COUNTRY REPORT-2016/2017 THE INDONESIAN MAB PROGRAMME NATIONAL COMMITTEE: Management and Development of Biosphere Reserves in Indonesia

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1 COUNTRY REPORT-2016/2017 THE INDONESIAN MAB PROGRAMME NATIONAL COMMITTEE: Management and Development of Biosphere Reserves in Indonesia Indonesia is recognized as a country of mega-diversity with ecosystems ranging from coral reef to the snow-capped mountains. However, the challenges to protect Indonesia s natural resources and ecosystems have increased over time. The pressures on the natural resources and ecosystem has triggered new challenges, including ecosystem/environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. The Indonesian Government has made efforts to prevent the extinction of biodiversity through in-situ and ex-situ conservation activities. Biosphere reserves (BR) are an appropriate program for conducting conservation activities effectively and corroborating the sustainable development principles, thus make a challenge for the government to implement this concept. The government has developed 11 Biosphere Reserves covering a total area of more than 15 million hectares, which are three million hectares of conservation areas are included in the core area. The development of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves is following below-mentioned strategies: 1. Three principal strategic programs, namely biodiversity conservation (protection and restoration), community development and logistic support. 2. Collaborative/multi-stakeholders action that requires the awareness and commitment of stakeholders as predominant factor. 3. Mainstreaming the biosphere reserve concept in the policies, strategic plan and activities at national and regional levels. Since Lima Action Plan (LAP) was adopted by the 28 th MAB ICC 2016, Indonesia started to implement almost immediately. Presently, the Indonesia MAB National Committee adopted the document into their Strategic Plan/Roadmap and following by the implementation in the BRs activity. The priority programs for implementing LAP are including: (a) BRs as a model of Sustainable Development, (b) Strengthening Collaboration and Networking, (c) Establishing the Sustainable Financing Scheme, (d) Communication and Information. In 2016, several programs are implemented by the National Committee, BRs institution and related parties within the framework of the biosphere reserve program, and can be generally divided into two major schemes: (a) an effective management of Biosphere Reserves, and (b) Biosphere Reserves development programs. The achievement of these major schemes will be described in the following explanation. A. Management of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves: Strengthening the Legal Aspect, BRs Institution and Monitoring System The national committee has several strategies to strengthening the management of Indonesian BRs as follow:

2 1. Revitalizing/re-organizing the Indonesia MAB National Committee. 2. Developing Roadmap of the Indonesia MAB National Committee Mainstreaming the BR into the National Legislation and budgeting System. 4. Strengthening Biosphere Reserve management institution. 5. Establishing Standard guideline for Indonesian BR management and program. 6. Establishing the National Monitoring System: Biosphere Reserve Monitoring Tools. 7. Monitoring, Evaluation and Improvement of BR Management Plan. 8. National and International collaboration/networking for developing programs in BRs. 9. Increasing capacity building: Human resources and Technical Skills. Figure 1. New structure of the Indonesia MAB National Committee B. Development of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves: Programs and Follow-up Plan I. Program Indonesia's biosphere reserve development program can be divided into Conservation, Community Development and Research & Development programs. In addition, Branding and Development of New BR program was also carried out. Conservation and Research Programs are mainly conducted in the core zone, while the Community Development program is implemented mainly in the buffer zone and transition area. Conservation Program, through: 1. Optimizing Core Area Management for Good Forestry Government and Collaborative Management

3 2. Enhanced effectiveness of stakeholder-based activity for law enforcement, area protection and forest fire management in the Core Area 3. Ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration 4. Main Implementing Agency: Ministry of E&F, NP, Conservation Agency, NGOs Community Development program, through: 1. Community empowerment through capacity building, economic sovereignty and preservation of local culture 2. Main Implementing Agency: Local government, NGOs, Private Sector Research and Development program, through: 1. Development of BR as a center for research on ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem rehabilitation and restoration 2. Strengthening sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services 3. Main Implementing Agency: Research Institution, University, NP, NGOs Conservation and Protection Community Development Research, Monitoring and Infrastructure Infrastructure Figure 2. Selected programs of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves. Branding of Biosphere Reserve The development of product branding is to enhance the added value of the products from the biosphere reserve area by utilizing the status of the UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve. This internationally prestigious status should be utilized to promote the development of biosphere reserve products in order to increase the added value of the products for improving the quality of living standards of the local community. There are two activities for branding of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves product: 1. Strengthening the identity by establishing and promoting logo of BRs.

4 2. Branding of BRs Products for local community, private sectors, home industry, tourism, etc. Figure 3. Logo of Indonesian Biosphere Reserves New BR development Indonesia is committed to incorporating a sustainable development policy framework within national and regional planning documents. To support this sustainable development policy, the biosphere reserves is considered as an appropriate concept for achieving that goal. MAB Indonesia is committed to developing Indonesian BRs to support sustainable development. Therefore, MAB Indonesia has a responsibility in developing new BRs and enhancing the capacity of BRs, based on the MAB Indonesia grand design / roadmap. This year Indonesia will propose three nomination of biosphere reserves, namely: (a) Berbak Sembilang, (b) Betung Kerihun Danau Sentarum Kapuas Hulu, and (c) Rinjani Lombok. Berbak Sembilang area is representing peatland, freshwater swamp forest, mangrove and Sumatran lowland ecosystem, thus they serve as the habitat for Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), migratory birds, etc. Betung Kerihun and Danau Sentarum areas is representing the Borneo montane and lowland rain forest, lakes, freshwater swamp forest and peat swamp forest, thus they serve as the habitat for Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and seven other primate species, and Bornean endemic species. Mount Rinjani is representing Lesser Sunda s lowland forest, montane forest, savanna and Caldera lake, thus they serve as the habitat for Lesser Sunda endemic species, such as Rinjani scops owl (Otus jolandae), Orchids Peristylus rintjaniensis and P. lombokensis. II. Implementation of Lima Action Plan in Indonesia Lima Action Plan puts emphasis on achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals by implementing a harmonious interaction between society and the biosphere. Shortly after LAP was adopted, MAB Indonesia integrating it into the MAB Indonesia Roadmap The overall goal for implementation of LAP in Indonesia is to establishing well-proven models of sustainability developed in biosphere reserves. In general, the programs of Indonesia MAB National Committee are aligned with Lima Action Plan. Several program / activities held by national committee and / or by stakeholders within BRs are as follow:

