENCE PROCUREMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES THE IAF WOULD LIKE TO GO BEYOND THE L1 CONCEPT IN ITS EXISTING FORM TO ENABLE MORE COLLABORATIVE AND LONG-TERM RELATIONSHIP WITH POTENTIAL PARTNERS IN THE AREA OF MODERNISATION. WING COMMANDER SAMIR CHABRA, JOINT DIRECTOR ENGINEERING, AIR HEADQUARTERS escalation clauses and inflated charges for product support including spare parts. Seen from a different angle, while the financial authority acting on behalf of the government has a clear mandate to minimise expenditure with the lowest quote for them being the primary consideration; the quote for the equipment on offer should actually relate to quality of the product vis-à-vis operational requirements, reliability factor of the vendor, transfer of technology package and lifecycle support, among other parameters. For reputed vendors, quality being of prime consideration, offering the lowest quotation may not always be viable as they would not like to dilute the minimum quality standards laid down for themselves. Air Commodore (Retd) V.B. Goley of Larsen & Toubro expressed this very sentiment at INDAIR He categorically said, If the L1 persists in its present form in the defence procurement procedure, L&T will not be able to participate in defence procurement programmes. Top government officials are quick to point out that while procedures stipulated for all contracts lay emphasis on the lowest quotation as the preferred vendor, the competent authority is, however, not debarred from rejecting the lowest bid provided there are strong enough grounds to justify the decision and the reasons are clearly spelt out in writing. That may be so, but it is more easily said than done. First, THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DAY COULD BE INFLUENCED BY OTHER CONSIDERATIONS, SUCH AS GEO-POLITICAL, GEO-STRATEGIC AND GEO-ECONOMIC, FOR THE FINAL DECISION MAKING RELATED TO THE DEAL. AIR MARSHAL (RETD) B.K. PANDEY, FORMER AIR OFFICER COMMANDING IN CHIEF, TRAINING COMMAND IF THE L1 PERSISTS IN ITS PRESENT FORM IN THE DEFENCE PROCUREMENT PROCEDURE, L&T WILL NOT BE ABLE TO PARTICIPATE IN DEFENCE PROCUREMENT PROGRAMMES. AIR COMMODORE (RETD) V.B. GOLEY, HEAD BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT (AVIONICS), LARSEN & TOUBRO as brought out earlier, the techno-financial bid is extremely complex and not easily comprehensible. Second, the concerned agencies lack expertise to carry out in-depth and qualitative analysis of the proposals especially those involving transfer of technology and life-cycle costs. Comparisons are not easy and the decision by the competent authority can always be challenged. Decision makers, therefore, often prefer to follow the path of least resistance and settle for L1 rather than face scrutiny at a later date. The way to tackle these problems perhaps lies in the very way L1 is determined. It has been already suggested that a matrix system be evolved for commercial evaluation. Similarly, a matrix system could also be evolved in the area of technical evaluation as well where extra marks could be given for each parameter in which a product proves its superiority over competing offer(s), by employing a sliding scale methodology. Drawing the bottomline, former Air Officer Commanding in Chief, Training Command Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey succinctly puts in: The government of the day could be influenced by other considerations, such as geo-political, geo-strategic and geo-economic, for the final decision making related to the deal. But can any matrix be drawn for such eventualities? SP Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia Issue SP S AVIATION 9

12 CIVIL ENVIRONMENT he spotlight of environmental concerns invariably encompasses the world of aviation, an industry perceived as a major contributor in aggravating the problems connected with carbon dioxide emissions. Media hue and cry over deteriorating environment has perennially targeted air transport as the key polluter of the Earth s atmosphere. While the jury is still out on the validity of that allegation, in air transportation, perception has inexplicably scored over hard facts, not surprising given the sector s high visibility which fans such illusory and pre-conceived notions. Misconceptions apart, it goes to the credit of the entire aviation industry, specially the civil aviation sector, for taking on the challenge of reducing greenhouse gases with the utmost sincerity it deserves. Two years ago on September 27, 2006, to be precise Chairman of Virgin Atlantic Sir Richard Green Brigade Airframes, airlines, airports the AAA approach supplements engine manufacturers initiatives to curb aviation s adverse impact on the environment ILLUSTRATION: RATAN SONAL Branson had called upon the global aviation industry to develop a shared solution to the growing issue of climate change. He urged other airlines, engine and aircraft manufacturers, and airport operators By Air Marshal (Retd) V.K. Bhatia to unanimously support a new crossindustry forum that will help deliver practical ways of tackling climate change. Committing Virgin Group s plans to invest $3 billion (Rs 13,300 crore) in related initiatives, he said: We need to accelerate 10 SP S AVIATION Issue

13 CIVIL ENVIRONMENT GREEN ENGINES & BEYOND However, contrary to general belief, of the 50 per cent reduction in fuel burn, only 20 per cent can be managed from the engines. The larger segment of 30 per cent is expected to be shared in a 2:1 ratio by incorporating substantial and out of the box changes in airframe designs and, from efficiencies brought about by equally imaginative changes in air traffic management (ATM). For obvious reasons, engine manufacturers were the first ones to address these issues through novel technological innovations. Improvements in propulsive and thermal efficiencies, TAPS (twin annular pre-mixing swirlers) fitted combustion chambers and counter-rotating turbines to reduce energy losses are some of the major areas which are being focused upon to ultimately achieve the desired goals of emissions per passenger kilometre. Pratt & Whitney, in addition, is aiming to drive engine efficiency higher and pollutant emissions and noise levels lower with its geared turbofan a unique design by which a gear system inserted between the fan and the low-pressure (LP) turbine allows the two to run at different speeds to optimise the fan speed independently from the LP speed which eventually leads to greater fuel efficiency and low noise levels. But while the engine makers are trying different avenues of technology to tackle the problem, what are the airframers and the airport authorities doing in their respective areas to achieve the end results? the pace at which we reduce aviation s impact on the environment. We cannot ignore that aviation does create environmental problems, even though only 2 per cent of global CO2 emissions; although equally, it makes a significant contribution to economic and social benefits (8 per cent of the world s GDP). GREEN AVIATION: THE GOALS Spurred by environmental concerns and relentlessly rising fuel costs, jet engine manufacturers have already embarked upon developing green engines that reduce emissions and noise pollution. Next-generation concepts, such as open rotor and embedded engines, to boost efficiency and reduce noise are all being aggressively pursued. But today s new engines, such as the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000, the General Electric GEnx and the Pratt & Whitney geared turbofan, already claim advances in environment-friendly technologies. The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE), an organisation comprising around 40 members including government agencies and private companies like the engine-maker Rolls Royce, has set goals for its members to achieve the following by 2020 compared with the baseline year of 2000: 50 per cent reduction in fuel burn and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per passenger kilometre; 80 per cent reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx); and 50 per cent reduction in the perceived external noise. AIRFRAMES: THE FORCES AT WORK Studying the basic principles of flight establishes a simple diagram of forces in stabilised level flight, with lift (upward) balancing weight (downward) in the vertical axis and similarly, thrust (forward) balancing drag (rearward) in the longitudinal axis. In simplistic terms, greater the weight of an aircraft, greater will be the requirement of lift. On the other hand, greater the lift, greater will be the drag which would require greater amount of thrust to counter it in level flight at a given speed. Greater thrust from the engines would invariably mean higher fuel consumption with the resulting adverse rise in emissions and environmental pollution. The airframers main concern, therefore, has been on how to reduce the weight of a given size of aircraft. The second concern revolves around improving the aerodynamic design of the aircraft to reduce drag. Using alternative sources, rather than depending on engine power, to run the onboard systems can also help enhance fuel efficiency of an aircraft. It would be worth examining as to how have the two leading manufacturers of airliners are addressing these issues. Boeing 787 The Dreamliner: Take the case of the new 787 airframe being developed by the US Boeing Company. Boeing claims the 787 will be at least 20 per cent more fuel efficient than the current competing aircraft, coming close to the international emission goals such as the ones set by ACARE. While one-third of the efficiency gain will come from the engines, another one-third will result from aerodynamic improvements and the increased use of lighter weight composite materials, and the final third from advanced systems. Issue SP S AVIATION 11

14 CIVIL ENVIRONMENT JOLLY GREEN: BOEING 787, AIRBUS A380 One of the most notable features of the 787 is its lightweight construction. Its materials (by weight) are: 50 per cent composite, 20 per cent aluminum, 15 per cent titanium, 10 per cent steel and 5 per cent others. Composite materials are significantly lighter and stronger than traditional aircraft materials, making the 787 a very light aircraft for its capabilities. By volume, the 787 will be 80 per cent composite. Each 787 contains approximately 35 tonnes of composite reinforced plastic, made with 23 tonnes of carbon fibre. Composites are used on fuselage, wings, tail, doors and interior. Aluminum is used on wing and tail leading edges, titanium used mainly on engines with steel used in various places. The other notable contribution to efficiency is the electric architecture which replaces engine-driven bleed air and hydraulic power with electrically powered compressors and pumps. The above innovations will ensure that the 787 measures up to Boeing s claim with regard to fuel efficiency. Airbus A380 The Jolly Green Giant: For Airbus, size does matter which has been so convincingly demonstrated in its superjumbo aircraft, the A380. Compared to Boeing s mainly composite fuselage of 787, the A380 s is mostly aluminum with composite materials making up 25 per cent of its airframe by weight. But what it has lost out on the composites front, it has made up with a unique full-length double decker fuselage design. A380 s fuselage is actually shorter than the other Airbus behemoth A but carries significantly more number of passengers because of the twin-deck configuration. Other weight-saving devices include the use of aluminum power cables instead of copper which adds up to a significant amount due to the length of cables used for an aircraft of this size and complexity. Another first to the A380 commercial jetliner is its central wing box which is made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic, and it is the first to have a wing cross-section that is smoothly contoured. Other commercial airliners have wings that are partitioned span-wise in sections. The flowing, continuous cross-section allows for maximum aerodynamic efficiency. The use of wingtip fences like the A320 and A310 also helps to alleviate the effects of wake turbulence, increasing fuel efficiency and performance. With all these measures to achieve greater fuel efficiency, the sobriquet of The Jolly Giant that A380 has earned for itself could easily be changed to The Jolly Green Giant. INITIATIVES IN AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT A large number of initiatives present in the realm of air traffic management, if implemented in letter and spirit, could substantially reduce the avoidable emissions on ground as well as in the air. However, to achieve this, infrastructure providers, air traffic controllers and the airline operators; Airframers main concern is to reduce weight of a given size of aircraft. The next concern revolves around improving aerodynamic design to reduce drag. all will have to work in unison. One of the core issues to be addressed relates to removing congestions during ground manoeuvring at the airports and eliminating wasteful holdups in the air while queuing up for landings. One innovative idea expounded by one of the leading international airlines the Virgin Atlantic is about creating Starting Grids for all aircraft departures. A starting grid is a holding area, close to the runway, consisting of several parking bays for aircraft. The idea is to tow the aircraft closer to the departure runway before take-off thus substantially reducing the time that engines need to be running on ground. Towed by a tractor/tug from its stand, an aircraft would start its engines once on the starting grid, approximately 10 minutes before take-off. A starting grid would also reduce congestion around stands, meaning aircraft that have recently landed wouldn t have to wait, with their engines running, to get onto the stand. The arriving aircraft could also turn off their engines in Arriving Grids and be towed to their respective stands saving considerably on the unnecessary fuel burn and, in the process, reducing emissions. This could also mean that an aircraft, say flying from JFK airport in New York to London s Heathrow, could carry around two tonnes less fuel for the flight, which would mean less fuel burn in the air, reducing CO2 emissions even further. Another innovation suggested by Virgin is the Continuous Descent Approach. This involves aircraft beginning their descent from high altitudes much earlier, leading to a slower, more fuel efficient and smoother approach before landing. These types of approaches would be easier to adopt with the induction of differential GPS navigation equipment in the overall air traffic management systems. Other initiatives to reduce aircraft weight include painting the exteriors of aircraft with lighter paints, creating lighter fittings onboard, changing oxygen bottles from metal to carbon-fibre materials and using even cargo bins made from lighter, but stronger carbon composites, rather than metal. Some airlines have gone to the extent of removing in-flight magazines from the passengers seats, which, in an aircraft such as the A380, could mean a saving in weight of about two to three tonnes. Virgin Atlantic is even seeking to remove empty champagne and beer bottles, the contents of which have been consumed before leaving the stand in a bid to eliminate every bit of dead weight in the air. There are also calls for adopting a single sky system (from air traffic control point of view) which would optimise air routings by aircraft making full use of favourable winds aloft and direct routings, like migratory birds. The International Air Transport Association predicts the environment would be spared 12 per cent of global CO2 emissions if air traffic control systems were more efficient. Evidently, the industry is determined to adopt every means and measure to cut down its contribution to global warming. SP 12 SP S AVIATION Issue

