1 MPA Management Capacity Building Training Module 10: SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
2 Overview of Presentation PART 1: OPPORTUNTIES AND THREATS TO MPAS Sustainable tourism, what does it mean? What are the benefits and threats from tourism? Is there a demand for sustainable tourism?
3 What are Today s Objectives? To identify sustainable tourism mechanisms that provide conservation, social and economic benefits to MPAs and their local communities. To determine the most appropriate organizational structure and support system for implementation of an sustainable tourism program.
4 Sustainable Tourism: What does it mean? Sustainable Tourism as defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO): Envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.
5 Who Benefits from Sustainable Tourism? Conservation International Has Found: Sustainable tourism projects help forge a direct link between economic benefits and protection of biodiversity. People who earn their living from sustainable tourism are more likely to protect their natural resources and support conservation efforts.
6 Who is Involved in Sustainable Tourism? Sustainable tourism encompasses an array of tourism services and facilities including: -tourist boats -tourist vendors -small lodges -hotels -tours -government -NGOs - MPAs -communities
7 Research s Sustainable Role Tourism In vs. Resource Conventional Protection Tourism CONVENTIONAL TOURISM SUSTAINABLE TOURISM 1. Tourist oriented 2. Focus on entertainment/ refreshment for tourists 3. Conservation not a priority 4. Communities not a priority 5. Quality of tourist services and products not standardized 1. Indigenous oriented 2. Focus on educational experiences & informing 3. Conservation of natural resources a priority 4. Foster appreciation for cultural diversity 5. Best management standards for products and services
8 Research s Role In Tourism and the Environment Resource Protection IMPACTS (conventional tourism) CONTRIBUTIONS (sustainable tourism) 1. Depletion/Degradation of Natural Resources impacts to endangered, stressed or sensitive resources 2. Pollution air emissions, noise, solid waste 3. Physical Impacts construction, infrastructure development 1. Financial Contributions direct and indirect 2. Sound Management development management 3. Environmental Awareness education and outreach 4. Protection and Preservation legislation, regulation
9 Research s Role In Tourism and Society Resource Protection IMPACTS (tourism) CONTRIBUTIONS (ecotourism) 1. Changes or Loss of Indigenous Identity and Values treated as a commodity, adaptation 2. Cultural Clashes economic inequality, behavioral differences 3. Physical Influences Causing Social Stress resource use conflicts, cultural deterioration 1. Strengthening Communities jobs created by tourism, reduced emigration, rejuvenated traditions 2. Revaluation of Culture and Traditions protection of local heritage
10 Research s Role In Tourism and the Economy Resource Protection IMPACTS (tourism) CONTRIBUTIONS (ecotourism) 1. Leakage lack of tourist dollars retained by community 2. Infrastructure Costs Take away from needs such as education or health 3. Increase in Prices increase in demand for basic goods and services at a cost to locals 1. Foreign Exchange Earnings 2. Contributions to Gov t Revenues 3. Employment Generation 4. Contribution to Local Economy 5. Informal Employment
11 Who Benefits from Sustainable Tourism? Tourism benefits from having wellmanaged attractions, maintained in their natural state. Communities benefit by reaping the social and economic rewards of long term sustainable tourism. Natural resources are protected for now and future generations.
12 What are the Benefits from Tourism? Revenue Generation -entrance fees, concessions, donations Employment Opportunities -tourism, education, enforcement Justification for MPAs - raises level of importance Awareness Building - visitors, national visitors, local community
13 What are the Threats from Tourism? Visitor Use - habitats, wildlife, water quality Economic Instability - leakage, social conflict, lack of training Crowding - exceeding carrying capacity Excessive development -infrastructure demands, increase in cost of living
14 Is There a Demand for Sustainable Tourism? 698 million international tourist arrivals worldwide in 2000 (50 million more than 1999, +7.3%) The fastest developing region is East Asia and the Pacific (14.6% growth, 16% of total market) In 2000, 2 million visitor arrivals in Vietnam Nature tourism may comprise 40-60% of market, increasing at 10-30% annually Taking advantage of this world-wide market can bring benefits. It can also bring costs to the community, the environment and the economy.
15 Why is Sustainable Tourism Important to Your MPA? GROWTH IN TOURISM IN VIETNAM Year Int l Arrivals Growth % Growth , million million 1.89 million 756%
16 Why is Sustainable Tourism Important to Your MPA? Vietnam is a popular tourist destination with the tourist turnover rate rapidly increasing at an annual rate of over 20%. In 1999, tourist turnover reached VND 175 billion, with total number of tourists reaching 1.1 million persons. All human activities carried out in natural environments create impacts. The challenge for ecotourism is to lessen or eliminate the negative impacts on the community and the environment.
17 Overview of Presentation PART 2: MANAGING VISITOR IMPACTS Carrying Capacity Best Management Practices Awareness Building
18 Carrying Capacity What is it? An estimate of how much tourism activity is acceptable before the damage that occurs to the environment and the enjoyment for the visitor is substantially decreased.