5 International Workshop The Role of Local Governments in Implementing the Lima Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves The workshop was collaboratively held by UNESCO Office Jakarta, Indonesia MAB National Committee and Wakatobi Biosphere Reserve, in Wakatobi, 2-4 June The workshop was attending by 51 participants from Indonesia and from Asia and the Pacific. The objectives of this workshop are to: Gather MAB National Committees, Biosphere Reserves managers and key actors, MAB experts and other MAB related stakeholders from Asia and the Pacific. Share local and international experiences on the role and actions of local governments in Biosphere Reserves. Discuss key issues related to the local governance of Biosphere Reserves. Provide good models for the implementation of the Lima Action Plan at the local government level. Create an international Platform to document best practices and provide models of governance in Biosphere Reserves. The workshop serves as an international forum to discuss how to enhance the role of local governments within the MAB Programme for the best implementation of the LAP, and how to work efficiently together in a fully integrated system. The main outcome of the workshop is the WAKATOBI DECLRATION on The Role of Local Governments in Implementing the Lima Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves, which includes following points: 1. Local governments, as leader of coordinating council/forum of biosphere reserve, to be leading sector for development of the buffer zone and transition area of biosphere reserve by coordinating, synergizing and implementing development programs with key stakeholders. 2. Development program of biosphere reserve for sustainable development area to be integrated with regional development planning of the local government (RPJMD and PERDA). 3. Local government and key stakeholders should develop and improve branding scheme for biosphere reserve s products to strengthening added value of the products. 4. Stakeholders reach agreement to establishing forum of local government for development of Indonesian biosphere reserves, with the aim of implementing sustainable development. 5. Local government role on implementing Lima Action Plan (LAP) considerably significant for green-economic development. 6. Developing communication through networking, sharing experience of good practice management are critical for local government and key stakeholders in the biosphere reserves. 7. The involvement of local governments in the implementation of MAB Programme towards the delivery of the common inter-sectorial goals is further acknowledged: green economy development for communities at BRs, climate change mitigation actions, building green and resilient societies, mainstreaming biodiversity in development agenda, ecological restoration, capacity building, education for sustainable development, livelihoods

6 Figure 4. Participants of the International Workshop The Role of Local Governments in Implementing the Lima Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves, Wakatobi BR, 2-4 June Strengthening National Legislation and budgeting System National legislation, legal aspect of BRs and sustainable budgeting system are the most important issue in for the sustainability of MAB / biosphere reserve program. Several priorities to resolve the issues and for supporting the sustainability of MAB / biosphere reserve program are as follow: Amendment/Substitution of National Act No. 5 / 1990 to strengthen the legal aspect of BRs program in Indonesia. Establishing the Local Government regulation such as PERDA to cover both programs and financial support of the BRs. Review of the Local Government Revenue and Expenditure Budget (organized by the Ministry of National Planning, by year ). Integrating Sustainable development program and BR concept into the National Planning: BRs as National Priority on the Sustainable Development. Incorporating Sustainable development program and BR concept into the Local Government s Mid and Long-term Strategic and Action Plan (RPJMD). Role of Local Government in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve Government of Bengkalis Regency, through the Research and Development Agency of Bengkalis was conducted several activities for community development in the Giam Siak

7 Kecil-Bukit Batu BR. Their programs are including: (a) Freshwater fish culture and fish processing, (b) Honey bee development program, and (c) Research-based Ecotourism. Figure 5. Community development programs by Government of Bengkalis Regency in the buffer zone and transition area of Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu BR. Collaborative Research program also initiated by the Research and Development Agency of Bengkalis and Nature Conservation Agency of Riau (BKSDA Riau), with emphasis to strengthening function of Bukit Batu Wildlife Reserve as Core Area of BR, including feasibility study on semi-natural breeding of Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). III. Coordination and Communication National meeting / forum 1. Indonesian Biosphere Forum: Annual meeting of BRs & stakeholder 2. Coordination in each BR 3. Thematic meeting, i.e: forest fire, ecosystem services, branding, etc International meeting / forum 1. 4 th World Congress of Biosphere Reserves and 28 th International Coordinating Council (ICC) MAB-UNESCO, Lima, Peru, March International Workshop The Role of Local Governments in Implementing the Lima Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves, Wakatobi, 2 4 June 2016

8 3. The 4th Meeting of Japanese Biosphere Reserves Network, Japan, July, Changbai Mountain International Eco-Forum, China, September On-the-field Workshop for Asian BR Local Practitioners, Mt. Hakusan BR, Japan, October The First Asia Bonn Challenge High Level Roundtable Meeting 2017, Palembang, 8-10 May IV. Follow-up Planning 1. Strengthening Collaboration between UNESCO focal point in Indonesia 2. Legal Aspect of Indonesian BRs and Sustainable Development Program should be the priority 3. Strengthening the Role and commitment of local government within BRs management body. 4. MAB Indonesia is committed to developing Indonesian BRs to support sustainable development. Therefore, MAB Indonesia has a responsibility in developing new BRs and enhancing the capacity of BRs

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