15 ONE TO ONE EUROFIGHTER Matthias Schmidlin, Eurofighter Campaign Director, India in a candid interview to SP s Aviation underlines the benefits that would accrue to India if it accepts the EADS offer to join the Eurofighter programme. He also elaborates on the European consortium s interest in the country s LCA and MMRCA programmes. India will gain politically, industrially, operationally SP s Aviation (SP s): The European Aeronautic Defence and Space (EADS) Company has invited India to be a part of its prestigious Eurofighter project, offering Indian companies a platform to enhance skills in the aviation field. What are the areas in which EADS would expect the Indian aerospace industry to participate? Matthias Schmidlin (MS): On behalf of the Eurofighter consortium, EADS invited India to join the Eurofighter programme as a partner because we want India to become a member of the successful Eurofighter family. We are interested in a long-lasting political, industrial and military partnership and, therefore, the door is widely open for India. The four Eurofighter partners have intensive experience in international cooperation because the combat aircraft is developed and manufactured as a quadronational programme from the very beginning. Opportunities for India s industrial cooperation in the Eurofighter programme could involve future capabilities of this combat aircraft, such as the development of a new-generation radar, avionics, electronic warfare and so on. Our offset offer, which we delivered on August 4, will leverage the strength of the whole Eurofighter consortium, including strong aerospace and defence players such as EADS, BAE Systems, Finmeccanica, Rolls Royce, MTU and others. This will give India access to an attractive international sourcing network of unparalleled scope. On the other side, EADS is ready to support India s Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) programme in order to make it a real success. SP s: To what extent do you think this move is likely to improve chances of EADS winning the contract for India s Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MMRCA)? MS: I am convinced that our invitation to India to become a new partner of the Eurofighter family was the right decision. We are a strong and reliable partner and look forward to establish closer relations with this rapidly growing country. All in all, I see a win-win-situation on three levels. Politically, the procurement decision in favour of the Eurofighter Typhoon will strengthen India s political relations with Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK as Europe s leading industrial nations. The four nations, the four air forces and the four Eurofighter partner companies will provide full support to stimulate economic growth and industrial development in India. Industrially, the Eurofighter partner companies will provide the most attractive industrial partnership to India, paving the Issue SP S AVIATION 13

16 ONE TO ONE EUROFIGHTER way for the country to become a self-reliant global aerospace and defence player. Operationally, Eurofighter is a multi-role combat aircraft which employs the latest technologies to deliver outstanding operational performance with the flexibility and development potential to fulfill operational commanders needs for the next decades. Eurofighter is acknowledged for its air-to-air superiority and combined with its outstanding air-to-ground capabilities, it delivers the required mission effectiveness to meet the operational requirements of the Indian Air Force (IAF). SP s: Is the offer for participation open to the private sector as well? MS: The offer stands primarily with state-owned companies, but we will also cooperate with private companies as well as small and medium-sized suppliers. Till date, we have signed more than 20 MoUs with Indian defence companies and we are talking to them to explore common business opportunities for the benefit of both sides. SP s: In what specific way do you see the Indian aerospace industry benefiting from this offer? MS: My forecast is after the MMRCA procurement decision and the following industrial set-up for a final assembly line, India s aerospace and defence companies will benefit from a strong economic growth and an enlargement of technological know-how. The Eurofighter partners will offer plenty of opportunities to India and EADS, which is leading this campaign, is currently deploying a group-wide industrial partnership comprising development, manufacturing, training and through-life-support. A concrete example for this is Airbus which has already initiated projects such as the Airbus Engineering Centre, Pilot Training Centre and a cooperation with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for A320 passenger doors. SP s: Would acceptance of this offer entitle India to participate in the development of other fixed wing aircraft, helicopters or weapon systems? MS: Yes, the four Eurofighter partner companies offer a full range of aerospace and defence products and we are ready With more than 148 aircraft deliveries to Germany, UK, Spain, Italy and Austria, the Eurofighter Typhoon is a fully operational weapon system. Since the aircraft s entry into service in spring 2004, its order book has increased to more than 700 orders from seven nations, including Austria and Saudi Arabia as first export customers. Countries such as Greece, Turkey, Switzerland, Japan, Bulgaria and Romania have also shown strong interest. Order Book: FACTS & FIGURES Germany 180 United Kingdom 232 Spain 87 Italy 121 Austria 15 Saudi Arabia 72 Procuring the Eurofighter Typhoon will strengthen India s political relations with Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. to jointly identify areas where India could become a partner. SP s: Has EADS initiated any dialogue with HAL to explore the possibility of collaboration and cooperation? MS: We have an intensive dialogue with HAL about future opportunities of cooperation in terms of offset for the MMRCA competition and we will inform the public about this once all details are clarified. SP s: Did you find the request for proposal (RFP) by the Government of India for the MMRCA deal to be comprehensive and easily comprehensible? MS: The RFP was quite demanding but our team worked very hard to deliver our bid proposal to the Indian Ministry of Defence (MoD) on April 28. We are fully convinced that we prepared a proposal that will be very attractive for the IAF. SP s: Briefly describe the ingredients of the Eurofighter Tranche 2 Upgrade Programme. MS: The so-called Phase 1 Enhancement for Tranche 2 aircraft will focus on the enhancement of Eurofighter s airto-ground capabilities and interoperability in accordance with future requirements. This will include the integration of new weapons like Paveway IV and the Enhanced GBU- 16 Laser Guided Bombs, alongside integrating a Laser Designator Pod into Tranche 2 aircraft. The Human Machine Interface will also receive performance upgrades required for the simultaneous swing role operation, allowing a pilot to continue a bomb run while at the same time fight air attacks by minimising the pilot s workload in complex air warfare scenarios. The final Tranche 1 capability already covers air-to-ground operations with Paveway II and GBU- 10/16 Laser Guided Bombs plus conventional bombs and the gun. SP s: Has the Typhoon been fully developed to undertake the complete range of ground attack roles? MS: Yes, and I can give you an excellent example for that. While taking part in Green Flag, a major exercise held at Nellis United States Air Force Base in Nevada, seven Eurofighter Typhoons from XI Squadron, based at RAF Coningsby/Lincolnshire, dropped munitions and fired cannons with such precision that these have been declared combat ready by the target date of July 1. Wing Commander Gavin Parker, Officer Commanding XI Squadron, said during the pre-exercise training at Davis Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona that his squadron dropped a total of 67 munitions comprising 43 Paveway II bombs, eight enhanced Paveway IIIs and 161,000 lb (454 kg) free fall weapons. He said and I quote: It has been an outstanding success. The aircraft loved the hot and dry conditions. It achieved a 99.3 per cent strike rate at Davis Monthan, which means we achieved 99.3 per cent serviceability. We only lost two sorties, one due to high wind when no one flew, and the other to a technical failure again, unprecedented in my knowledge and experience. 14 SP S AVIATION Issue

17 ONE TO ONE EUROFIGHTER SP s: Would EADS be prepared for full transfer of technology (ToT) for the Eurofighter Typhoon if contracted or are there any restrictions in respect of sensitive technologies? MS: We think ToT is a challenge for all competitors. In our view, ToT will happen in an incremental way. First, we start with the deliveries of 18 aircraft as stipulated in the RFP. Then we would build up a final assembly line in India. This will be followed by ToT in the areas of equipment and the development of capabilities. We will discuss with the Indian MoD how we can fulfill its expectations so that both sides are satisfied. SP s: India has also embarked on a collaboration with Russia for a Fifth Generation combat aircraft. Do you see any conflict between this programme and the MMRCA project, especially since the time frame for acquiring the two is likely to be nearly similar? MS: This question should be addressed to the Indian MoD. SP s: How does the Eurofighter Typhoon compare with the F-18 in terms of generation and technology? MS: First of all, I want to highlight that the Eurofighter Typhoon is the most modern combat aircraft currently available in the world market. Secondly, the Eurofighter is fully operational in four countries and with more than 700 orders from six customers (Germany, UK, Spain, Italy, Austria and Saudi Arabia), the Eurofighter Typhoon is Eurofighter delivers the required mission effectiveness to meet the operational requirements of the IAF. a mature and stabile combat aircraft programme. Thirdly, most impressive key feature of the Eurofighter Typhoon is its multi- and swing-role capability, which provides military commanders with enormous flexibility. This means that the aircraft can fly either air-to-air or air-to-ground missions or both sorties at the same time. Also, in terms of weapons payload, the aircraft is capable of carrying six air-to-air missiles plus additional air-to-surface weapons, such as Paveway II or GBU-10/-16, or external fuel tanks on seven further hard points. Another operational benefit is the installation of the electronic warfare equipment in the wing tips without sacrificing external stores capacity. Looking at these impressive capabilities, we are optimistic whenever the Eurofighter Typhoon is compared with the F-18. SP s: As a unified entity of nations, does Europe have political leverage as compared to the US or Russia to swing the deal in the favour of EADS? MS: The success story of Airbus has clearly demonstrated Europe s industrial capabilities in commercial aircraft manufacturing. In military aviation, Eurofighter has also a quite impressive track record if you look for instance at the customers and the orderbook of this quadronational programme. The Eurofighter enjoys the strong political support of four governments in Europe, four Air Forces and four leading European aerospace and defence companies. This sums up to a political heavyweight and I am strongly convinced that India is Europe s partner of choice. SP Issue SP S AVIATION 15