19 Carrying Capacity Why is quantifying difficult? Depends on: ecological conditions resilience of ecosystems behavior of tourists specific activities
20 Carrying Capacity Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) Standards for minimum acceptable conditions Defining limit of ecological or sociological change allowed at site Requires a plan to prevent change beyond limit Monitoring is essential to determinate point of management intervention
21 Carrying Capacity Management Responses Seasonal or temporal limits Regulating group size Creating access routes Using zonation Increasing entrance fees at peak periods Constructing facilities that reduce impact, but allow more visitors Awareness building
22 Best Management Practices Visiting Mangroves Construct boardwalk Create fixed paths Encourage snorkeling during slack high tides Used non-motorized vessels Used motorized vessels during high tide only
23 Best Management Practices Visiting Reefs Reef walks planned in advance, especially at low tide Pre-departure briefings Work with tourism providers and community on building awareness Responsible boat management
24 Awareness Building Environmental Education Signage Visitor centers Brochures Events Lectures workshops Media
25 Overview of Presentation PART 3: THE PLANNING PROCESS What is a sustainable tourism plan? What are the prerequisites? How do you finance a sustainable tourism program? Who prepares a sustainable tourism plan? Preliminary Site Evaluation Final Site Diagnostic Data Analysis Phase
26 What is a Sustainable Tourism Plan? Must meet the conservation objectives of the MPA Guides development of tourism in an MPA Built through community-based process Specific program to be carried out by MPA Defines zoning configuration and access to MPA for tourism
27 What are the Prerequisites? MPA should have a general a management plan Commitment to principles of sustainable tourism Funding, technical and logistical support Determination on appropriateness of sustainable tourism to MPA
28 How to Finance a Sustainable Tourism Program International Assistance National Sources Local Communities/Governments Tourism Industry
29 Who Prepares a Sustainable Tourism Plan? Tourism professionals Community representatives Government representatives NGOs MPA staff (coordinates)
30 Stages of Development for a Sustainable Tourism Plan Preliminary Site Evaluation Full Site Diagnostic Data Analysis Phase
31 Overview of Presentation PART 3: GREEN CERTIFICATION What does it mean?
32 What are Sustainable Tourism Research Strategies Certification Programs? SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS Voluntary programs that set standards to ensure tourism service and product providers are minimizing impacts to the environment and improving social and economic conditions of the community. Awarding organization or program recognizes and rewards best practices by including the provider as a member of the certification program.
33 What Sustainable Tourism Research Strategies Models are Already in Place? SUSTAINABLE TOURISM CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS There are over 100 certification schemes in tourism alone. Successful models have also been developed for industries such as forestry, organic farming and fishing.
34 What Ecotourism Models are Research Strategies Already in Place? Sustainable Tourism Certification Network of the Americas (Rainforest Alliance) SmartVoyager Certification (Conservacion y Desarollo and Rainforest Alliance) World Legacy Awards (Conservation International and Nat l Geo Traveler Magazines) Ecotourism Australia NEAP Certification The International Ecotourism Society Institute of Policy Studies UNEP and The World Tourism Organization Vietnam, Cambodia, China?
35 What Research Can Certification StrategiesDo? Set standards to ensure impacts from tour operations are minimized Help communities develop more economically and environmentally viable products and services based on best practices Develop and maintain unified conservation themes and messages (marketing) Opportunity to share information and build demand Provides for international recognition Increases fundraising potential Provides for participation in international network
36 Research Strategies What Can Certification Do? Recognizes and rewards best practices Ensures the tourism industry is held accountable Assures travelers they are supporting operators who act responsibly and are helping to make a contribution to the protection of the environment, conservation, and the social well being of individuals and local communities
37 What Services Can a Research Strategies Certification Program Provide? Developing marketing skills and identity Preparing for certification Incorporating best management practices into all aspects of products and services Identifying funding sources Identifying sustainable tourism markets Raising awareness on benefits of certification to tourism operators, tourists and local communities
38 What is the Role of Government Research Strategies in a Certification Program? Clarify the government s role in tourism and conservation management Establish a policy and legislative framework that supports ecotourism Design, develop and regulate an environmentally sensitive infrastructure Require environmental impact statements for development projects Develop economic instruments to support ecotourism such as incentives, taxes, departure fees
39 What is the Role of Government Research Strategies in a Certification Program? Allocate tax revenues for the protection of ecotourism attractions such as parks and reserves Earmark adequate funding for resources for the management of protected areas Provide critical support for private sector voluntary initiatives such as certification programs Promote and develop education programs to enhance awareness of conservation
40 What is the Role of Stakeholders Research Strategies in a Certification Program? Help to establish a standard for conservation and social welfare To uphold the standards of the certification program To be accountable and assume responsibilities in tourism and conservation partnerships To be willing to make a long term commitment to the community and conservation To collaborate on visitor awareness campaigns, outreach and marketing efforts To communicate about experience and share expertise To become an informed decision maker that participates in all aspects of ecotourism development
41 Research Strategies What is the Role of the Tourist? Learn about your destination before you get there - be sensitive to the customs, traditions and culture; and the environment Seek out ecotourism certified services and products - ensure maximum community and conservation benefits from tourist dollars Follow established guidelines- consult with ecotourism operators and guides on ways to minimize impacts on sensitive areas
42 Research Strategies Case Study I: Galapagos ECUADOR S GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Tour operators, naturalist guides, park officials and scientists worked together to create a model for low impact, high quality ecotourism. 62,000 people per year pay to dive, tour and cruise amidst the 120 volcanic islands Tourism raises as much as USD 460 million annually, and provides income for an estimated 80% of the islands residents Ten fold increase since 1970 has expanded the resources for Ecuador's park service.
