SECTION 4 - APPROACH CONTROL PROCEDURES

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1 SECTION 4 - APPROACH CONTROL PROCEDURES CHAPTER 1 - PROVISION OF SERVICES 1.1 An approach control unit shall provide:- a) Approach control service. b) Flight Information service. c) Alerting service. RESPONSIBILITIES 1.2 Approach Control service shall be provided to IFR flights, VFR flights in class C airspace, and SVFR flights:- a) In IMC:- i) arriving flights from the time they are released by ACC until they have landed and cleared the runway in use; ii) departing flights from the holding point prior to entering the runway in use, until they are transferred to ACC. b) In VMC:- i) arriving flights from the time they are released by ACC until they have been released to TWR; ii) departing flights from the time they are transferred from TWR until they are transferred to ACC. c) Over flying flights from the time they are released from ACC until they are transferred back to ACC. Note 1: Approach control may delegate part of its functions to aerodrome control where this is stipulated in ZA_ATC_Procedures, i.e. in IMC where TWR is given control of the runway in use, OR in VMC with regard to aircraft operating in the traffic circuit. Note 2: The term transferred in Para. a) ii refers to transfer of control (release). v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 1 of 8

2 CHAPTER 2 - CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER ATS UNITS AERODROME CONTROL 2.1 Approach Control shall supply the following information to Aerodrome Control:- a) Pertinent information on all relevant arriving flights including the type of flight (IFR, SVFR or VFR) and ETA. b) The anticipated order in which control of aircraft is to be transferred. c) The anticipated delay to departing flights together with the reason for the delay. AREA CONTROL 2.2 Approach Control shall supply Area control with the following data:- a) Runway in use. b) Expected approach times or onward clearance times and revisions of these times. c) Inbound clearances for arriving flights in the following sequence:- i) Inbound clearance (STAR) - aircraft callsign. ii) Clearance limit. iii) Route (where necessary). iv) The level at the holding facility, including the level at the entry point, if applicable. v) EAT. Example: Inbound clearance SAA503 - cleared to JS via NMT FL80 to cross NMT FL120 or above, expected approach time d) ATD of outbound flights together with the estimates for the transfer points. CO-ORDINATION BETWEEN APP AND TWR 2.3 Exchange of movement and control data between an aerodrome control tower to the approach control unit. 2.4 An aerodrome control tower shall keep the unit providing approach control service promptly advised of pertinent data on relevant controlled traffic such as: a) departure sequence; b) pertinent information about departing aircraft; notable speed differences, climb rates, pilot requests; c) information concerning missed approaches; d) information concerning aircraft that constitute essential local traffic to aircraft under the control of the unit providing approach control service. 2.5 From the unit providing approach control service to an aerodrome control tower. The unit providing approach control service shall keep the aerodrome control tower promptly advised of pertinent data on controlled traffic such as: a) inbound sequence on arriving traffic; b) pertinent information of arriving aircraft, i.e. type of approach; c) anticipated delay to departing traffic due to congestion. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 2 of 8

3 CHAPTER 3 - PROCEDURES FOR DEPARTING AIRCRAFT 3.1 Clearances for departing aircraft shall specify, when necessary for the separation of aircraft, direction of take-off and turn after take-off; heading or track to be made good before taking up the cleared departure track; level to maintain before continuing climb to assigned level; time, point and /or rate at which a level change shall be made; and any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with safe operation of the aircraft. 3.2 At aerodromes where SIDs has been established, departing aircraft should normally be cleared to follow the appropriate SID.(See ZA_ATC_Procedures 3.3 Turbo-Prop and Turbo-Jet Aircraft. As these aircraft are more critical on fuel consumption than piston-engine aircraft, pilots of these aircraft will normally request start-up clearance before starting their engines. 3.4 Such clearances will be obtained through the APP/ACC unit and this will imply that there will be a minimum delay on departure. Note 1: By default all departing VFR flights that filed FPL s with a routing through the TMA must be routed out via the CTR into uncontrolled airspace below the TMA. Check with APP if he/she will allow VFR from departure directly into the TMA. If not, the aircraft can call APP for further climb and routing once clear of the CTR. The reason is that most VFR aircraft are really slow and can cause congestion in the TMA and cause delays on departure for faster aircraft behind. Note 2: For piston-engine aircraft APP/ACC clearances will normally be obtain while the aircraft is taxiing out. OUTBOUND CLEARANCES 3.5 APP clearances to departing flights shall specify the following:- a) Runway for take-off; b) Direction of turn after take-off; or the designator of the assigned SID, if applicable; c) Clearance limit, if no SID is used; d) departure frequency; if applicable e) Allocated SSR code 3.6 Departing aircraft may be expedited by suggesting a take-off direction which is not into wind. It is the responsibility of the pilot to decide between making such a take-off or waiting for normal take-off in a preferred direction. 3.7 Flights will normally be cleared in the order in which they call for clearance, but discretion may be used by APP in varying this order to reduce overall traffic delay. APP should advise operating companies when the anticipated delay in departing aircraft, due to traffic conditions, is likely to exceed 15 minutes. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 3 of 8