18 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION C O V E R S T O R Y Trendy The range of offerings now available in the business jet segment of general aviation is quite wide. Any firm with travel requirements should be able to find a suitable aircraft for its needs. By LeRoy Cook, Missouri, USA PHOTOGRAPHS: LEROY COOK & RESPECTIVE MANUFACTURERS b UILDING AIRCRAFT SPECIFICALLY TAR- GETED TO THE NEEDS OF BUSINESS TRAVEL has not always been possible. In the early days of business aviation, company executives made do with converted military and airline airplanes, which often were overly large and costly, both to acquire and to operate. Available general aviation airplanes, on the other hand, were too small and lacked performance. Fifty years ago, few business aircraft options existed above the Beechcraft Model 18 Twin Beech, even though airline fleets were rapidly converting to jet aircraft. During the following decade, this situation would be corrected. In the usual manner of visionary industry leaders, four men saw an opportunity to build airplanes for the business jet market. Dwane Wallace, President of Cessna Aircraft, Marcel Dassault, Chairman of Dassault, William P. Lear of Learjet and Leon Swirbul, President of Grumman Aircraft, pursued different means to achieve the end result all highly successfully. Cessna Aircraft was known primarily as a builder of light single and twin-engine piston airplanes, but it had also supplied the T-37 jet trainer for the US Air Force since the mid- 1950s, giving it valuable experience. Dwane Wallace correctly saw the need for a light fanjet-powered business transport that could service small airfields as well as large metropolitan airports. His Citation 500 would have a straight wing for good low-speed handling and, while it cruised slower than other business jets, it offered jet comfort while flying from 1,000- metre runways. First marketed in 1972, the original Citation has been joined by both lighter and heavier variants, culminating in the owner-flown Citation Mustang, the Mach.92 Ci- 16 SP S AVIATION Issue

19 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION SPEED & ELEGANCE: HONDAJET (FACING PAGE) IS A NEW ENTRANT WHILE CESSNA COLUMBUS ENJOYS A MARKET NICHE Jetsetters tation X speedster and a large-cabin Citation Columbus 850 under development. French designer Marcel Dassault conceived a fast twin-engine fanjet transport called the Mystere 20. Initially marketed in the US by Pan American Airways in 1965 as the Fan Jet Falcon, the Falcon series has expanded into a well-known and desirable family of business aircraft. Performance has always been the primary goal of Dassault airplanes, and the Falcons deliver it with beauty and style. In the early 1960s, inventor and aviation enthusiast Bill Lear s vision of a small executive jet required starting his own airplane company as well as adapting a Swiss military airplane into what became the Lear Jet. Small and speedy from the outset, the Lear legacy is now carried on by Bombardier Aerospace through a wide range of aircraft. Grumman Aircraft sought to diversify from its military products by developing the Gulfstream series of executive transports, beginning cautiously in 1958 with the Gulfstream I, which was powered by Rolls Royce Dart turbopropeller engines. It was soon replaced by the Gulfstream II with Spey fanjet engines, introduced in Grumman s Gulfstream division was later sold, but through the years the company now known as Gulfstream Aerospace has continually built the most sought-after of executive aircraft. This report will present each company s current offerings. THE CESSNA CITATIONS Cessna Aircraft Company has continually expanded and refined its Citation jet line, in both upward and downward directions. The gamble to build a late-arriving business jet that was slower and smaller than almost any competitor turned out to be a wise bet indeed. The original straight-wing Citation could reach small towns with jet speed, and soon grew into longercabin and swept-wing models. Today, Cessna begins its line of jets with the Citation Mustang, powered by Pratt & Whitney 615F fanjets of 1,450 lbs thrust each. The Mustang seats six and is often flown single-pilot, like most smaller Citations. It cruises at 340 knots and can climb as high as 41,000 ft. Next and larger, the CJ1 first introduced as the Citation- Jet in 1993 as a modern replacement for the original Citation 500 was the first Cessna jet to be powered by Williams fanjets. In its current version, the CJ1 uses the FJ44-1AP, developing 1,925 lbs of thrust. The more-popular CJ2, introduced in 2001, uses FJ44-3A-24 engines of 2,490 lbs thrust; the CJ2 seats eight like the CJ1, but with greater comfort in its cabin, longer by 3 ft. Both are now being sold as CJ1+ and CJ2+ models, reflecting instrument panel upgrades with Collins Pro Line 21 glass cockpit avionics. The CJ3 s cabin is stretched nearly 2 ft longer than the CJ2, using Williams FJ44-3A engines developing 2,780 lbs of thrust. Its increased wingspan and fuel capacity placed it in a new level of capability for the CJ line. The coming CJ4, now in flight test, uses FJ44-4A engines of 3,400 lbs thrust and will offer even more interior space and higher performance, incorporating a new, slightly-swept wing and a fuselage that is four inches wider than other CJ models. Continuing with the Encore, the legacy Citation line uses Pratt & Whitney Canada PW535B engines of 3,400 lbs thrust. The Citation Encore is vastly improved over the first Citations, with a cabin 17 ft long, trailing-link main landing gear for softer touchdowns, single-point refuelling, and the + configuration, featuring Collins Proline 21 EFIS in the cockpit. Seven to eight passengers are carried by the Encore. Citation XLS features a bigger cabin, PW545C engines of Issue SP S AVIATION 17

20 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION 4,119 lbs thrust and the + upgrade as well. With a 20,200-lb gross weight, the XLS is the largest of the straight-wing Citations, offering seating for eight to nine yet preserving shortfield capability; standard-day, full gross weight runway takeoff requirement is only 3,550 ft. The XLS s chief feature is its marriage of a taller 5-ft-8-in cabin, similar to larger Citations, to an optimised straight wing that cruises at up to 437 knots. EYEING THE MARKET: (CLOCKWISE FROM EXTREME LEFT) DASSAULT S FALCON 2000LX; GULFSTREAM G150; SJ30 BY SINO SWEARINGEN The Citation Sovereign uses an entirely different wing than the smaller, slower Cessna jets, with a swept leading edge. It also has more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW306C engines of 5,770 lbs thrust. These boost the maximum cruise speed up to 458 knots, yet allow it to use runways only 3,600 ft long. The cabin offers seating for 10 to 12 with two sets of club-style seating. Top of the Cessna line is the Citation X (pronounced Ten ), the fastest business jet available, with a high-speed cruise of Mach.92. Huge AE3007C1 Rolls Royce Allison engines of 6,764 lbs thrust make this possible. The Citation X can cover the New York to London route in six hours; Cessna claims that no other business jet can fly 3,000 nautical miles more quickly. Coming over the horizon is the Citation Columbus, a largecabin intercontinental jet that will reach the market in Using new Pratt & Whitney 810 engines with 8,830 lbs of thrust, it is expected to have a 4,000 mile range at Mach.80. It will offer seating for eight to 10 and much more spacious accommodations than even the Citation X, with a cabin over SP S AVIATION Issue

21 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION ft long, offering more than 6 ft of headroom. The Columbus will be Cessna s first foray into large-cabin jets. DASSAULT FALCON AIRCRAFT The Dassault Falcon family consists of two- and three-engine configurations, the latter giving added options during extended over-water routes in the case of an engine failure. The three engines of Dassault s larger jets also minimise takeoff runway QUALITY OPTIONS: (RIGHT) GULFSTREAM requirements, which are predicated on G550; (BELOW) CESSNA the loss of one engine at V1 speed. The CITATION ENCORE AND Falcon 2000 twin jet features a larger EMBRAER S PHENOM cabin cross section than the earlier Falcon 20s, sharing the wing and forward fuselage of the triple-engine 900 model. Both the 2000 and 900 are available with longer-range fuel tankage, initially called the EX for extended range, but now known as the LX version. However, the standard DX variant is more than adequate for many operators. The 2000DX, for instance, has an IFR-reserves range of 3,250 nautical miles, while the 2000LX can cover an astounding 4,000 nautical miles. The Falcon 2000 models are powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PW308Cs of 7,000-lb thrust. The cabin is over 26 ft long, with 6-ft, 2-inches of headroom. The LX version grosses 1,200 lbs heavier than the 2000DX, with 2,060 lbs of added fuel available. Landing weight for both aircraft is 39,300 lbs. Falcon s 900-series features a 7-ft greater cabin length over the Falcon The Falcon 900DX flies 4,100 nautical miles with reserves, powered by three Honeywell TFE turbofan engines of 5,000 lbs thrust. Using the same wing and engines, the 900EX offers 400 nautical miles of additional range with 2,170 lbs more fuel available, and it does this with eight It s as if we read the minds of India s business leaders. In many ways, we did. Some Citation business jets are so perfectly suited to doing business in India, it s as if they were created specifically for that purpose. Here s why: Every Citation is based on what customers tell us they need. Those customers come from all over the world, but they all have three things in common: They are poised on the brink of a major breakthrough in the growth of their business. They are seeing opportunities like never before. And they are looking for the undeniably best way to seize them. Their answer can be your answer the best-selling business jets and propeller aircraft in the world. For a free, no-obligation analysis of what a Citation business jet can do for your company call Mike McGreevy at or visit Citation.Cessna.com. C e s s n a A i r c r a f t S u r e T h i n g Issue SP S AVIATION 19