43 Research Strategies Case Study I: Galapagos ECUADOR S GALAPAGOS ISLANDS Attracted a flood of immigrants seeking jobs in the islands new tourist economy Only 15% of the tourist income enters the Galapagos economy Hordes of tourists have brought new threats and impacts to the islands Of the USD 43 million the Galapagos National Park generates each year, only 20% goes to the national park system
44 Discussion: Research What Strategies are Possible Solutions? Discuss as a group What is wrong with the Galapagos system? How could it be improved or made more sustainable?
45 Research Strategies Sample Solutions BELIZE Raises funds for conservation through a USD 3.75 tourist tax levied on every foreign visitor as they depart the country, generating USD 750,000 per year used for conservation. KENYA 25% of the entrance fees is shared with communities bordering protected areas. Ecotourism planners advocate sales of local handicrafts, patronage of local lodges, use locally grown food in restaurants. Training programs have enabled residents to fill positions as tour guides, lodge managers and park rangers.
46 Case Research Study II: Strategies Australia NATURE-BASED ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION PROGRAM (NEAP) Australia-wide, started 1996 Voluntary, only motivated operators apply Fee based Requires interpretation, monitoring, impact management and contributions to conservation Required in some protected areas Field tested in 50 sites Recognizes and rewards best management 33% operators claimed increased business 92% said they would renew their certification
47 Case Study III: Demonstration Research Strategies Project LINKING CONSERVATION AND TOURISM AT SIX WORLD HERITAGE SITES Brings together conservation education, planning, business development and marketing Involves communities to create better tourism products and sustainable management systems Develops partnerships between protected areas, managers and the private sector In third year of implementation and has supported training of 51 nature guides and 22 ecotourism promoters at 4 World Heritage Sites
48 Case Study III: Demonstration Research Strategies Project LINKING CONSERVATION AND TOURISM AT SIX WORLD HERITAGE SITES (Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, Indonesia) Expected results include: enhanced staff capabilities, clear tourism strategies, active support from the tourism industry, increased revenues, widespread benefits to local people Support by Aveda, the global cosmetics firm which donated $500,000, funds to be matched by the United Nations Foundation
49 Ways Research to Get Strategies Involved in Sustainable Tourism 5 WAYS TO PARTICIPATE IN SUSTAINABLE TOURISM: 1. Modify an existing tourism business to meet ecotourism objectives 2. Make an alliance with an existing enterprise producing a tourism product or service 3. Start an ecotourism enterprise 4. Invest in ecotourism 5. Support efforts of ecotourism (directly or indirectly)
50 Steps for Developing a Sustainable Research Strategies Tourism Certification Program SERIES OF WORKSHOPS TO INCLUDE: Work with community to evaluate need and interest Conduct rapid analysis of ecotourism realities and potential of region Conduct assessment of resources (capital), markets and capacity Form Certification Council (stakeholder-based) Develop clearly articulated goals and objectives Establish guidelines for best practice in terms of quality and sustainability Identify ecotourism markets
51 Steps for Developing a Sustainable Research Strategies Tourism Certification Program Identify economic instruments (fees, taxes, incentives) Identify funding sources Establish evaluation/impact assessment system and standards Develop marketing plan Establish independent audit system Train tourism providers to meet certification standards Develop implementation plan Field test/ pilot sites Establish framework for creating ecotourism policies at the regional and national level
52 Who Research Needs to Strategies Participate to Make it Work? Proper management of tourism to ensure both social and environmental benefits requires collaboration among: 1. Public Agencies 2. Private Sector 3. Local Communities
53 Research Strategies Contributors SOURCES OF INFORMATION Wendy Vanasselt, Ecotourism and Conservation: Are They Compatible?, World Resources, Tourism and Biodiversity: Mapping Tourism s Global Footprint UNEP, Production and Consumption Branch Rainforest Alliance, Sustainable Stewardship Tourism Council International Ecotourism Society Conservation International PROARCA, Best Management Practices for Sustainable Tourism
Implementing Sustainable Tourism Ana Paula Tavares Washington, D.C. January 2008 Copyright 2007. Rainforest Alliance Monday, January 14, 2008 Rainforest Alliance Mission The Rainforest Alliance works to
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