4 CHAPTER 4 - PROCEDURES FOR ARRIVING AIRCRAFT 4.1 ACC must provide all inbound aircraft to the airfield with an inbound clearance. 4.2 If no ACC is in operation, inbound aircraft must call APP to receive an inbound clearance into controlled airspace at least 10 minutes before entering APP s airspace. If aircraft does not make this initial call, APP must establish communication with the aircraft as soon as possible, 4.3 When it becomes evident that delays of more than 15 minutes in holding will be encountered by arriving aircraft, pilots concerned shall be notified and kept currently informed on any changes in such expected delays. In order that diversionary action may be planned as far in advance as possible. INFORMATION TO ARRIVING AIRCRAFT 4.4 After an arriving aircraft has made its initial call to APP the following information shall be passed as soon as practicable:- a) ATC clearance (i.e. STAR) if no ACC is in operation OR possible changes to inbound clearance. b) Current ATIS information c) If possible, estimated track miles to touchdown, especially if/when aircraft is taken of first intended route Note: The assigned level in the inbound clearance to arriving aircraft will not be below the IAA and must comply with the MSA or RVA. 4.5 Additional information may include the following:- a) Current surface conditions e.g. surface water depth, braking action or other temporary hazards. b) Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids, essential for the approach and landing. c) Runway visual range, if active. 4.6 Subsequent Changes Aircraft which have received the information above must be kept informed of the following until they have landed:- a) Significant changes in the meteorological and runway conditions. b) Further reports by pilots, e.g. wind shear. c) Further changes in the operational status of approach and landing aids. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 4 of 8

5 CHAPTER 5 - HOLDING AND APPROACH SEQUENCE 5.1 Aircraft will be held and sequenced in the following manner:- a) Aircraft in the Hold The aircraft at the lowest level in the holding stack will normally be the first aircraft cleared to commence approach. APP will, whenever possible, clear aircraft into the holding stack at the lowest level available in the order in which they are estimated to arrive over the holding point. However, special priority may be given in accordance with the type of flight priorities as laid down in the SSIs. The second aircraft in the approach sequence may be instructed to descend to the level, or if lateral separation only was maintained, to proceed to the position previously occupied by the first aircraft after the first aircraft has reported leaving the level or position. Note: Care should be taken when clearing aircraft to the level which has just been vacated by a preceding aircraft that standard vertical separation is maintained. b) Approach Sequence The approach sequence shall be established in a manner which will facilitate arrival of the maximum number of aircraft with the least average delay. Priority shall be given to: i) An aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting the safe operation of the aircraft (engine failure, shortage of fuel, etc); ii) Hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured person requiring urgent medical attention; iii) Aircraft engaged in SAR operations c) The second aircraft shall be cleared to leave the holding point at a specified time and to descent for approach when:- i) the preceding aircraft has landed; or ii) reported on final that he has the runway in sight and is able to complete his approach with visual reference to the runway; or iii) is sighted by and is in communication with Aerodrome/Approach Control; or iv) its position and level have been ascertained by means of a radar system operating at the aerodrome and reasonable assurance exists that a normal landing can be accomplished; or v) the required landing interval has been established or the preceding aircraft has crossed the facility on final approach. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 5 of 8