22 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION can provide world-spanning wings to the business traveler. Bombardier offers the Global 5000 and Global Express models, giving it a wide range of business jets with varying capability and capacity. passengers on board. The 900LX, by comparison, incorporates nearly 7 ft more wingspan with the same takeoff weight and ENDURING LEGACIES: (CLOCKWISE FROM TOP) DASSAULT FALCON 900 DX; BOMBARDIER S LEARJET 45 XR; LEARJET 60 XR fuel capacity as the 900EX, allowing it to fly 4,800 nautical miles at long-range cruise with the same eight passengers. Falcon s large-cabin long-range airplane is the 7X, featuring a wing span of 86 ft and a takeoff weight of 69,000 lbs. It is powered by three Pratt & Whitney Canada 307A engines of 6,402 lbs thrust, and with 31,940 lbs of fuel capacity it can fly nearly 6,000 nautical miles non-stop, with eight passengers and a crew of three, while maintaining a Mach.80 cruise speed. The cabin length of 39 ft allows great interior flexibility for such ambitious missions. The 7X is the first Falcon to incorporate an electronic fly-by-wire control system, rather than conventional hydraulic-boosted controls. This lack of cables and linkages allows the use of side-stick controls in the cockpit, integrating perfectly with the EASy electronic flight instrumentation and management system. BOMBARDIER: THE LEAR LEGACY Perhaps the consummate originator of the business jet concept resides in the Bombardier family of corporate aircraft, which has grown into a three-segment purveyor of business jets the Learjet, Challenger and Global. The original Learjet, developed in the 1960s by innovator William P. Lear, has today grown into the Learjet 40XR, 45XR, 60XR and 85 models, the latter under development as an entirely-new composite airframe while the present Learjets are all-aluminum aircraft. The Learjet 85 is expected to reach market in 2012, using Pratt & Whitney PW307B engines of 6,100 lbs thrust. The Learjet 85 will add about five inches of headroom and cabin width over the nextsmaller Learjet 60XR. After leaving the Learjet company, Bill Lear embarked on a larger mission, to develop a stand-up cabin fanjet that would provide executives with every amenity. His visionary airplane became the Canadair Challenger, and when Bombardier acquired Canadair as well as the Learjet corporation, the current product line was formed. The original Challenger 600 eventually stretched into the CRJ airliner series. The corporate Challenger aircraft are the 300, 605 and 850 models. The larger size and weight-lifting ability of the CRJ lent itself to development into the Global long-range business jets, which GULFSTREAM AEROSPACE Gulfstream s jets are no longer the familiar G-III, G-IV and G-V, successors to the Gulfstream II. Instead, the G-V became the Gulfstream 550 and the G- IV is now the Gulfstream 450, while the Gulfstream 350 is a slightly-modified lighter version of the G-IV. With the acquisition of the Israel Aircraft Industries line, there are now Gulfstream 200 and 150 models. This gives Gulfstream Aerospace a full range of business jets, from the intercontinental 550 to the widebody 200, formerly the IAI Galaxy, and to the versatile 150, formerly the Astra 1125 before it acquired a larger cabin. Under development is an even-larger, longerrange Gulfstream 650, which will supplant the 550 as the king of the business jet hierarchy. The Gulfstream 150 is now a mid-size jet, with 2,954 nautical miles of range carrying four passengers plus crew from a 5,000 ft runway. Cabin payload with maximum fuel is 850 lbs, and the cabin is usually outfitted for six to eight seats. Cabin length is 17 ft 8 in, and width is 5 ft 9 in, compared to 7 ft 2 in for the G-200. Power for the G-150 is provided by two Honeywell TFE AR-200G fanjets, rated at 4,420 lbs thrust. Wingspan of 55 ft 7 in is slightly less than the fuselage length of 56 ft 9 in. Marketed as a large-cabin mid-range jet, the Gulfstream 200 spans out to 3,400 nautical miles at Mach.75 while carrying four passengers plus crew. In length, the cabin measures 24 ft 5 in, typically outfitted for eight to 10 seats. Payload with maximum fuel, however, is 650 lbs, due to the 15,000 lb fuel capacity. Power is provided by two Pratt & Whitney Canada 306A fanjets of 6,040 lbs thrust. At the 35,450 maximum takeoff weight, runway requirement is 6,083 ft. Identical to the G-450 but with 3,500 lbs less fuel capacity, leaving it with 3,800 nautical miles of range at Mach.8, the Gulfstream 350 is still quite capable. With takeoff weight reduced by 3,000 lbs from the G-450, the runway requirement is reduced to 5,050 ft. Thus, the G-350 represents an excellent value in a large-cabin jet if long range is of limited interest. The Gulfstream 450 offers a 5-ft shorter cabin while retaining most of the G-550 features, its range and speed lessened by a 15-ft-8-in smaller wing. The engines are Rolls-Royce Tay Mk 611-8C bypass jets, offering 13,850 lbs thrust. Range is a quite respectable at 4,350 nautical miles at Mach.80, operating from a 5,450 ft takeoff runway. Cabin seating is typically 12 to 16, with 1,800 lbs available for payload with max fuelling. 20 SP S AVIATION Issue

23 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION Gulfstream 550 appeared in 1995 as the Gulfstream V and has reigned supreme ever since. Price seems to be no barrier to those seeking its capability, which will be around $45 million (Rs 197 crore), complete with a worthy interior. Powered by two BMW-Rolls Royce BR710 G4-11 engines of 15,385 lbs thrust, it can reach 51,000 ft on its huge 93.5-ft wing, and the cockpit is outfitted with every available innovation, including heads-up display and synthetic vision. The G-550 seats up to 19, but usually is outfitted for 14 in comfort. The G-550 s mission is to range up to 5,800 nautical miles at Mach.80, or 5,100 nautical miles at Mach.85, all while carrying eight passengers and a crew of four. Even with maximum fuel of 35,200 lbs, it can still carry 2,300 lbs of payload, requiring only a 5,150 ft runway for departure. Thus, the Gulfstream formula is evident; a luxurious cabin on a giant wing optimised for range and altitude capability, pushed along by huge engines. Scheduled to enter service in 2012, the Gulfstream 650 will be a radical departure for the company in that it incorporates VARIED WINGS: (ABOVE) GULFSTREAM G650; (RIGHT) HAWKER BEECHCRAFT 900XP SHOT FROM TWO DIFFERENT ANGLES the first change in fuselage cross-section in its history: a flattened oval shape that results in a cabin 14 inches wider and 3 inches taller than the G-550. The wing will span 99 ft 7 in, gross weight is targeted for 99,600 lbs and the cabin will be a huge 53 ft 6 in in length. Range is projected to be 5,000 nautical miles at an astounding Mach.90, or 7,000 nautical miles at Mach.85. Power is to be provided by two BMW- Rolls Royce BR 725 engines of 16,100 lbs thrust. The price, if you have to ask, is projected to be between $50 million (Rs 220 crore) and $60 million (Rs 260 crore). Such originating companies represent the vision and design capability to meet the needs of business, with years of experience behind them. Their products offer corporate users an array of choices when it comes to flight needs. SOMETHING IN A LARGER SIZE? However, if the Gulfstream 650 is not sufficiently spacious for a corporate transport, the Boeing Business Jet division of Boeing and its competitor, Airbus Industries Corporate Jetliners unit, are capable of delivering large-cabin airplanes custom-outfitted for business use. In a way, converting airliners into company planes represents a return to the roots of business aviation. However, Boeing Business Jets (BBJs) and Airbus Corporate Jets (ACJs) are much more specifically designed around corporate needs than the modified DC-3s of the 1950s. The BBJs are usually based on the 737 airliner, one of three sizes of the popular baby Boeing, although airplanes up to 747s have been converted. The BBJs have interiors starting at 800 sq. ft more than twice that of the largest conventional business jet. Range is brought up to intercontinental standards by adding fuel tanks in the cargo holds, allowing a BBJ to fly 6,200 nautical miles with eight passengers. The based BBJ2 is 20 ft longer than the smaller BBJ, and the BBJ3 adds another 8 ft of length. Power is provided by CFM56-7 engines of 27,300 lbs thrust. Maximum takeoff weight begins at 171,000 lbs. A typical Airbus Corporate Jetliner is a slightly shortened version of the A319 airliner, although the four-engine or widebody Airbus airframes can be used. Even the smallest ACJ s fuselage is a foot longer than the BBJ and its cabin is half-a-foot wider than the Boeing aircraft. Overall, the basic ACJ cabin measures about 850 sq. ft in size. As a flyby-wire airplane, the ACJ cockpit is fitted with side-stick controls. Power is provided by CFM 56-5B7 fanjets, or optionally by IAE V2527M-A5 engines, both delivering about 25,000 lbs of thrust. With optional long-range tanks fitted, the eight-passenger range is almost 6,000 nautical miles. Advantages of the airliner-based business jets are cabin size, airline-proven dispatch reliability and availability of parts and service anywhere in the world. Not to be overlooked is the live-aboard capability of these flying yachts, with their 7-ft headroom and 12-ft cabin width. The disadvantages are the necessarily larger ramp and runway requirements, economics and perceived footprint. EMBRAER The Brazilian plane-maker Embraer burst onto the corporate scene after initial forays into the commuter airline market, with its Legacy 600 business jet, and is now offering a line of aircraft from the light-jet Phenom 100 to the regional-jet based Legacy 600 intercontinental airplane. The present line includes the coming Legacy 450 and Legacy 500, and the Legacy 600 and Legacy Shuttle, based on ERJ airliners, along with new Phenom 100 and 300 light jets. The Legacy airplanes are powered by Honeywell HTF7000- series engines in the 6,000-lb-thrust range. Deliveries of the Issue SP S AVIATION 21

24 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION Legacy 450 are to start in 2013, while the Legacy 500 will enter service in The Phenom light jets are powered by Pratt and Whitney PW617F engines of 1,615 lbs thrust and a cabin roughly 5 ft in diameter. All Embraer interiors are heavily influenced by the BMW Design Group, reflected in the luxurious styling and comfort. HAWKER BEECHCRAFT When one of the oldest makers of business aircraft, Beech Aircraft, became a business jet supplier, it was by initially acquiring the Mitsubishi Diamond jet and polishing it into the Beechjet 400 (now the Hawker 400XP), then buying the respected Hawker 125. Hawker Beechcraft (then Raytheon) then developed the much-larger Hawker Horizon, now the Hawker 4000, after introducing its own Premier light jet. The Premier IA was recently joined by a forthcoming Premier II. The Beech Premier IA is a six to eight place jet that can be flown single-pilot, powered by Williams FJ44-2A turbofan engines of 2,300 lbs thrust. Takeoff weight is 12,500 lbs and max cruise speed is 450 knots. The Premier IA s fuselage is built of carbon fiber filament to reduce weight and allow more interior room, while the wing and T-tail are made of aluminum. Fourpassenger range is nearly 1,200 nautical miles and takeoff runway requirement just under 3,800 ft. The Premier II will carry Williams FJ44-3AP engines of 3,000-lbs thrust, allowing takeoff weight to move to 13,800 lbs and a range of 1,500 nautical miles, thanks to winglets added to the wingtips. Cruise speed will be about 465 knots. Deliveries are to begin in Hawker 400XP continues in production, powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT15D-5 engines of 2,900 lbs thrust. The speedy 400A cruises at up to 450 knots, seating six to nine passengers and offering a 1,482 nautical mile range. Spoiler lateral control is employed, allowing full-span flaps to be fitted, which reduces takeoff distance to 3,906 ft. Well-respected, the Hawker business jet was one of the first to be built specifically for corporate mission, with no military aspirations. Now powered by Honeywell TFE-731-5BR engines of 4,660-lbs thrust, the Hawker can seat eight comfortably and deliver a range of 2,640 nautical miles, although not simultaneously. The current offerings encompass the Hawker 750, 850XP and 900XP. To reach additional buyers, the Hawker 4000 was recently certified, with a composite fuselage similar to the Premier 1, which gives it more space for its passengers and, with the 6,900-lbs-thrust Pratt & Whitney PW308A engines, a range of 3,200 nautical miles. SINO SWEARINGEN SJ30-2 Despite a lengthy development and challenges in achieving production, the Sino Swearingen SJ30 is the fastest and longest-ranging light jet powered by Williams FJ-44 fanjets. It achieves its outstanding performance with a swept wing and sleek aerodynamics. New ownership by middle-eastern investors has renewed the company, which remains the performance leader in the light-jet category. The SJ30-2 is powered by FJ44-2A engines producing 2,300 lbs of thrust each, and it carries enough fuel to range out to 2,500 nautical miles. Sino Swearingen s light jet has a certified ceiling of 49,000 ft and it can achieve 476 knots at 37,000 ft. THE COMING (AND GOING) OF VLJS Volatile has to be the operative word for a crowded field of Very Light Jets (VLJs), mostly aimed at the owner-flown or light business market. The ups-and-downs of company fortunes are of daily interest and, while some models have achieved certification, finding capital and a marketing niche has not always been easy. Adam Aircraft s A700 twin-boom composite jet an outgrowth of its A500 push-pull piston twin was placed on hold after Adam suffered bankruptcy and the assets are now in Russian hands, where it hopes to find resuscitation. Grob Aerospace, originally a German builder of fiberglass sailplanes, has similarly slipped into receivership and hopes to find new financing for its SP n twin jet. The Eclipse 500, once promised to deliver twin-jet personal flying for less than $1 million (Rs 4 crore), now is being delivered for over twice that sum, and its founding promoter Vern Raburn is no longer associated with the company. The future of the Eclipse 400 single-engine concept jet is under a cloud until the fate of the 500 is cleared. Grob s all-composite SPn personal jet is well along in development, after the tragic loss of the prototype airplane, and Diamond s D-Jet single-engine jet is similarly flying with future plans unclear. Meanwhile, Cirrus Aircraft is flying a testbed of its SJ50 Vision Embraer s present line includes the coming Legacy 450 and Legacy 500, and the Legacy 600 and Legacy Shuttle, based on ERJ airliners, alongwith new Phenom 100 and 300 light jets jet single, and Piper recently made the first flight of its PiperJet, a single-engine jet that draws on the Malibu Meridian turboprop. Cirrus and Diamond airplanes seem to be taking a practical approach to the owneroperator s needs and abilities by setting the maximum operating altitude in the mid-toupper 20s, which is less risky for single-crew pilots of limited experience. Speed and range will necessarily be compromised, but will still offer a step up for respective companies owner-flown buyer. Automotive giant Honda is boldly stepping into aviation with dual development programmes, as it is powering the new Hondajet with its own engine design, the Honda HF120 of 1,670 lbs thrust, mounted unconventionally on above-the-wing pylons. The homebuilt jet market, once seen as an entry path for start-up companies to quickly get their jets into the hands of buyers, may not be so easily opened. The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has recently given notice that it will strictly enforce the amateur-built rules, which allow kit airplanes to be licensed for an individual s education and enjoyment. No contract building or token builder participation will be allowed. The major portion of a project, defined by FAA inspection, must be completed by each builder. It remains to be seen if the burgeoning light jet segment is truly viable and if it offers useful transportation for executive travel. Support from an established company with a track record is the logical criterion. In any event, the range of offerings now available in the business jet segment of general aviation is quite wide. Any firm with travel requirements should be able to find a suitable aircraft for its needs. SP 22 SP S AVIATION Issue

25 CIVIL BUSINESS AVIATION BUSINESS JETS: CONTOURS & CHARACTERISTICS Model Wing span (ft) Length (ft) Height (ft) Weight (lbs) Fuel (lbs) Range (n.mi.) Max speed (knots) Take-off (ft) BOMBARDIER Learjet ,000 5,375 1, ,680 7 Learjet 45XR ,500 6,062 1, ,040 7 Learjet 60XR ,500 7,910 2, ,450 9 Learjet ,500 n/a 3,000 Mach.82 4,800 8 Challenger ,850 14,150 3, ,810 9 Challenger ,200 20,000 4, , Challenger ,000 18,274 2, , Global ,500 39,250 5, , Global Express ,000 44,975 6, , CESSNA Mustang ,645 2,580 1, ,110 5 CJ ,700 3,220 1, ,250 6 CJ ,500 3,930 1, ,360 6 CJ ,870 4,710 1, ,180 8 CJ n/a n/a 1, ,300 8 Encore ,300 5,400 1, , XLS ,200 6,740 1, ,560 8 Sovereign ,300 11,216 2, , CitationX ,700 12,931 3, , Columbus 80.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 4, , DASSAULT FALCON 2000DX ,000 14,600 3, , LX ,200 16,600 4, , DX ,700 18,830 4, , EX ,300 21,000 4, , LX ,300 21,000 4, n/a 14 7X ,000 31,940 5, , DIAMOND D-Jet ,600 1,740 1, n/a 5 ECLIPSE ,000 1,698 1, ,345 6 EMBRAER Phenom n/a n/a 1, ,400 6 Phenom n/a n/a 1, ,700 6 Legacy n/a n/a 2,300 Mach.78 4,000 8 Legacy n/a n/a 3,000 Mach.80 4,600 8 Legacy ,604 18,170 3,250 Mach.80 5, GROB SP n ,889 4,400 1, ,000 8 GULFSTREAM G ,100 10,300 2, ,000 8 G ,450 15,000 3, , G ,900 26,000 3, , G ,900 29,500 4, , G ,000 41,300 6, , G ,600 44,200 7, , HAWKER BEECHCRAFT Premier 1A ,500 3,670 1, ,792 7 Hawker 400XP ,300 4,912 1, ,906 9 Hawker n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Hawker 850XP ,000 10,000 2, , Hawker 900XP n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Hawker ,500 14,600 3, , HONDA AIRCRAFT COMPANY HondaJet ,200 2,300 1, ,120 6 PIPER PiperJet n/a n/a 1, n/a 7 SINO SWEARINGEN SJ ,950 4,850 2, ,939 6 Seats (max) Issue SP S AVIATION 23

26 ON CAMERA LABACE 08 Roll Out the Red Carpet Ricardo Nogueira voiced doubts about whether the conveniently located space at the old VASP hangars will be available next year and if there will be room for the growing event PHOTOGRAPHS: FLICKER.COM August 14 to 16, São Paulo s Congonhas International Airport was buzzing with a record number of 11,300 visitors and a total of 108 exhibitors as the three-day Latin American Business Aviation Conference & Exhibition (LABACE) generated business reportedly worth around $400 million (Rs 1,778.5 crore). Addressing the opening general session, Brazilian Minister of Defense Nelson Jobim was candid in his appraisal of the country s disappointing aviation infrastructure which, he said, posed a serious hurdle to what is at present the fastest-growing economy in Latin America. We need to rethink our aviation infrastructure. We need a sense of urgency, he emphasised. Highlighting the market potential for business jets in Latin America, sponsor Associação Brasileira de Aviação Geral s (ABAG) outgoing President Rui Thomaz de Aquino drew focus on the 308 aircraft delivered in the region last year. As for the region s aging fleet, he noted that 52 per cent of executive jets and 66 per cent of helicopters are at least 15 years old. ABAG is on the look out for a new venue for the event as Aquino s successor Ricardo Nogueira voiced doubts about whether the conveniently located space at the old VASP hangars will be available next year and if there will be room for the growing event. We are considering those options and reviewing the 2008 show to see what changes we might make in 2009, he added. The date for LABACE 2009 is yet to be finalised. SP 24 SP S AVIATION Issue

27 ON CAMERA LABACE 08 BEVY OF CLASSIC OPTIONS: FACING PAGE: EMBRAER LAID EMPHASIS ON THE LEGACY; (INSET) LUÌS CARLOS AFFONSO, EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, EXECUTIVE JETS OF EMBRAER THIS PAGE: DASSAULT FALCON 200LX (TOP) AND FALCON 900 EX (INSET); GULFSTREAM S FAMILY INCLUDED THE G150 (ABOVE) AND G550 (RIGHT) Issue SP S AVIATION 25

28 ON CAMERA LABACE 08 UNPARALLELED COMFORTS: (ABOVE) CESSNA EXHIBITS; (BELOW AND RIGHT) OFFERINGS FROM BOMBARDIER HALF PAGE AD TO COME HERE 26 SP S AVIATION Issue

29 MILITARY RAFALE Catch Me if You Can Combining the dual strengths of speed and subterfuge, the Rafale s systems equipped with the SPECTRA have set new standards in low-observability and survivability PHOTOGRAPHS: H.P. GROLLEAU In modern air-warfare, survivability is the key to combat effectiveness. Pitted against the latest threats, the Rafale fighter is well-equipped to slip undetected through dense air-defence networks and survive. FLYING UNDETECTED A low-observable aircraft, the twin-engine fighter s systems have set new standards in low-observability and survivability. Every effort has been made by Dassault engineers to minimise its infrared and radar signatures. The objective was not to make the aircraft undetectable or to match the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of the F-117 or B-2, but to significantly reduce the detection and tracking range of hostile air-defences. Accordingly, the airframe has been carefully shaped to cut down its RCS. Other signature reduction measures include state-of-the-art Radar-Absorbing Materials in various areas of the airframe, sawtooth edges on the foreplanes, on the flaperons and on some access panels and doors, specially treated canopy, plus double-s shaped airintake ducts to hide the engine compressor faces. Thanks to the Hot Spot treatment, infrared signature is minimised, and the Snecma M88 turbofans have been optimised to limit infrared detectability. Low-observability is not the only way to boost survivability. As radar and radio emissions can betray the position of a fighter, the designers have adopted for the Rafale a wide range of unique passive sensors and missiles: the passive Front Sector Optronics used in conjunction with the longrange, infrared-guided Mica IR missile gives Rafale pilots unprecedented capabilities, allowing totally silent interceptions to be performed, especially when accurate targeting data is received via a datalink. Additionally, radar emissions can be carefully controlled, and emission limitations can even be programmed on a data transfer cartridge before the mission. The Rafale is fitted with a discrete terrain avoidance/following system optimised to improve survivability while flying at extremely low altitude and very high speed. For threat avoidance, the Thales/MBDA SPECTRA Electronic Warfare Issue SP S AVIATION 27