6 CHAPTER 6 - APPROACH MAINTAINING VMC 6.1 When requested by the pilot, IFR flights may be cleared to approach maintaining VMC if reports indicate that this is possible, and subject to the following conditions:- a) By day: The pilot is instructed to maintain his own separation and essential traffic information must be passed. b) By night: Provided that there is no reduction of standard separation involved. VISUAL APPROACH 6.2 To expedite traffic IFR flights may be cleared to execute visual approaches under the following conditions:- a) During the Initial Approach Phase, i) when the pilot reports that he/she has the aerodrome in sight and reasonable assurance exists that visual reference to the terrain can be maintained; and ii) the aircraft is within 25 nm of the aerodrome (NON - ICAO); and iii) the reported cloud ceiling is not below the initial approach altitude b) During the Intermediate and Final Approach Phases i) the pilot requests a visual approach; and ii) the visibility will permit a visual approach and there is reasonable assurance that the landing can be accomplished visually. Note: Controllers shall exercise caution in initiating a visual approach when there is reason to believe that the flight crew concerned is not familiar with the aerodrome and its surrounding terrain. Controllers should also take into consideration the prevailing traffic and weather conditions when initiating visual approaches. 6.3 Standard separation shall be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual approach and all other controller flights. INSTRUMENT APPROACH 6.4 If standard instrument approach and missed approach procedures are published, no specific instructions need be given. If, however, the pilot requests information on the procedure, the following shall be passed to him:- a) Type of approach and facility (VOR,NDB,ILS). b) Initial Approach Altitude. c) Outbound track in degrees magnetic. d) Procedure turn (left or right). e) Final approach track in degrees magnetic. f) Obstacle clearance limit. g) Missed approach procedure, when deemed necessary. 6.5 Even if visual reference to the ground is established before completion of the approach procedures, a pilot will normally complete the entire procedure. At his request, however, clearance may be granted from him to break off the instrument procedure and proceed directly to the airfield visually. Nevertheless, he will continue to be an IFR flight unless he becomes fully VMC and cancels his IFR flight plan. Note 1: Aircraft executing VMC, Visual or Instrument approaches under approach control need not be separated by the standard minima from traffic operating within the aerodrome traffic circuit under aerodrome control. Note 2: A particular approach procedure may be specified to expedite traffic. The omission of a specified approach procedure will indicate that any authorised approach may be used at the discretion of the pilot. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 6 of 8

7 CHAPTER 7 - SUSPENSION AND RESUMPTION OF VFR OPERATIONS (VMC vs IMC) 7.1 APP shall declare a CTR IMC when the ceiling drops below 1500 ft. and/or the visibility drops below 3 nm in any portion of the CTR even though VMC may prevail at one or more of the aerodromes in the CTR. 7.2 Aerodrome Controllers are required to inform APP when IMC prevails at their aerodrome and APP shall be responsible for declaring the CTR IMC and for taking the following action:- a) inform all Aerodrome Controllers in the CTR and arrange liaison in accordance with SSIs; b) inform, or request Area Control to inform all radio-equipped aircraft bound for the CTR that it is IMC. This is especially important in respect of aircraft on VFR flight plans as they will either have to divert or obtain IFR or Special VFR clearances. 7.3 Aerodrome Controllers are required to inform APP when the weather conditions at their aerodrome have improved to the stage that compliance with IFR is no longer a requirement. 7.4 When APP is satisfied that VFR operations are possible throughout the CTR it shall declare the CTR VMC and inform all Aerodrome Controllers in the CTR. 7.5 The fitness state of a CTR should not be improved from IMC to VMC unless there is likely to be a lasting improvement in weather conditions thus ensuring that aircraft not equipped, or pilots not rated for IFR, are briefed that IFR are in force at their destination. v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 7 of 8

8 CHAPTER 8 - ILS Vectoring Example: Runway-in-use 18, course Base Turn: Ideally this is approx. 90 perpendicular from the ILS course. This heading is ATC discretion as it is purely there to get aircraft to a position where tactical heading will be given for ILS intercept. Even 40 either side of this heading is not uncommon depending on aircraft position on the downwind Tactical ILS Intercept: Ideally this is approx. 30 off the ILS course. Again this heading is ATC discretion as it is used to get aircraft to ILS intercept at approx 10nm at 3000ft AGL. This heading should preferably not be more than 40 from the the ILS course heading. The greater the heading the more difficult it becomes for the pilot to intercept ILS Landing direction Runway Downwind: Attempt to get the majority of your inbound traffic onto the downwind leg. Much easier to position aircraft from there onto ILS in a sequence whether they are on left or right downwind. Most STARs at South African airports have v1.1 - Copyright 2007 IVAO by Martin Smit Page 8 of 8 been designed to achieve this.

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