30 MILITARY RAFALE Suite is capable of accurately localising airborne systems and targeting enemy Surfaceto-Air radar emitters. FULLY INTEGRATED SYSTEM: THE SPECTRA In recent years, the proliferation of Air-Defence systems has put considerable pressure on airborne electronic warfare specialists. Moreover, potentially hostile fighters are equipped with more and more efficient fire control systems, again imposing the adoption of sophisticated self-defence suites. Modern air warfare places a severe requirement on aircraft self-defence capabilities, and only the most advanced fighters will survive any major conflict. Thankfully, the Rafale is equipped with highly-automated and affordable systems which provide an unprecedented level of protection against threats likely to appear in the future. The Self-Protection Equipment Countering Threats of Rafale Aircraft (SPECTRA) a state-of-the-art self-defence system mounted on the Rafale is a complete and totally integrated Electronic Warfare Suite designed and produced by Thales in co-operation with MBDA. The system, which offers a dramatic increase in survivability against modern and emerging threats, is entirely mounted internally in an effort to keep weapon stations free. It ensures efficient electromagnetic detection, laser warning, missile approach warning using passive IR detection technology, Multi Threat and beam electronically steered jamming and chaff/flare dispensing, even in the most demanding multi-threat environment. SPECTRA is much more than a traditional self-defence system as it is closely integrated with the primary sensors also supplied by Thales, the RBE2 multimode Electronic Scanning Array Radar ESA and the FSO passive front sector system. As such, it considerably improves pilot situational awareness: all data obtained thanks to the various means is fused into a single tactical picture, offering the pilot a clear image of the evolving tactical situation. Lethality zones, determined by SPECTRA according to the detected air-defence weapon types and the local terrain, can then be displayed on the colour tactical screen, enabling the aircrew to avoid dangerous areas. This smart data fusion significantly increases mission success rates through enhanced crew awareness and improved aircraft survivability. SIGINT/ELINT CAPABILITY SPECTRA is divided into different modules and sensors strategically positioned throughout the airframe to provide allround coverage. The latest advances in micro-electronic technology have led to a new system which is much lighter, more compact and less demanding than its ancestors in terms of electrical and cooling powers. Thanks to its advanced digital technology, SPECTRA provides passive long-range detection, identification and localisation of threats, and allows the pilot or system to react immediately with the best defensive measures: jamming, decoys dispensing, evasive manoeuvres and/or any combination of these actions to evade or defeat a diversity of airborne and ground-based threats. Even in a very dense signal environment, direction-finding accuracy is excellent, and the time taken for signal identification is extremely short (all data is classified). Additionally, very high processing power gives excellent detection and jamming performance, optimising the response to match the threat: incoming electromagnetic signals are analysed, and the bearing and location of the emitters are determined with great precision. The exact location and types of systems detected by SPECTRA can be recorded for later analysis, giving Rafale operators a substantial built-in SIGINT/ELINT capability while minimising the need for specialised and costly dedicated intelligence platforms. The adoption of high debit datalinks allows two Rafale to carry out instantaneous triangulations of threats, giving positioning accuracy within a few metres. SPECTRA is also fully flightline software reprogrammable. A laser warning system has been mounted on the sides of the nose and on the tail of the fighter, providing 360 degree coverage, and ensuring detection and warning of incoming beam-riding missiles and of emitting Laser Range Finders. To tackle the proliferation of new generation weapons such as man-portable surface-to-air missiles, discreet IR missile approach warner ensures high probability of detection and low false alarm rate, even against totally passive weapons including shoulder launched and IR guided. The exhaust plume of an incoming missile can be detected at very longrange without any emission that would betray the presence of the Rafale. Four upward-firing launcher modules for various types of cartridges flares or electro-optic decoys are built into the airframe, and the Rafale is equipped with two high capacity, internal chaff dispensers. IN-DEPTH TESTING Since the first SPECTRA flight on-board a Rafale, the system has been thoroughly tested in very complex Electronic Warfare scenarios. With the advent of new Rafale variants, the SPECTRA suite has been progressively upgraded to keep ahead of potential threats, and the latest Standard F3 variant has been qualified in July SPECTRA is now fully operational, and has already been engaged in combat operations in Afghanistan where aircrews praised its combat efficiency. Keeping growth in mind, the suite has been designed to keep the Rafale abreast of emerging threats, and further developments are now envisioned to increase even further its efficiency. SP 28 SP S AVIATION Issue

31 Hall of Fame TO THIS DAY, SIKORSKY is synonymous with helicopters. Helicopters, however, were just one part of the amazing life of Igor Sikorsky that spanned over eight decades and two great nations. To begin with, he made the world s first multi-engine aircraft in Russia. Then, after immigrating to the US, he achieved success by designing the Flying Clipper seaplanes and ushering in the era of intercontinental aviation. Lastly, his helicopters became famous. Igor Sikorsky was born in Kiev, Russia on May 25, His lifelong interest in flying machines began early. His mother Mariya, who schooled him at home, instilled in him a fascination for Leonardo da Vinci s flying machines and Jules Verne s fantastic tales. At the age of 12, he made a small rubber-band powered helicopter. By 20, he constructed two full-scale helicopters. Sadly, neither of them proved successful. Somewhat discouraged, he turned his attention to fixed-wing aircraft. In the space of just two years, with no one to teach or guide him, he designed and flew the world s first large multi-engine plane. There is an interesting story of how Igor became convinced about the need for multi-engine aircraft. When he had to force land one of his early planes following engine failure, investigation revealed that a mosquito had blocked the carburettor. He felt that if something as trivial as an insect could bring down an expensive aircraft, it was essential to incorporate more engines to ensure survivability, if nothing else. His first four-engine plane, christened The Grand, included an enclosed cabin, a washroom, upholstered chairs and an exterior balcony for passengers. The Grand was followed by a larger aircraft, the Il ya Muromets, after a legendary Russian hero of the 10th century. This, in a military version, proved highly effective as a bomber in World War I and more than 70 of these bombers were built. Following the Revolution, he was forced to flee his homeland in 1919, leaving his wealth behind, and ended up desperately poor in America. In 1923, he set up the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corporation with borrowed capital. Over the next 10 to 15 years, the company produced several successful designs but barely managed to break even. Much of the credit for the rapid spread of commercial air transportation across the vast expanses of the Pacific and Atlantic should go to his S-42 Flying Clippers. These, perhaps, gave the crew and passengers alike the confidence that in case of engine failure the plane could touch down on the ocean and survive. Igor Sikorsky ( ) Sikorsky is synonymous with helicopters. Helicopters, however, were just one part of the amazing life of Igor Sikorsky. To begin with, he made the world s first multi-engine aircraft in Russia. Then, he successfully designed the Flying Clipper seaplanes. Lastly, his helicopters became famous. In the late 1930s, Sikorsky returned to his first love helicopters. He saw helicopters as liberating aircraft from their crippling dependence on runways. Though he toyed with around 20 different designs, he finally settled on what remains the most popular and useful configuration to this day: a single main rotor with a single vertical tail rotor for stability. The VS-300, established a world endurance record by staying aloft an hour and 32 minutes on May 6, Thus, helicopter fundamentals were firmly established and his R-4 attracted a major military contract, becoming the world s first mass produced helicopter. There was a lull following the end of World War II, but the helicopter really came into its own during the Korean War when the brilliantly designed Sikorsky S-55 was widely employed by the US Navy. Helicopters were extensively used to rescue injured soldiers and ferry them back for immediate treatment, thus saving an estimated 10,000 lives. They were also used for troop and cargo transport and air assault. Their versatility resulted in a huge production run over 1,700 were built. Though his machines were used for attack as well, the rescue role was the most meaningful to Sikorsky. He later said the pilots of rescue helicopters had contributed one of the most glorious pages in the history of human flight. It is to these gallant airmen that I address my thankfulness, respect, and admiration. Igor Sikorsky was a born genius, yet a kind, considerate, humble and deeply religious person. Ann Morrow Lindbergh said, The thing that s remarkable about Igor is the great precision in his thought and speech, combined with an extraordinary soaring beyond facts. He can soar out with the mystics and come right back to the practical, to daily life and people. He never excludes people. Sometimes the religious minded exclude people or force their beliefs on others. Igor never does. He died on October 26, 1972, at the age of 83, at work as an engineering consultant for Sikorsky Aircraft Division till the very end. His contributions to aviation brought him many honours and awards the list fills nine typewritten pages. Thomas K Finletter, then Secretary of the Air Force, said: He is a milestone in the history of aviation, an equal giant and pioneer. Look upon him well and remember him. SP Group Captain (Retd) Joseph Noronha, Goa Issue SP S AVIATION 29

32 MILITARY JOINT EXERCISE Red Flag US Air Force Base Nellis, Nevada, USA PHOTOGRAPHS: INDIAN AIR FORCE Lauded & Applauded 30 SP S AVIATION Issue

33 MILITARY JOINT EXERCISE FACING PAGE SOARING WITH CONFIDENCE: (TOP) IAF S SU-30MKIS IN FLIGHT AT THE EXERCISE (TWO DIFFERENT VIEWS) DEDICATED & DETERMINED: (BOTTOM) DESPITE 50 DEGREES CELSIUS TARMAC TEMPERATURES, IAF TECHNICIANS MAINTAINED HIGH AVAILABILITY OF AIRCRAFT, DRAWING APPRECIATION: THE IAF SOFTWARE EXPERTS MAKE SU-30MKIS MORE VERSATILE AFTER A GRUELLING DAY: (ABOVE) THE IAF S SU-30MKI IS FLANKED BY F-15S AND AN F-16 OF THE PARTICIPATING FORCES SHOWCASING PRIDE & BONHOMIE: (ABOVE) A SU-30MKI TAXIS OUT FOR THE DRILL; (ABOVE CENTRE) LT GENERAL LOYD UTTERBACK, COMMANDER 13TH AIR FORCE, USAF CONVERSES WITH AIR MARSHAL P.V. NAIK, VICE CHIEF OF AIR STAFF, INDIAN AIR FORCE; (ABOVE RIGHT) LT GENERAL LOYD UTTERBACK GREETS MEMBERS OF THE IAF TEAM; (RIGHT) THE VICE CHIEF (THIRD FROM LEFT) WITH THE IAF AIR CREW Issue SP S AVIATION 31

34 NEWSDigest MILITARY IAF TO DONATE RATION IN BIHAR Europe QuickRoundUp Asia-Pacific Offsets for MMRCA deal Boeing F/A-18E/F, Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, Lockheed Martin F-16, the RSK MiG-35 and Saab Gripen, who have responded to the $12 billion (Rs 54,065 crore) RFP for India s medium multirole combat aircraft (MMRCA) deal, have also submitted their offset proposals. The companies have shown eagerness to have Indian entities as partners in joint ventures and collaborations. Boeing, for instance, states it has 37 local partners as part of its industrial participation programme. EADS has invited India to participate in the Eurofighter programme. Lockheed stresses on its long history of delivering on commitments on industrial cooperation and offsets programmes. The RFP is for 126 MMRCA 18 purchased in flyaway condition, 108 under-licence production by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). India and Russia review implementation of projects The 8th meeting of the Indo- Russian Working Group on Shipbuilding, Aviation and Land Systems was held from August 18 to 19 in Delhi within the framework of the Indo- Russian Inter-Governmental Commission on Military Technical Co-operation. A Protocol was signed by both sides at the end of the Working Group meeting. Views were exchanged on implementation of current projects, like T-90 tanks, missile systems, various shipbuilding activities and aviation sector projects like the Fifth Generation fighter aircraft and multi-role transport aircraft. They also agreed to take steps for ensuring successful implementation. India to soon carry out test flight of LCH HAL has completed development of India s first indigenously-developed Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) which will be test flown later this year in a major step aimed at boosting the nation s fighting capabilities on the Himalayas. If the test flight goes smoothly, the On behalf of the IAF, the Chief of Air Staff has directed metric tonnes of ration to be distributed during flood relief operations in Bihar. The ration will include atta, rice, dal, sugar, salt and ghee. The distribution of this ration will take place through Army Central Command which is designated as the nodal agency for Bihar flood relief operations. LCH, built on the platform of a Cheetah body, would be the second big feather in HAL s cap after the Advanced Light Helicopter. The LCH would fill vital gaps as the armed forces lack a helicopter gunship which can operate in extreme high-altitude environment. The indigenous development of such a helicopter comes even as IAF recently floated international tenders for the purchase of 22 advanced helicopter gunships. Besides Eurocopter, the major contenders are Boeing s AH- 54D, Augusta Westland s AW- 129 Mangustu and Russia s MI-28N NightHunters. IAF gets first Indian-built Hawk trainer The Indian Air Force (IAF), which has so far imported 14 UK-built Hawk advanced jet trainers (AJT), took delivery of the first indigenously-built Hawk Mk132 on August 15 from HAL. Under licence from BAE Systems of the UK, HAL has built this transonic (which flies just under the speed of sound), ground attack trainer aircraft powered by a single Rolls Royce Adour Mk871 turbo fan engine. It is the first of the 42 Hawk aircraft being built under licence by HAL. To meet its training requirements, the IAF is acquiring 66 Hawk Mk132. A total of 24 machines would be supplied by BAE Systems in flyaway condition to the IAF, while the remaining 42 would be built by HAL s aircraft division. Another 57 Hawk aircraft are in the pipeline for the IAF and the navy. Of these, 40 will go to the IAF and 17 to the navy. The aircraft will join the fleet of BAE Systemsbuilt Hawks that have recently commenced training the next generation of IAF pilots at the air force station in Bidar. Boeing, US Navy offer the Super Hornet to Denmark In response to a Request for Information from Denmark, Boeing and the US Navy have delivered a proposal offering the advance F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to the Royal Danish Air Force. The initial requirement is for 48 aircraft. The Super Hornet variant offered to Denmark is based on the F/A-18E/F model flown by the US Navy and the 24 F/A-18Fs being produced for the Royal Australian Air Force. US, Poland enter Ballistic Missile Defence pact On August 20, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Poland s Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski signed in Warsaw an agreement concerning the deployment of ground-based Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Interceptors in the territory of the Republic of Poland. The agreement calls for the establishment and operation of a US BMD interceptor facility in Poland. This BMD interceptor site would provide a defensive capability to protect Europe and the US against longer-range ballistic missiles launched from the Middle East, and will be linked to other US missile defense facilities in Europe and the US. Russia regards the system as an affront and has fiercely opposed the missile shield. The decision by Poland, and earlier by the Czech Republic, to host elements of the US shield, has the Russian Federation as its target, Russian President Dimitry Medvedev has said. Tests with Gripen completed Trials of the Swedish Gripen aircraft for the partial replacement of the fleet of Switzerland s Tiger aircraft have now been completed. This evaluation was carried out by armasuisse, the Swiss AEROVIRONMENT AeroVironment, Inc. has announced receipt of $4.6 million (Rs 20 crore) from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to develop a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) capable of performing hover/perch and stare missions. The Stealthy, Persistent, Perch and Stare UAS is based on AV s small Wasp UAS that is being procured and deployed by both the US Air Force and the Marine Corps. AFGHAN NATIONAL ARMY AIR CORPS The Afghan National Army Air Corps An-26 and An-32 have flown more than 78 sorties transporting 1,697 passengers and more than 27,000 lbs of cargo in two months, supporting Afghan National Army Operation DAOR BUKHOU in response to the Kandahar prison escape. These were the first combat support missions for the two NAVAIR-acquired AN-32 aircraft. AMR CORP Boeing and American Airlines, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AMR Corp., have ordered an additional 26 next generation s. To date, 117 customers have placed orders for nearly 5,000 next generation 737s even as unfilled orders exceed 2,200 airplanes. ARIANESPACE Arianespace has orbited two communications satellites, primarily intended for TV broadcast services: Superbird-7 for Japan s Space Communications Corporation, within the scope of a contract with Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, and AMC-21 for the US SES AMERICOM, a company of the SES group. BOEING The Boeing Company has delivered a detailed proposal offering its advanced F/A-18E/F Super Hornet to the Brazilian Air Force. The initial requirement is for 36 aircraft, with the potential for 120. CYCLONE AVIATION PRODUCTS LTD Elbit Systems Ltd s subsidiary Cyclone Aviation Products Ltd has been awarded a Boeing contract to supply structural components for F-15 fighter jets. Deliveries are scheduled between 2009 and SP S AVIATION Issue

35 NEWSDigest SUBROTO CUP 2008 FOOTBALL TOURNAMENT defence procurement authority in Berne, in cooperation with the air force. Ground and flight trials began on July 28. The aircraft were flown by armasuisse and air force pilots for a total of about 35 flight hours. Rafale will undergo trials in October/November followed by Eurofighter. The evaluation process will end by early December. The final selection is scheduled for July Editor s Note: Switzerland is likely to complete the trials and selection within a year. India has also issued a multiple vendor RFP for fighter aircraft. We will watch with interest how quickly India concludes the deal. Highlights of the inaugural ceremony of the pre-quarter final round included fly past by IAF helicopters, gymnastics display by Motilal Nehru School of Sports, RAI, Sonepat, aero modelling by the NCC Cadets and a display by the IAF band. P re-quarter final round of the Subroto Cup Football Tournament 2008 commenced on September 9 at Dr Ambedkar Stadium in Delhi with Air Marshal J.N. Burma AVSM, VSM Air Officer-in-Charge Administration and Vice Chairman, Subroto Mukerjee Sports Education Society gracing the inaugural ceremony as Chief Guest. Highlights of the event included fly past by Indian Air Force (IAF) helicopters, gymnastics display by Motilal Nehru School of Sports, RAI, Sonepat, aero modelling by the NCC Cadets and a display by the IAF band. The opening match was played between St. John Secondary School, East Khasi Hill, Shillong, Meghalaya and Government Central Higher Secondary School, College Veng, Aizawl, Mizoram. The team from Mizoram won 3-0 with H. Lalmuankima (7), Joseph Ramdinmawaia (8) and H. Lanmufela (20) scoring a goal each in the 28th, 46th and 70th minute, respectively. Present on the occasion was the Switzerland (U-14) team, FC Kusnaught, who will play a few exhibition matches and also conduct clinics for the other participating teams. Aviation World Congress India 2008 It's time to take off! Venue: The Leela Hotel, Bangalore, India Workshop: 23rd September 2008 Conference: 24th - 25th September 2008 India s Meeting Place for the Aviation Industry s Decision Makers 10 CEOs and Presidents, 14 Senior Directors, 2 Government Officials, 2 World-Class Workshop Hosts and 1 Outstanding Event Radical, industry shaping content benefit from the experiences of the sector s most respected domestic and international executives Ground-breaking case studies: learn first-hand about India s new privatised airports, first Greenfield airport, first airport city, first freight-forwarding terminal and much more... First Class Speakers Including From Ajay Prasad, Formerly Secretary Ministry of Civil Aviation Albert Brunner, Chief Executive Officer Bangalore International Airport Limited Anita Khurana, Commercial Director, Air India Nawal Taneja, Author of Fasten Your Seatbelt For more information contact Meghana Shah at or at Official Airport Sponsor Lunch Sponsor International Media Partners Media Partner Online Knowledge Partner Media Partners Organised by Issue SP S AVIATION 33

36 NEWSDigest APPOINTMENTS HONG KONG CIVIL AVIATION NAMES NEW ACTING ASSISTANT DG Civil Aviation Department of Hong Kong has named P.F. Wong the Acting Assistant Director-General of Civil Aviation. He has taken over from Leung Woon-yin. LT GENERAL B.S. NAGAL TO LEAD INDIA S STRATEGIC FORCES COMMAND Lt General Balraj Singh Nagal will take over command of India s strategic forces and nuclear arsenal by September 30. Nagal, would be the first army officer to take over command of the nuclear weapon operating forces. So far, only air force and naval officers have headed the command. CHARLIE MILLER TO LEAD BOEING S INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS The Boeing Company named Charlie Miller Vice President of International Corporate Communications, reporting to Tom Downey, Senior Vice President of Communications, and Shep Hill, President of Boeing International. He succeeds Matthew de la Haye. INDIGO APPOINTS ADITYA GHOSH PRESIDENT No-frills carrier IndiGo has appointed its Director Aditya Ghosh as its new President after its CEO Bruce Ashby decided to quit. The changes would be effective from the third quarter of this year. KANU GOHAIN TO HEAD DGCA FOR ANOTHER THREE MONTHS The tenure of Kanu Gohain, the Director General of Civil Aviation, has been extended for another three months as legal problems delayed the appointment of his successor. AIRBUS APPOINTS STEFAN SCHAFFRATH AS NEW HEAD OF MEDIA RELATION Stefan Schaffrath has been appointed new Head of Media Relations at Airbus S.A.S. He will be responsible for the management and coordination of the Airbus press activities worldwide and act as the company s spokesperson. CIVIL AVIATION Asia-Pacific IAF, AAI join hands in airspace management The IAF and Airports Authority of India (AAI) have decided to jointly facilitate more flexible usage of airspace across the country. The duo have set up the Joint Regional Air Traffic Coordination Centre (JRATCC) at Chennai airport, and the IAF now plans to replicate this in other parts of the country. Air Chief Marshal F.H. Major has said the JRATCC is the nodal agency for coordination between civil and IAF air traffic control units within Chennai. However, restricted and danger areas under IAF control will continue to be managed by the force. Malaysia Airlines inks MRO deal with India An agreement between Malaysia Airlines E&M and GMR Hyderabad International Airport will see the establishment of a maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) organisation to provide maintenance services on narrowand wide-body aircraft at the Rajiv Gandhi International Airport in Shamshabad, Hyderabad. With around 300 aircraft in service, the Indian aviation market is one of the fastest growing in the world. Facelift to Chennai, Kolkata airports gets Cabinet nod The Indian government has approved modernisation of the Chennai and Kolkata airports. Expansion of the two airports is estimated to cost over Rs 3,750 crore ($900 million) and the projects are to be completed within three years. The entire modernisation work would be taken up by the AAI beginning September this year. AAI will invest 80 per cent of the required capital through internal resources; the remaining 20 per cent would be borrowed. The AAI can create these two airports into models and compete with the private sector to develop worldclass airports. They can even compete in the international arena, Civil Aviation Minister Praful Patel said. Exclusive terminals planned for low cost carriers The new domestic terminal coming up at Delhi s Indira Gandhi International Airport is being planned as a no-frill terminal to help low-cost carriers (LCCs), a senior official of the company developing the airport said. With cash strapped LCCs paying the same charges as any other scheduled carrier, no-frill airport terminals are seen as a viable solution to help them cope with losses. This is expected once the Terminal 3 (T3) coming-up adjacent to the 3rd new runway becomes operational by 2010, said Andrew Harrison, COO of the Delhi International Airport Ltd, the company developing the airport. INDUSTRY Asia-Pacific India eyeing partnership to build new regional jet India is reportedly seeking to partner either Bombardier or Embraer to build a 70 to 100 seater regional jet. Media reports claim the government has asked HAL to formulate a plan for the design and construction of the regional jet. India s Hero Motors to manufacture light aircraft Hero Motors, India s largest manufacturer of motorcycles, plans to move into the production of light aircraft as part of a joint venture with an unidentified German company. Its subsidiary, Hero Aviation, is spearheading the move into the aerospace business, and hopes to set up the facility at the proposed aerospace park in Madhya Pradesh. MRF to enter aviation MRF, the largest tyre manufacturer in the country, has announced its entry into the aviation sector by developing aviation tyres. The company had invested Rs 150 crore in the last three years for indigenously developing aviation tyres. MRF Chairman K.M. Mammen said the product had been tested rigorously under international standards and norms set by authorised government agencies. QuickRoundUp EMBRAER Embraer and the Chilean Air Force have signed a contract for the sale of 12 Super Tucano aircraft. The first Super Tucano should be delivered in the second half of GE-AVIATION GE-Aviation is under contract to supply flight control actuation, electrical power generation & control, emergency power and other aircraft systems for use on the RQ-4 Block 20 Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. GENERAL DYNAMICS General Dynamics and Dreamliner Lux S.a.r.l., a company controlled by the Permira Funds, have entered into a definitive agreement for General Dynamics to acquire Zurich, Switzerland-based Jet Aviation for CHF 2.45 billion (approximately $2.25 billion or Rs 10,140 crore) in cash. Jet Aviation, with its worldwide headquarters in Zurich is one of the world s leading business-aviation services companies. GRIPEN The Hungarian Offset Committee, headed by the Hungarian Ministry of Economy and Transport, approved the final offset achievements submitted by the Saab/Gripen team. The remaining 2 per cent that was approved comprised the balance of the investment element of the offset contract. IRAN Iran has successfully test-launched a rocket called Safir, capable of carrying a domestically-built satellite into space. White House spokesman Gordon Johndroe said the Iranian rocket launch is troubling because the technology could be diverted to ballistic missiles. IRAQ An MQ-9 Reaper dropped a 500-lb bomb against an anti-iraqi target in one of the first weapons engagements for the UAS. The Reaper has joined the MQ-1 Predator as another UAS patrolling the sky to protect coalition forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. KHRUNICHEV SPACE CENTER A Proton Breeze M launch vehicle, built by Khrunichev Space Center 34 SP S AVIATION Issue

37 NEWSDigest SHOW CALENDAR 10 September NBAA REGIONAL FORUM Bedford, Mass URL: 15 September 17 September AIR & SPACE CONFERENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EXPOSITION Marriott Wardman Park Hotel, Washington, DC, USA Organisers: Air Force Association 17 September 19 September JET EXPO 2008 Moscow Crocus Expo, Moscow URL: 25 September 26 September ELECTRONIC WARFARE 2008 Cafe Royal, London, UK Organisers: Defence IQ (a division of IQPC) URL: co.uk 1 October 5 October JAPAN AEROSPACE 2008 Yokohama, Japan URL: 6 October 8 October NBAA ANNUAL MEETING AND CONVENTION Orlando, Fla URL: 12 October 13 October AIR POWER MIDDLE-EAST CONFERENCE 2008 Armed Forces Officers Club, Abu Dhabi, UAE Organisers: Shephard Conferences and Exhibitions URL: AirPower-ME 28 October UK DEFENCE CONFERENCE Radisson Edwardian Mayfair Hotel, London, UK Organisers: Jane s Information Group & Cityforum URL: Europe Irkut, Sukhoi divide market Russian aircraft-building majors Irkut and Sukhoi have agreed to divide the market of medium-range airliners. They will jointly provide the United Aircraft Building Corporation with advanced airliners of the most popular size of 96, 110, 130, 150, 180 and 210 seats representing all types of narrow-body aircraft. At present, the Airbus A320 and Boeing 737 are dominating this market. Irkut will take on the MS-21 family with over 150 seats and Sukhoi, in addition to the firstgeneration 96-seated Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ-100), will design two Second Generation aircraft, the SSJ-110 and SSJ-130. INDAIR 2008 The two-day international seminar-cum-exhibition was attended by around 195 registered participants, including 20 representatives of foreign OEMs INDAIR 2008, a two-day international seminar cum exhibition with a theme A Strategic Partnering of IAF and Industry on Indigenisation and Modernisation of IAF was conducted jointly by the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) on August 26 and 27 at Vigyan Bhavan, Delhi. The seminar provided a common platform for the IAF and industry to interact and facilitate thrust and focus in the process of Indigenisation and Modernisation. The event was co-sponsored by CII and Maintenance Command IAF. Inaugurated by Defence Minister A.K. Antony, various distinguished speakers highlighted the following major issues: Atul C. Kirloskar, Chairman, CII National Committee on Defence, while delivering welcome address brought out that the DPP-08 is a forward move for the Indian industry to partner in the production and maintenance of Defence systems. He however, felt that the challenge would be in operationalisation of the provisions in DPP such as Make procedure in totality. Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal F.H. Major while delivering the keynote address said, India has an increasing role in world affairs, and in keeping with that, the Indian Air Force is in the midst of an exciting transformation. He informed that technology is the core of an air force and the IAF seeks to exploit emerging technologies. The CAS said he foresees $100 billion (Rs 4,49,015 crore) modernisation programmes being taken up by the armed forces in the coming 15 years and that the industry needs to appropriately factor its response to the immense opportunities The Defence Minister emphasised on the importance of indigenisation and modernisation of maintenance infrastructure. He exhorted the industry to improve its technological capabilities so as to become supplier of complete systems rather than just being supplier of raw materials and components. He informed that the provisions in DPP 2008 provide an opportunity for the Indian industry to become an active partner in the modernisation of defence forces. He highlighted the areas of concern in R&D and opined that these must be addressed at such joint forums and the process taken forward with an open mind for mutual benefit of both sides. The seminar was attended by approximately 195 registered participants from industries, including about 20 representatives of foreign OEMs. A business-to-business session was organised on the second day for interactions between the IAF and industry on specific issues of common interest. AgustaWestland bags IAF s VIP squadron contract The IAF has selected Italian helicopter manufacturer AgustaWestland s EH101 for its Air Headquarters Communications Squadron, which is tasked with the job of ferrying the country s VIPs, including the President, Prime Minister and other dignitaries. The contract, reported to be potentially worth around $300 million (Rs 1,350 crore), had Sikorsky S-92 and AgustaWestland EH101 as its main contenders. QuickRoundUp of Moscow, successfully lifted the Inmarsat-4 F3 satellite into orbit, marking the third mission of the year for International Launch Services. LOCKHEED MARTIN Lockheed Martin has finished assembly of the fourth F-35 aircraft, a short takeoff/vertical landing F-35B. The production is progressing well with one F-35 Lightning II aircraft in structural testing, two in flight test, six in final assembly and another 14 in various stages of production. NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION The US Air Force has awarded Northrop Grumman Corporation a firm fixed-price contract to provide contractor logistics services to US Air Force, Army, Navy and Marine Corps C-20 aircraft. ORBITAL SCIENCES CORPORATION Orbital Sciences Corporation, the world s leading manufacturer of smallersized geosynchronous communications satellites, has successfully launched the AMC-21 satellite, which is based on the company s STAR-2 platform. ROYAL NEW ZEALAND AIR FORCE The first of two aircraft (Boeing 757) have returned to New Zealand from Mobile Aerospace Engineering in Mobile, Alabama after undergoing modification and upgrade programme which is a major milestone for the Royal New Zealand Air Force. SWISS AIR FORCE The first three EC635 light liaison and training helicopters (HTLF) have been officially handed over to the Swiss Air Force. The purchase of 20 HTLF was authorised as part of Armaments Programme 2005 and will replace the Alouette III. UK S MINISTRY OF DEFENCE The Financial Times has reported that the UK s Ministry of Defence (MoD) has been in talks with other countries to offload Eurofighter Typhoons that it has ordered but can no longer afford. The MoD remains in discussions with the Eurofighter partners on Tranche 3. Issue SP S AVIATION 35

38 LASTWord FORGING T I E S PHOTOGRAPH: IAF On August 18, Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) Air Chief Marshal F.H. Major embarked on a three-day visit to Malaysia. He met the Malaysian Defence Minister and the Chief of the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF) to discuss bilateral issues pertaining to defence cooperation. The CAS also visited the Gong Kedak Air Base in northeast Malaysia where the training team of the Indian Air Force (IAF) is located. The team of IAF pilots and technicians has been assigned to Malaysia for two years to train pilots, weapon system operators and maintenance staff for the smooth induction and operationalisation of the newly acquired Su-30MKM combat fleet. The protocol in this regard was signed in December 2007 at Langkawi. The IAF top brass have always laid great emphasis on India s national and security interests transcending geographical boundaries and extending from the Gulf of Oman to the Straits of Malacca. But there are challenges. India has been effectively outflanked by China whose influence has been growing menacingly in practically all neighbouring states. Rather tragically, since Independence, India has displayed remarkable consistency in maintaining turbulent relationship with practically every neighbouring country, even those with a high degree of cultural accord such as Nepal. With serious threats to national security lurking in the immediate neighbourhood and overwhelming preoccupation with wooing the new-found ally on the other side of the globe, there may be little inclination or time to engage countries like Malaysia into a mutually beneficial and constructive relationship. An erstwhile British colony, Malaysia is today an economically prosperous and progressive democratic Islamic state. Open-minded and with a modern outlook, its people enjoy a high standard of living. Its military is suitably equipped to contribute significantly to any combined military effort by the ASEAN, a somewhat remote possibility in the prevailing geopolitical and geo-strategic disposition of the region. In Asia and South East Asia, India has been aspiring to emerge as a regional power. However, it seems to be falling behind China whose economy is four times that of India and whose equation with the ASEAN and Australia appears to be on a better footing. Despite the presence of sizeable communities of Indian origin in the countries of the region, India has little influence to boast of. Perhaps the only cooperation with countries in the region in the last two decades involving the Indian armed forces have been the four-year training mission to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) from 1979 to 1983, ground training on MiG-29 aircraft for personnel of the RMAF in 1994, display by the IAF aerobatic teams in selected locations, humanitarian assistance and, in more recent times, a joint exercise with RSAF in India, use of the IAF base at Kalaikunda in West Bengal for training by the RSAF as also the use by the Singapore Armed Forces of the firing ranges at Babina/ Deolali and joint exercises with the Indian Army. Military personnel from Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Thailand continue to be trained, albeit in very small numbers, more as a diplomatic exercise than any effort at serious defence cooperation. Traditionally a region under US influence, most countries in South East Asia have been subscribing to military aircraft of western origin. However, indicative of winds of change, Malaysia some years ago acquired 18 MiG-29s. Indonesia has two Su-27s and eight of the 12 Su-30MK2s ordered even as Thailand mulls the purchase of the aircraft. In 2003, Malaysia ordered 18 Su-30MKM fighters for $900 million (Rs 4,000 crore) to replace the ageing fleet of US-made F-5E combat aircraft. The first lot of six Su-30MKMs was delivered in May This makes Malaysia the fourth country after India, Vietnam and Indonesia to operate this advanced machine. While the initial training for air and ground crew was a part of the deal with the OEM, the request for further operational training for pilots, training of technical personnel and technical support by HAL who manufacture the aircraft under licence came from Malaysia a few years ago for obvious reasons: lower cost and commonality of language. Cooperation of this magnitude would help the IAF establish long-term bilateral relations, enabling it to grow in capability, confidence and reputation to lend credibility to the nation s regional power status. More importantly, this will afford India a window of opportunity to forge strong and meaningful ties with countries in the region, in general, and Malaysia, in particular. The CAS visit to Malaysia, therefore, holds profound significance and is not to be dismissed as merely ceremonial. SP Air Marshal (Retd) B.K. Pandey Training pilots of the Royal Malaysian Air Force on the Su-30MKM fleet will enable the IAF to grow in capability, confidence and reputation to lend credibility to India s status as a regional power 36 SP S AVIATION Issue

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